Design of a Measuring System for Electricity Quality Monitoring within the SMART Street Lighting Test Polygon: Pilot Study on Adaptive Current Control Strategy for Three-Phase Shunt Active Power Filters.
ABSTRACT: This study focuses on the design of a measuring system for monitoring the power quality within the SMART street lighting test polygon at university campuses with relation to testing an adaptive current control strategy for three-phase shunt active power filters. Unlike conventional street lighting, SMART elements are powered 24/7. Due to the electronic character of the power part of such mass appliances, there are increased problems with the power quality of the electric energy. Compared to the current concept of street lighting, there is a significant increase in the content of higher current harmonic components, which cause several problems in the distribution system. The test polygon contains 16 luminaires made by various manufacturers and mounted with various SMART components. Using the polygon control and monitoring system, dynamic load scenarios were selected. These scenarios tested the possibilities of different adaptive current control strategies for three-phase shunt active power filters to improve the power quality of electricity. This study focuses on three adaptive algorithms that respond to dynamic changes of current harmonics level in real-time. The possibility of active filter control was tested using FPGA, mainly due to the low latency of the filter control part.
Project description:This paper proposes a new adaptive filter for wind generators that combines instantaneous reactive power compensation technology and current prediction controller, and therefore this system is characterized by low harmonic distortion, high power factor, and small DC-link voltage variations during load disturbances. The performance of the system was first simulated using MATLAB/Simulink, and the possibility of an adaptive digital low-pass filter eliminating current harmonics was confirmed in steady and transient states. Subsequently, a digital signal processor was used to implement an active power filter. The experimental results indicate, that for the rated operation of 2 kVA, the system has a total harmonic distortion of current less than 5.0% and a power factor of 1.0 on the utility side. Thus, the transient performance of the adaptive filter is superior to the traditional digital low-pass filter and is more economical because of its short computation time compared with other types of adaptive filters.
Project description:A smart grid, considered the next-generation type of power grid, combines a traditional power grid with information and communication technologies to effectively facilitate power generation and ensure transmission security and reliability in real-time. Only authorized consumers should be able to access the smart grid because the information gathered by smart meters includes users' private information. However, smart grid security is still a challenge. Motivated by this challenge, in this paper, we propose a heterogeneous signcryption (HSC) scheme for secure communication between smart meters and the utility. We demonstrate that this scheme is indistinguishable against adaptive chosen-ciphertext attacks (IND-CCA2), existentially unforgeable against adaptive chosen-message attacks (EUF-CMA) and ciphertext-anonymous against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks (ANON-CCA2) under the computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH) problem in the random oracle model. Our scheme simultaneously achieves confidentiality, integrity, authentication, non-repudiation and ciphertext anonymity in a single logical step. It supports heterogeneous systems, allowing a meter in an identity-based cryptography (IBC) environment to transmit electrical usage data to a utility in a public key infrastructure (PKI) environment. Compared with other existing related schemes, our scheme has the lowest communication overhead and energy consumption for the smart grid. Based on these features, our scheme is highly suitable for secure power transmissions in a smart grid.
Project description:Many local authorities in England and Wales have reduced street lighting at night to save money and reduce carbon emissions. There is no evidence to date on whether these reductions impact on public health. We quantified the effect of 4 street lighting adaptation strategies (switch off, part-night lighting, dimming and white light) on casualties and crime in England and Wales.Observational study based on analysis of geographically coded police data on road traffic collisions and crime in 62 local authorities. Conditional Poisson models were used to analyse longitudinal changes in the counts of night-time collisions occurring on affected roads during 2000-2013, and crime within census Middle Super Output Areas during 2010-2013. Effect estimates were adjusted for regional temporal trends in casualties and crime.There was no evidence that any street lighting adaptation strategy was associated with a change in collisions at night. There was significant statistical heterogeneity in the effects on crime estimated at police force level. Overall, there was no evidence for an association between the aggregate count of crime and switch off (RR 0.11; 95% CI 0.01 to 2.75) or part-night lighting (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.06). There was weak evidence for a reduction in the aggregate count of crime and dimming (RR 0.84; 95% CI 0.70 to 1.02) and white light (RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.77 to 1.03).This study found little evidence of harmful effects of switch off, part-night lighting, dimming, or changes to white light/LEDs on road collisions or crime in England and Wales.
Project description:Emerging lighting technologies provide opportunities for reducing carbon footprints, and for biodiversity conservation. In addition to installing light-emitting diode street lights, many local authorities are also dimming street lights. This might benefit light-averse bat species by creating dark refuges for these bats to forage and commute in human-dominated habitats. We conducted a field experiment to determine how light intensity affects the activity of the light-opportunistic Pipistrellus pipistrellus and light-averse bats in the genus Myotis. We used four lighting levels controlled under a central management system at existing street lights in a suburban environment (0, 25, 50 and 100% of the original output). Higher light intensities (50 and 100% of original output) increased the activity of light-opportunistic species but reduced the activity of light-averse bats. Compared to the unlit treatment, the 25% lighting level did not significantly affect either P. pipistrellus or Myotis spp. Our results suggest that it is possible to achieve a light intensity that provides both economic and ecological benefits by providing sufficient light for human requirements while not deterring light-averse bats.
Project description:This paper proposes a fuzzy logic based new control scheme for the Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) for minimizing the voltage sag and total harmonic distortion in the distribution system consequently to improve the power quality. UPQC is a recent power electronic module which guarantees better power quality mitigation as it has both series-active and shunt-active power filters (APFs). The fuzzy logic controller has recently attracted a great deal of attention and possesses conceptually the quality of the simplicity by tackling complex systems with vagueness and ambiguity. In this research, the fuzzy logic controller is utilized for the generation of reference signal controlling the UPQC. To enable this, a systematic approach for creating the fuzzy membership functions is carried out by using an ant colony optimization technique for optimal fuzzy logic control. An exhaustive simulation study using the MATLAB/Simulink is carried out to investigate and demonstrate the performance of the proposed fuzzy logic controller and the simulation results are compared with the PI controller in terms of its performance in improving the power quality by minimizing the voltage sag and total harmonic distortion.
Project description:As issues of environment and energy draw keen interest around the globe due to such problems as global warming and the energy crisis, LED with high optical efficiency is brought to the fore as the next generation lighting. In addition, as the national income level gets higher and life expectancy is extended, interest in the enhancement of life quality is increasing. Accordingly, the trend of lightings is changing from mere adjustment of light intensity to system lighting in order to enhance the quality of one's life as well as reduce energy consumption. Thus, this study aims to design LED context lighting system that automatically recognizes the location and acts of a user in residential areas and creates an appropriate lighting environment. The proposed system designed in this study includes three types of processing: first, the creation of a lighting environment index suitable for the user's surroundings and lighting control scenarios and second, it measures and analyzes the optical characteristics that change depending on the dimming control of lighting and applies them to the index. Lastly, it adopts PIR, piezoelectric, and power sensor to grasp the location and acts of the user and create a lighting environment suitable for the current context.
Project description:As the global population urbanizes, dramatic changes are expected in city lighting and the urban form, which may threaten the functioning of urban ecosystems and the services they deliver. However, little is known about the ecological impact of lighting in different urban contexts. Movement is an important ecological process that can be disrupted by artificial lighting. We explored the impact of lighting on gap crossing for Pipistrellus pipistrellus, a species of bat (Chiroptera) common within UK cities. We aimed to determine whether the probability of crossing gaps in tree cover varied with crossing distance and lighting level, through stratified field surveys. We then used the resulting data on barrier thresholds to model the landscape resistance due to lighting across an entire city and explored the potential impact of scenarios for future changes to street lighting. The level of illumination required to create a barrier effect reduced as crossing distance increased. For those gaps where crossing was recorded, bats selected the darker parts of gaps. Heavily built parts of the case study city were associated with large and brightly lit gaps, and spatial models indicate movement would be highly restricted in these areas. Under a scenario for brighter street lighting, the area of accessible land cover was further reduced in heavily built parts of the city. We believe that this is the first study to demonstrate how lighting may create resistance to species movement throughout an entire city. That connectivity in urban areas is being disrupted for a relatively common species raises questions about the impacts on less tolerant groups and the resilience of bat communities in urban centres. However, this mechanistic approach raises the possibility that some ecological function could be restored in these areas through the strategic dimming of lighting and narrowing of gaps.
Project description:We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS) to light emitting diode (LED) street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum 'white' light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes), or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these 'light-intolerant' bat species.
Project description:Electrical insulators are elements of power lines that require periodical diagnostics. Due to their location on the components of high-voltage power lines, their imaging can be cumbersome and time-consuming, especially under varying lighting conditions. Insulator diagnostics with the use of visual methods may require localizing insulators in the scene. Studies focused on insulator localization in the scene apply a number of methods, including: texture analysis, MRF (Markov Random Field), Gabor filters or GLCM (Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix) , . Some methods, e.g. those which localize insulators based on colour analysis , rely on object and scene illumination, which is why the images from the dataset are taken under varying lighting conditions. The dataset may also be used to compare the effectiveness of different methods of localizing insulators in images. This article presents high-resolution images depicting a long rod electrical insulator under varying lighting conditions and against different backgrounds: crops, forest and grass. The dataset contains images with visible laser spots (generated by a device emitting light at the wavelength of 532?nm) and images without such spots, as well as complementary data concerning the illumination level and insulator position in the scene, the number of registered laser spots, and their coordinates in the image. The laser spots may be used to support object-localizing algorithms, while the images without spots may serve as a source of information for those algorithms which do not need spots to localize an insulator.
Project description:Renewable energy resources connected to a single utility grid system require highly nonlinear control algorithms to maintain efficient operation concerning power output and stability under varying operating conditions. This research work presents a comparative analysis of different adaptive Feedback Linearization (FBL) embedded Full Recurrent Adaptive NeuroFuzzy (FRANF) control schemes for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of PV subsystem tied to a smart microgrid hybrid power system (SMG-HPS). The proposed schemes are differentiated based on structure and mathematical functions used in FRANF embedded in the FBL model. The comparative analysis is carried out based on efficiency and performance indexes obtained using the power error between the reference and the tracked power for three cases; a) step change in solar irradiation and temperature, b) partial shading condition (PSC), and c) daily field data. The proposed schemes offer enhanced convergence compared to existing techniques in terms of complexity and stability. The overall performance of all the proposed schemes is evaluated by a spider chart of multivariate comparable parameters. Adaptive PID is used for the comparison of results produced by proposed control schemes. The performance of Mexican hat wavelet-based FRANF embedded FBL is superior to the other proposed schemes as well as to aPID based MPPT scheme. However, all proposed schemes produce better results as compared to conventional MPPT control in all cases. Matlab/Simulink is used to carry out the simulations.