Long-term treatment with nintedanib in Asian patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: Results from INPULSIS®-ON.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:The efficacy and safety of nintedanib in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) were investigated in the placebo-controlled INPULSIS® trials. All patients who completed an INPULSIS® trial could receive open-label nintedanib in the extension trial INPULSIS®-ON. METHODS:We assessed the long-term efficacy and safety of nintedanib in patients of Asian race who were treated in INPULSIS®-ON. Analyses were descriptive. RESULTS:A total of 215 Asian patients were treated in INPULSIS®-ON, of whom 121 continued nintedanib in INPULSIS®-ON and 94 initiated nintedanib in INPULSIS®-ON having received placebo in an INPULSIS® trial. At baseline of INPULSIS®-ON, the mean (SD) age of Asian patients was 66.3 (7.5) years, 80.5% were males and mean (SD) forced vital capacity (FVC) was 78.9 (19.3) % predicted. Median total exposure to nintedanib in both INPULSIS® and INPULSIS®-ON was 42.2 months; maximum exposure was 64.1 months. In INPULSIS®, the annual rate (SE) of decline in FVC over 52?weeks in Asian patients was -124 (20) mL/year in the nintedanib group and -218 (24) mL/year in the placebo group. In INPULSIS®-ON, the annual rate (SE) of decline in FVC over 192?weeks in Asian patients was -127 (11) mL/year. Diarrhoea was reported in Asian patients at event rates of 58.8 and 82.5 events per 100 patient exposure-years in patients who continued and initiated nintedanib in INPULSIS®-ON, respectively. CONCLUSION:The effect of nintedanib on slowing disease progression in Asian patients with IPF is sustained over the long term. Long-term treatment with nintedanib has an acceptable safety and tolerability profile.
Project description:In the Phase III INPULSIS(®) trials, 52 weeks' treatment with nintedanib reduced decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) versus placebo in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Patients who completed the INPULSIS(®) trials could receive nintedanib in an open-label extension trial (INPULSIS(®)-ON). Patients with FVC <50 % predicted were excluded from INPULSIS(®), but could participate in INPULSIS(®)-ON. In patients with baseline FVC ?50 % and >50 % predicted at the start of INPULSIS(®)-ON, the absolute mean change in FVC from baseline to week 48 of INPULSIS(®)-ON was -62.3 and -87.9 mL, respectively (n = 24 and n = 558, respectively). No new safety signals were identified in INPULSIS(®)-ON compared with INPULSIS(®). The decline in FVC in INPULSIS(®)-ON in both subgroups by baseline FVC % predicted was similar to that in INPULSIS(®), suggesting that nintedanib may have a similar effect on disease progression in patients with advanced disease as in less advanced disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The two 52-week INPULSIS trials investigated nintedanib versus placebo in patients with IPF, FVC ?50% predicted and DLco 30-79% predicted. The 24-week INSTAGE trial investigated nintedanib plus sildenafil versus nintedanib alone in patients with IPF and DLco ?35% predicted. We used data from INPULSIS and INSTAGE to compare the effects of nintedanib in patients with IPF with less versus more severe impairment in gas exchange at baseline. METHODS:Analyses were conducted in patients treated with nintedanib alone in the INPULSIS and INSTAGE trials and in patients treated with placebo in the INPULSIS trials. Outcomes included the rate of decline in FVC over 24?weeks, the proportions of patients who had a confirmed or suspected idiopathic acute exacerbation over 24?weeks, deaths over 24?weeks, and adverse events. Analyses were descriptive. RESULTS:In total, 638 and 136 patients received nintedanib alone in the INPULSIS and INSTAGE trials, respectively, and 423 patients received placebo in the INPULSIS trials. Rates of FVC decline were?-?52.3 and?-?66.7?mL/24?weeks in patients treated with nintedanib alone in INPULSIS and INSTAGE, respectively, and?-?102.8?mL/24?weeks in patients treated with placebo in INPULSIS. Confirmed or suspected idiopathic acute exacerbations were reported in 0.6 and 3.7% of patients treated with nintedanib alone in INPULSIS and INSTAGE, respectively, and 2.1% of patients treated with placebo in INPULSIS. Deaths occurred in 2.0, 11.0 and 1.9% of patients in these groups, respectively. Diarrhoea adverse events were reported in 52.5 and 48.5% of patients treated with nintedanib alone in INPULSIS and INSTAGE, respectively, and 16.1% of patients treated with placebo in INPULSIS. CONCLUSIONS:Based on data from the INSTAGE and INPULSIS trials, nintedanib had a similar effect on FVC decline over 24?weeks, and a similar safety and tolerability profile, in patients with IPF and more versus less severe impairment in gas exchange. These data support the use of nintedanib in patients with IPF who have advanced disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION:INPULSIS (NCT01335464 and NCT01335477); INSTAGE (NCT02802345).
Project description:BACKGROUND:The benefits and risks of anti-acid medication in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remain a topic of debate. We investigated whether use of anti-acid medication at baseline was associated with differences in the natural course of disease or influenced the treatment effect of nintedanib in patients with IPF. METHODS:Post-hoc analyses of outcomes in patients receiving versus not receiving anti-acid medication (proton pump or histamine-2 receptor inhibitor) at baseline using pooled data from the two Phase III randomized placebo-controlled INPULSIS® trials of nintedanib in patients with IPF. RESULTS:At baseline, 406 patients were receiving anti-acid medication (244 nintedanib; 162 placebo) and 655 were not (394 nintedanib; 261 placebo). In an analysis of the natural course of IPF by anti-acid medication use at baseline, the adjusted annual rate of decline in FVC was -?252.9 mL/year in placebo-treated patients who were receiving anti-acid medication at baseline and?-?205.4 mL/year in placebo-treated patients who were not (difference of -?47.5 mL/year [95% CI: -105.1, 10.1]; p?=?0.1057). In an analysis of the potential influence of anti-acid medication use on the treatment effect of nintedanib, the adjusted annual rates of decline in FVC were?-?124.4 mL/year in the nintedanib group and?-?252.9 mL/year in the placebo group (difference of 128.6 mL/year [95% CI: 74.9, 182.2]) in patients who were receiving anti-acid medication at baseline and?-?107.0 mL/year in the nintedanib group and?-?205.3 mL/year in the placebo group (difference of 98.3 mL/year [95% CI: 54.1, 142.5]) in patients who were not (treatment-by-time-by-subgroup interaction p?=?0.3869). The proportions of patients who had ?1 investigator-reported acute exacerbation were 11.7% and 5.0% in placebo-treated patients, and 4.9% and 4.8% of nintedanib-treated patients, among patients who were and were not receiving anti-acid medication at baseline, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:In post-hoc analyses of data from the INPULSIS® trials, anti-acid medication use at baseline was not associated with a more favorable course of disease, and did not impact the treatment effect of nintedanib, in patients with IPF. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01335464 and NCT01335477 .
Project description:BACKGROUND:In the Phase III INPULSIS® trials, treatment of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with nintedanib significantly reduced the annual rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) versus placebo, consistent with slowing disease progression. However, nintedanib was not associated with a benefit in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessed using the St George's respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ). We aimed to further examine the impact of IPF progression on HRQoL and symptoms, and to explore the effect of nintedanib on HRQoL in patients from the INPULSIS® trials stratified by clinical factors associated with disease progression. METHODS:Patient-reported outcome (PRO) data from the INPULSIS® trials were included in three post hoc analyses. Two analyses used the pooled data set to examine PRO changes from baseline to week 52 according to 1) decline in FVC and 2) occurrence of acute exacerbations. In the third analysis, patients were stratified based on clinical indicators of disease progression (gender, age and physiology [GAP] stage; FVC % predicted; diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide [DLCO] % predicted; composite physiologic index [CPI]; and SGRQ total score) at baseline; median change from baseline was measured at 52?weeks and treatment groups were compared using the Wilcoxon two-sample test. RESULTS:Data from 1061 patients (638 nintedanib, 423 placebo) were analyzed. Greater categorical decline from baseline in FVC % predicted over 52?weeks was associated with significant worsening of HRQoL and symptoms across all PRO measures. Acute exacerbations were associated with deterioration in HRQoL and worsened symptoms. In general, patients with advanced disease at baseline (defined as GAP II/III, FVC???80%, DLCO ??40%, CPI?>? 45, or SGRQ >?40) experienced greater deterioration in PROs than patients with less-advanced disease. Among patients with advanced disease, compared with placebo, nintedanib slowed deterioration in several PROs; benefit was most apparent on the SGRQ (total and activity scores). CONCLUSIONS:In patients with advanced IPF, compared with placebo, nintedanib slowed deterioration in HRQoL and symptoms as assessed by several PROs. HRQoL measures have a higher responsiveness to change in advanced disease and may lack sensitivity to capture change in patients with less-advanced IPF.
Project description:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease characterised by dyspnea and loss of lung function.Using pooled data from the replicate, randomized, 52-week, placebo-controlled INPULSIS(®) trials, we characterized the safety and tolerability of nintedanib 150 mg twice daily in patients with IPF and described how adverse events were managed during these trials.One thousand and sixty- one patients were treated (nintedanib 638; placebo 423). Higher proportions of patients in the nintedanib group than the placebo group had ? 1 dose reduction to 100 mg bid (27.9% versus 3.8%) or treatment interruption (23.7% versus 9.9%). Adverse events led to permanent treatment discontinuation in 19.3% and 13.0% of patients in the nintedanib and placebo groups, respectively. Diarrhea was the most frequent adverse event, reported in 62.4% of patients in the nintedanib group versus 18.4% in the placebo group; however, only 4.4% of nintedanib-treated patients discontinued trial medication prematurely due to diarrhea. Monitoring of liver enzymes before and periodically during nintedanib treatment was recommended so that liver enzyme elevations could be managed through dose reduction or treatment interruption.Nintedanib had a manageable safety and tolerability profile in patients with IPF. Recommendations for adverse event management minimized permanent treatment discontinuations in the INPULSIS(®) trials.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01335464 and NCT01335477.
Project description:RATIONALE:There is no consensus as to when treatment for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) should be initiated. Some physicians prefer not to treat patients with preserved lung volume. OBJECTIVE:To investigate whether patients with IPF and preserved lung volume receive the same benefit from nintedanib as patients with more impaired lung volume. METHODS:Post hoc subgroup analyses of pooled data from the two replicate phase III INPULSIS trials by baseline FVC % predicted (?90%, >90%). RESULTS:At baseline, 274 patients had FVC >90% predicted and 787 patients had FVC ?90% predicted. In patients treated with placebo, the adjusted annual rate of decline in FVC was consistent between patients with FVC >90% predicted and FVC ?90% predicted (-224.6?mL/year and -223.6?mL/year, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between these subgroups in the effect of nintedanib on annual rate of decline in FVC, change from baseline in St George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score or time to first acute exacerbation. In patients with baseline FVC >90% predicted and ?90% predicted, respectively, the adjusted annual rate of decline in FVC with nintedanib was -91.5?mL/year (difference vs placebo: 133.1?mL/year (95% CI 68.0 to 198.2)) and -121.5?mL/year (difference vs placebo: 102.1?mL/year (95% CI 61.9 to 142.3)). Adverse events associated with nintedanib were similar in both subgroups. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with IPF and preserved lung volume (FVC >90% predicted) have the same rate of FVC decline and receive the same benefit from nintedanib as patients with more impaired lung volume. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT01335464 and NCT01335477.
Project description:We conducted a post hoc analysis to assess the potential impact of GAP (gender, age, physiology) stage on the treatment effect of nintedanib in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Outcomes were compared in patients at GAP stage I versus II/III at baseline in the INPULSIS® trials. At baseline, 500 patients were at GAP stage I (nintedanib 304, placebo 196), 489 were at GAP stage II (nintedanib 296, placebo 193) and 71 were at GAP stage III (nintedanib 38, placebo 33). In nintedanib-treated patients, the annual rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) was similar in patients at GAP stage I and GAP stage II/III at baseline (-110.1 and -116.6?mL·year-1, respectively), and in both subgroups was lower than in placebo-treated patients (-218.5 and -227.6?mL·year-1, respectively) (treatment-by-time-by-subgroup interaction p=0.92). In the nintedanib group, the number of deaths was 43.8% of those predicted based on GAP stage (35 versus 79.9). In the placebo group, the number of deaths was 59.8% of those predicted based on GAP stage (33 versus 55.2). In conclusion, data from the INPULSIS® trials suggest that nintedanib has a similar beneficial effect on the rate of FVC decline in patients at GAP stage I versus II/III at baseline.
Project description:International guidelines recommend nintedanib (OFEV®) as an option for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).The objective of this study was to assess the cost effectiveness of nintedanib versus pirfenidone, N-acetylcysteine and best supportive care (BSC) for the treatment of IPF from a UK payer's perspective.A Markov model was designed to capture the changes in the condition of adults with IPF. Efficacy outcomes included mortality, lung function decline and acute exacerbations. Treatment safety (serious adverse events) and tolerability (overall discontinuation) were also considered. The baseline risk of these events was derived from patient-level data from the placebo arms of nintedanib clinical trials (TOMORROW, INPULSIS-1, INPULSIS-2). A network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted to estimate the relative effectiveness of the comparator treatments. Quality of life and healthcare resource use data from the clinical trials were also incorporated in the economic model.Nintedanib showed statistically significant differences against placebo on acute exacerbation events avoided and lung function decline. In the cost-effectiveness analysis, the results were split between two treatments with relative low costs and modest effectiveness (BSC and N-acetylcysteine) and two that showed improved effectiveness (lung function) and higher costs (nintedanib and pirfenidone). All comparators were assumed to have similar projected survival and the difference in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) was driven by the acute exacerbations and lung function estimates. In the base-case deterministic pairwise comparison with pirfenidone, nintedanib was found to have fewer acute exacerbations and resulted in less costs and more QALYs gained.Compared with BSC (placebo), nintedanib and pirfenidone were the only treatments to show statistical significance in the efficacy parameters. We found substantial uncertainty in the overall cost-effectiveness results between nintedanib and pirfenidone. N-Acetylcysteine was largely similar to BSC but with a worse survival profile. INPULSIS-1 and INPULSIS-2 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01335464 and NCT01335477.
Project description:Introduction:Nintedanib slows disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) by reducing the rate of decline in forced vital capacity, with an adverse event profile that is manageable for most patients. We used data from six clinical trials to characterise the safety and tolerability profile of nintedanib and to investigate its effects on survival. Methods:Data from patients treated with ?1?dose of nintedanib 150?mg two times per day or placebo in the 52-week TOMORROW trial and/or its open-label extension; the two 52-week INPULSIS trials and/or their open-label extension, INPULSIS-ON; and a Phase IIIb trial with a placebo-controlled period of ?6 months followed by open-label nintedanib were pooled. All adverse events, irrespective of causality, were included in descriptive analyses. Parametric survival distributions were fit to pooled Kaplan-Meier survival data from the trials and extrapolated to estimate long-term survival. Results:There were 1126 patients in the pooled nintedanib group and 565 patients in the pooled placebo group. The mean duration of nintedanib treatment was 28 months. No new safety signals were observed. Incidence rates of bleeding, liver enzyme elevations and cardiovascular events were consistent with those observed in the INPULSIS trials. Diarrhoea was reported at a lower event rate in the pooled nintedanib group than in nintedanib-treated patients in the INPULSIS trials (76.5 vs 112.6 events per 100 patient exposure-years) and infrequently led to permanent treatment discontinuation (3.6 events per 100 patient exposure-years). Based on the Weibull distribution, mean (95%?CI) survival was estimated as 11.6 (9.6, 14.1) years in nintedanib-treated patients and 3.7 (2.5, 5.4) years in placebo-treated patients. Conclusions:Based on pooled data from six clinical trials, the adverse event profile of nintedanib was manageable for most patients. Exploratory analyses based on extrapolation of survival data suggest that nintedanib extends life expectancy in patients with IPF.
Project description:Background:Nintedanib slows disease progression in patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) by reducing decline in Forced Vital Capacity (FVC). The effects of nintedanib on abnormalities on high-resolution computed tomography scans have not been previously studied. Objective:We conducted a Phase IIIb trial to assess the effects of nintedanib on changes in Quantitative Lung Fibrosis (QLF) score and other measures of disease progression in patients with IPF. Methods:113 patients were randomized 1:1 to receive nintedanib 150 mg bid or placebo double-blind for ?6 months, followed by open-label nintedanib. The primary endpoint was the relative change from baseline in QLF score (%) at month 6. Analyses were descriptive and exploratory. Results:Adjusted mean relative changes from baseline in QLF score at month 6 were 11.4% in the nintedanib group (n=42) and 14.6% in the placebo group (n=45) (difference 3.2% [95% CI: -9.2, 15.6]). Adjusted mean absolute changes from baseline in QLF score at month 6 were 0.98% and 1.33% in these groups, respectively (difference 0.35% [95% CI: -1.27, 1.96]). Adjusted mean absolute changes from baseline in FVC at month 6 were -14.2 mL and -83.2 mL in the nintedanib (n=54) and placebo (n=54) groups, respectively (difference 69.0 mL [95% CI: -8.7, 146.8]). Conclusion:Exploratory data suggest that in patients with IPF, 6 months' treatment with nintedanib was associated with a numerically smaller degree of fibrotic change in the lungs and reduced FVC decline versus placebo. These data support previous findings that nintedanib slows the progression of IPF.