Diet and Skin Aging-From the Perspective of Food Nutrition.
ABSTRACT: We regularly face primary challenges in deciding what to eat to maintain young and healthy skin, defining a healthy diet and the role of diet in aging. The topic that currently attracts maximum attention is ways to maintain healthy skin and delay skin aging. Skin is the primary barrier that protects the body from external aggressions. Skin aging is a complex biological process, categorized as chronological aging and photo-aging, and is affected by internal factors and external factors. With the rapid breakthrough of medicine in prolonging human life and the rapid deterioration of environmental conditions, it has become urgent to find safe and effective methods to treat skin aging. For diet, as the main way for the body to obtain energy and nutrients, people have gradually realized its importance to the skin. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the skin structure, aging manifestations, and possible mechanisms, summarize the research progress, challenges, possible directions of diet management, and effects of foodborne antioxidants on skin aging from the perspective of food and nutrition.
Project description:Present and future challenges for wild partridge populations include the resistance against possible disease transmission after restocking with captive-reared individuals, and the need to cope with the stress prompted by new dynamic and challenging scenarios. Selection of individuals with the best immune ability may be a good strategy to improve general immunity, and hence adaptation to stress. In this study, non-infectious challenges with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and sheep red blood cells allowed the classification of red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) according to their overall immune responses (IR). Skin from the area of injection of PHA and spleen, both from animals showing extreme high and low IR, were selected to investigate the transcriptional profiles underlying the different ability to cope with pathogens and external aggressions. RNA-seq yielded 97 million raw reads from eight sequencing libraries and approximately 84% of the processed reads were mapped to the reference chicken genome. Differential expression analysis identified 1488 up- and 107 down-regulated loci in individuals with high IR versus low IR. Partridges displaying higher innate IR show an enhanced activation of host defence gene pathways complemented with a tightly controlled desensitization that facilitates the return to cellular homeostasis. These findings indicate that the immune system ability to respond to aggressions (either diseases or stress produced by environmental changes) involves extensive transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations, and expand our understanding on the molecular mechanisms of the avian immune system, opening the possibility of improving disease resistance or robustness using genome assisted selection (GAS) approaches for increased IR in partridges by using genes such as AVN or BF2 as markers. This study provides the first transcriptome sequencing data of the Alectoris genus, a resource for molecular ecology that enables integration of genomic tools in further studies.
Project description:Introduction:Parents play a critical role in their children's weight. This paper examines parents' perceptions about the challenges to helping their kids maintain or achieve a healthy weight. Methods:We analyzed data in 2017 from a U.S. telephone poll conducted during October-November 2012 among parents or caregivers of children aged 2-17 years using a nationally representative sample of households. It included 667 White, 123 Black, and 167 Hispanic parents. Multiple logistic regressions were used to examine parent perceptions about the individual- and environmental-level challenges to helping their children maintain or achieve a healthy weight. Results:Overall, 45% of children have parents who reported challenges helping the child eat to maintain or achieve a healthy weight, and 35% have parents who reported challenges for exercise. According to parents, most children consumed snacks between 3?pm and bedtime during the school week (83%), and 63% of those children had an unhealthy snack. Parents did not express much concern about unhealthy snacks; 80% of children had parents who said that they did not mind since their child generally ate healthy food. Children with Hispanic and Black parents were more likely than those with White parents to have parents reporting environment challenges, such as unhealthy foods in schools. Conclusions:Helping children maintain a healthy weight through diet is a problem for many parents, regardless of their race or ethnicity. Differences by race/ethnicity in parent perceptions of food environment challenges to helping their child maintain or achieve a healthy weight suggest possible areas for future interventions.
Project description:Oxidative stress is both the cause and consequence of impaired functional homeostasis characterizing human aging. The worsening efficiency of stress response with age represents a health risk and leads to the onset and accrual of major age-related diseases. In contrast, centenarians seem to have evolved conservative stress response mechanisms, probably derived from a combination of a diet rich in natural antioxidants, an active lifestyle and a favorable genetic background, particularly rich in genetic variants able to counteract the stress overload at the level of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. The integration of these factors could allow centenarians to maintain moderate levels of free radicals that exert beneficial signaling and modulator effects on cellular metabolism. Considering the hot debate on the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in promoting healthy aging, in this review we gathered the existing information regarding genetic variability and lifestyle factors which potentially modulate the stress response at old age. Evidence reported here suggests that the integration of lifestyle factors (moderate physical activity and healthy nutrition) and genetic background could shift the balance in favor of the antioxidant cellular machinery by activating appropriate defense mechanisms in response to exceeding external and internal stress levels, and thus possibly achieving the prospect of living a longer life.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Healthy skin is a delicate balance between skin renewal and microbiota homeostasis, and its imbalance promotes premature aging and dermatological disorders. Skin stem cells are key actors in this process but their sensitivity to aging and external stressors such as UV reduces the skin renewal power. The skin microbiota has been recently described as active in the healthy skin, and its imbalance could trigger some disorders. AIMS:We hypothesized that reactivation of stem cells and maintenance of microbiota could be a disruptive strategy for younger and healthier skin. We thus developed a new plant extract that restores the entire skin renewal process by sequential activation from stem cells stimulation to microbiota protection. METHODS:We studied stem cells comportment in the presence of Orobanche rapum extract by survivin immunocytochemistry and caspases 3 and 9 dosages. We also analyzed epidermal differentiation markers by immunohistochemistry and lipids organization by GC/MS At the clinical level, we investigated the impact of O. rapum extract on microbiota and on skin aspect. RESULTS:We demonstrated an active protection of skin stem cells through the maintenance of their clone-forming capacity and resistance to UV through the overexpression of survivin coupled to caspases inhibition. Furthermore, we showed the restoration of epidermal differentiation markers and ceramide biosynthesis favorable to orthorhombic organization. Clinical studies, including microbiota analysis, showed an active skin surface renewal coupled with microbiota protection. CONCLUSION:We evidenced that our active ingredient is able to stimulate skin rejuvenation while protecting the cutaneous microbiota, creating healthier skin and thereby beauty.
Project description:Cosmetics are widely used by people around the world to protect the skin from external stimuli. Consumer preference towards natural cosmetic products has increased as the synthetic cosmetic products caused adverse side effects and resulted in low absorption rate due to the chemicals' larger molecular size. The cosmetic industry uses the term "cosmeceutical", referring to a cosmetic product that is claimed to have medicinal or drug-like benefits. Marine algae have gained tremendous attention in cosmeceuticals. They are one of the richest marine resources considered safe and possessed negligible cytotoxicity effects on humans. Marine algae are rich in bioactive substances that have shown to exhibit strong benefits to the skin, particularly in overcoming rashes, pigmentation, aging, and cancer. The current review provides a detailed survey of the literature on cosmeceutical potentials and applications of algae as skin whitening, anti-aging, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and antimicrobial agents. The biological functions of algae and the underlying mechanisms of all these activities are included in this review. In addition, the challenges of using algae in cosmeceutical applications, such as the effectiveness of different extraction methods and processing, quality assurance, and regulations concerning extracts of algae in this sector were also discussed.
Project description:Populations are aging worldwide. This paper summarizes some of the challenges and opportunities due to the increasing burden of infectious diseases in an aging population.Older adults typically suffer elevated morbidity from infectious disease, leading to increased demand for healthcare resources and higher healthcare costs. Preventive medicine, including vaccination can potentially play a major role in preserving the health and independence of older adults. However, this potential of widespread vaccination is rarely realized. Here, we give a brief overview of the problem, discuss concrete obstacles and the potential for expanded vaccination programs to promote healthy aging.The increasing healthcare burden of infectious diseases expected in aging populations could, to a large extent, be reduced by achieving higher vaccination coverage among older adults. Vaccination can thus contribute to healthy aging, alongside healthy diet and physical exercise. The available evidence indicates that dedicated programs can achieve substantial improvements in vaccination coverage among older adults, but more research is required to assess the generalizability of the results achieved by specific interventions (see Additional file 1).
Project description:Immune responses wane during aging, posing challenges to the potential effectiveness of cancer immunotherapies. We previously demonstrated that in the context of a promising immunotherapeutic, OX40 agonist (?OX40), older animals exhibited impaired anti-tumor immune responses and diminished CD4 T cell effector differentiation. In this study, we hypothesized that tumor immune responses could be maintained during aging through caloric restriction (CR) or dietary supplementation with resveratrol (RES), a CR mimetic. Mice were placed on either a calorically restricted diet or a RES-formulated diet starting between 4 and 6 months of age and continued until mice reached 12 months of age. Tumor immune responses were assessed after challenging with either sarcoma or breast tumor cells followed by ?OX40 treatment. Our results show that CR, but not RES, maintained OX40-mediated anti-tumor immunity. In addition, CR fully sustained antigen-specific CD4 T cell priming in aged hosts (12 months old), whereas tumor-specific CD8 T cell priming was not fully maintained compared to young reference animals (2 months old). Thus, CR appears to maintain immunological fitness of the CD4 T cell priming environment during aging, which is critical for optimal OX40-mediated responses.
Project description:Caloric restriction has consistently been shown to extend life span and ameliorate aging-related diseases. These effects may be due to diet-induced reactive oxygen species acting to up-regulate sirtuins and related protective pathways, which research suggests may be partially inhibited by dietary anti-oxidant supplementation. Because caloric restriction is not sustainable long term for most humans, we investigated an alternative dietary approach, intermittent fasting (IF), which is proposed to act on similar biological pathways. We hypothesized that a modified IF diet, where participants maintain overall energy balance by alternating between days of fasting (25% of normal caloric intake) and feasting (175% of normal), would increase expression of genes associated with aging and reduce oxidative stress and that these effects would be suppressed by anti-oxidant supplementation. To assess the tolerability of the diet and to explore effects on biological mechanisms related to aging and metabolism, we recruited a cohort of 24 healthy individuals in a double-crossover, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Study participants underwent two 3-week treatment periods-IF and IF with anti-oxidant (vitamins C and E) supplementation. We found strict adherence to study-provided diets and that participants found the diet tolerable, with no adverse clinical findings or weight change. We detected a marginal increase (2.7%) in SIRT3 expression due to the IF diet, but no change in expression of other genes or oxidative stress markers analyzed. We also found that IF decreased plasma insulin levels (1.01??U/mL). Although our study suggests that the IF dieting paradigm is acceptable in healthy individuals, additional research is needed to further assess the potential benefits and risks.
Project description:Environmental challenges to epithelial cells trigger gene expression changes that elicit context-appropriate immune responses. We found that the chromatin remodeler Mi-2? controls epidermal homeostasis by regulating the genes involved in keratinocyte and immune-cell activation to maintain an inactive state. Mi-2? depletion resulted in rapid deployment of both a pro-inflammatory and an immunosuppressive response in the skin. A key target of Mi-2? in keratinocytes is the pro-inflammatory cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). Loss of TSLP receptor (TSLPR) signaling specifically in regulatory T (Treg) cells prevented their activation and permitted rapid progression from a skin pro-inflammatory response to a lethal systemic condition. Thus, in addition to their well-characterized role in pro-inflammatory responses, keratinocytes also directly support immune-suppressive responses that are critical for re-establishing organismal homeostasis.
Project description:The Antarctic plant Deschampsia antarctica (DA) is able to survive in extreme conditions thanks to its special mechanism of protection against environmental aggressions. In this work, we investigated whether an aqueous extract of the plant (EDA) retains some of its defensive properties and is able to protect our skin against common external oxidants. We evaluated EDA over young human fibroblasts and exposed to H2O2, and we measured cell proliferation, viability, and senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-Gal). We also tested the expression of several senescence-associated proteins including sirtuin1, lamin A/C, the replicative protein PCNA, and the redox protein thioredoxin 2. We found that EDA promoted per se cell proliferation and viability and increased the expression of anti-senescence-related markers. Then, we selected a dose of H2O2 as an inductor of senescence in human fibroblasts, and we found that an EDA treatment 24?h prior H2O2 exposure increased fibroblast proliferation. EDA significantly inhibited the increase in SA-?-Gal levels induced by H2O2 and promoted the expression of sirtuin 1 and lamin A/C proteins. Altogether, these results suggest that EDA protects human fibroblasts from cellular senescence induced by H2O2, pointing to this compound as a potential therapeutic agent to treat or prevent skin senescence.