Comparative Study of Growth, Cadmium Accumulation and Tolerance of Three Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Cultivars.
ABSTRACT: Trace metals (TM) contamination is a severe problem in the environment and produced an adverse effect on the productivity of crops. Cadmium (Cd) is a TM ranked seven among the top 20 pollutants due to its high toxicity and solubility in water, taken up by the plants and affects their growth and metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the growth, Cd accumulation and tolerance capacities of three chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars (NC234 (NC2), ICCV89310 (IC8) and ICCV89323-B (IC8-B)), subjected to two Cd concentrations (25 and 50 µM) in hydroponic culture. The toxicity of Cd reduced the plant height and fresh and dry biomass in all cultivars. The maximum reduction was observed at 50 µM of Cd. Compared with IC8-B, cultivars IC8 and NC2 exhibited better performance with high growth, biomass, root to shoot (R/S) ratio and water content under high Cd stress. To measure the accumulation of Cd in root and shoot, an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used. IC8 and NC2 had comparatively high Cd tolerance and accumulation ability (> 100 µg g-1 dry weight), with IC8 being more tolerant and accumulated higher Cd in shoot than NC2, while cultivar IC8-B was sensitive. Root accumulated more Cd than shoot in a dose-dependent manner. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) and bioaccumulation coefficients (BAC) were far higher than one (> 1) and increased with an increase in Cd concentrations, while the translocation factor (TF) was less than one (< 1), suggesting that all the three cultivars were unable to transfer Cd from the root to the shoot efficiently. Our results indicated that IC8 and NC2 proved to be resistant, while IC8-B showed sensitivity when exposed to high Cd stress (50 µM).
Project description:Excessive cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice poses a potential threat to human health. Rice varieties vary in their Cd content, which depends mainly on root-to-shoot translocation of Cd. However, cultivars accumulating high Cd in the natural population have not been completely investigated. In this study, we analyzed the variation in Cd accumulation in a diverse panel of 529 rice cultivars. Only a small proportion (11 of 529) showed extremely high root-to-shoot Cd transfer rates, and in seven of these cultivars this was caused by two known OsHMA3 alleles. Using quantitative trait loci mapping, we identified a new OsHMA3 allele that was associated with high Cd accumulation in three of the remaining cultivars. Using heterologous expression in yeast and comparative analysis among different rice cultivars, we observed that this new allele was weak at both the transcriptional and protein levels compared with the functional OsHMA3 genotypes. The weak Cd transport activity was further demonstrated to be caused by a Gly to Arg substitution at position 512. Our study comprehensively analyzed the variation in root-to-shoot Cd translocation rates in cultivated rice and identified a new OsHMA3 allele that caused high Cd accumulation in a few rice cultivars.
Project description:A greenhouse experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the growth, P and Cd concentrations and bioenergy quality-related factors of five cultivars of switchgrass, including three lowland cultivars (Alamo (Ala), Kanlow (Kan), Performer (Per)) and two highland cultivars (Blackwell (Bw), Summer (Sum)), with 0, 1 and 10 mg/kg Cd addition levels. The results showed that AMF inoculation notably increased the biomass and P concentrations of all the cultivars. The Cd concentrations in the roots were higher than those in the shoots of all cultivars irrespective of inoculation, but the AMF had different effects on Cd accumulation in highland and lowland cultivars. AMF inoculation decreased the shoot and root concentrations in Ala and Kan, increased the shoot and root concentrations of Cd in Bw and Sum, and increased shoot Cd concentrations and decreased root Cd concentrations in Per. The highest Cd concentrations were detected in the roots of Bw and in the shoots of Sum with AMF symbiosis. Bw contained the highest total extracted Cd which was primarily in the roots. Ala had the second highest extracted Cd in the shoots, reaching 32% with 1 mg/kg of added Cd, whereas Sum had the lowest extracted Cd. AMF symbiosis had varied effects on bioenergy quality-related factors: for example, AMF decreased the ash lignin content in Ala and the C/N in Sum, increased the nitrogen, gross calorie values, and maintained the hemicellulose and cellulose contents in all cultivars with all tested concentrations of Cd. A principal component analysis (PCA) showed that AMF inoculation could enhance, weaken or transform (positive-negative, PC1-PC2) the correlations of these factors with the principle components under Cd stress. Therefore, AMF symbiosis enhanced the growth of different cultivars of switchgrass, increased/decreased Cd accumulation, promoted Cd extraction, and regulated the bioenergy quality-related factors in Cd-polluted areas. Bw is a suitable cultivar for phytostabilization due to high root Cd stabilization, whereas Ala is an appropriate cultivar for phytoremediation of less polluted areas because of its high Cd extraction and excellent bioenergy quality.
Project description:Physiological properties involved in divergent cadmium (Cd) accumulation among rice genotypes were characterized using the indica cultivar 'Habataki' (high Cd in grains) and the japonica cultivar 'Sasanishiki' (low Cd in grains). Time-dependence and concentration-dependence of symplastic Cd absorption in roots were revealed not to be responsible for the different Cd accumulation between the two cultivars because root Cd uptake was not greater in the Cd-accumulating cultivar 'Habataki' compared with 'Sasanishiki'. On the other hand, rapid and greater root-to-shoot Cd translocation was observed in 'Habataki', which could be mediated by higher abilities in xylem loading of Cd and transpiration rate as a driving force. To verify whether different abilities in xylem-mediated shoot-to-root translocation generally account for the genotypic variation in shoot Cd accumulation in rice, the world rice core collection, consisting of 69 accessions which covers the genetic diversity of almost 32,000 accessions of cultivated rice, was used. The results showed strong correlation between Cd levels in xylem sap and shoots and grains among the 69 rice accessions. Overall, the results presented in this study revealed that the root-to-shoot Cd translocation via the xylem is the major and common physiological process determining the Cd accumulation level in shoots and grains of rice plants.
Project description:Background and Aims:Root hairs increase the contact area of roots with soil and thereby enhance the capacity for solute uptake. The strict hair/non-hair pattern of Arabidopsis thaliana can change with nutrient deficiency or exposure to toxic elements, which modify root hair density. The effects of root hair density on cadmium (Cd) accumulation in shoots of arabidopsis genotypes with altered root hair development and patterning were studied. Methods:Arabidopsis mutants that are unable to develop root hairs (rhd6-1 and cpc/try) or produce hairy roots (wer/myb23) were compared with the ecotype Columbia (Col-0). Plants were cultivated on nutrient agar for 2 weeks with or without Cd. Cadmium was applied as Cd(NO3)2 at two concentrations, 10 and 100 µm. Shoot biomass, root characteristics (primary root length, lateral root number, lateral root length and root hair density) and Cd concentrations in shoots were assessed. Anatomical features (suberization of the endodermis and development of the xylem) that might influence Cd uptake and translocation were also examined. Key Results:Cadmium inhibited plant growth and reduced root length and the number of lateral roots and root hairs per plant. Suberin lamellae in the root endodermis and xylem differentiation developed closer to the root apex in plants exposed to 100 µm Cd. The latter effect was genotype dependent. Shoot Cd accumulation was correlated with root hair abundance when plants were grown in the presence of 10 µm Cd, but not when grown in the presence of 100 µm Cd, in which treatment the development of suberin lamellae closer to the root tip appeared to restrict Cd accumulation in shoots. Conclusions:Root hair density can have a large effect on Cd accumulation in shoots, suggesting that the symplasmic pathway might play a significant role in the uptake and accumulation of this toxic element.
Project description:To understand the roles of Malus rootstock, scion, and their interaction in Cd accumulation and tolerance, four scion/rootstock combinations consisting of the apple cultivars "Hanfu" (HF) and "Fuji" (FJ) grafted onto M. baccata (Mb) or M. micromalus "qingzhoulinqin" (Mm) rootstocks differing in relative Cd tolerance were exposed either to 0 µM or 50 µM CdCl2 for 18 d. Cd accumulation and tolerance in grafted Malus plants varied within rootstock, scion, and rootstock-scion interaction. Cd-induced decreases in photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigment level, and biomass were lower for HF grafted onto Mb than those for HF grafted onto Mm. Reductions in growth and photosynthetic rate were always the lowest for HF/Mb. Cd concentration, bioconcentration factor (BCF), and translocation factor (Tf ) were always comparatively higher in HF and FJ grafted onto rootstock Mm than in HF and FJ grafted on Mb, respectively. When HF and FJ were grafted onto the same rootstock, the root Cd concentrations were always higher in HF than FJ, whereas the shoot Cd concentrations displayed the opposite trend. The shoot Cd concentrations and Tf were lower for HF/Mb than the other scion/rootstock combinations. Rootstock, scion, and rootstock-scion interaction also affected subcellular Cd distribution. Immobilization of Cd in the root cell walls may be a primary Cd mobility and toxicity reduction strategy in Malus. The rootstock and scion also had statistically significant influences on ROS level and antioxidant activity. Cd induced more severe oxidative stress in HF and FJ grafted onto Mm than it did in HF and FJ grafted onto Mb. Compared with FJ, HF had lower foliar O2 -, root H2O2, and root and leaf MDA levels, but higher ROS-scavenging capacity. The rootstock, scion, and rootstock-scion interaction affected the mRNA transcript levels of several genes involved in Cd uptake, transport, and detoxification including HA7, FRO2-like, NRAMP1, NRAMP3, HMA4, MT2, NAS1, and ABCC1. Hence, the responses of grafted Malus plants to Cd toxicity vary with rootstock, scion, and rootstock-scion interaction.
Project description:Iron (Fe) deficiency is a common challenge in crop production. Screening and research of Fe-efficient cultivars could alleviate plant stress and increase crop yields in Fe-deficient soils. In the present study, we conducted two hydroponic culture experiments with a control (100 ?mol/L Fe3+-EDTA) and low Fe treatment (10 ?mol/L Fe3+-EDTA) to study the morphological and physiological mechanisms of response to low Fe stress in maize hybrids seedlings. In the first experiment, we investigated 32 major maize hybrids in Southwest China. We found that six of them, including Zhenghong 2 (ZH 2), were Fe-efficient. Fifteen other cultivars, such as Chuandan 418 (CD 418), were Fe-inefficient. In the second experiment, we investigated the Fe-efficient ZH 2 and Fe-inefficient CD 418 cultivars and found that low Fe stress resulted in significant decreases in root volume, root length, number of root tips, root surface area, and root dry weight, and increased root to shoot ratio, average root diameter, and Fe-dissolution ability per mass of roots in both maize cultivars. However, the increase in Fe-dissolution ability per mass of roots in ZH 2 was higher than that in CD 418, whereas for the other measurements, the low Fe stress-induced changes in ZH 2 were less pronounced than in CD 418. Therefore, under low Fe stress, the above-mentioned growth factors in ZH 2 were higher by 54.84%, 121.46%, 107.67%, 83.96%, 140.00%, and 18.16%, respectively, than those in CD 418. In addition, leaf area, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, soluble protein content, and Catalase (CAT) and Peroxidase (POD) activities in ZH 2 were higher by 274.95%, 113.95%, 223.60%, 56.04%, 17.01% and 21.13% than those in CD 418. Therefore, compared with the Fe-inefficient cultivar (CD 418), the Fe-efficient cultivar (ZH 2) had a more developed root system and greater Fe absorption capacity per mass of roots under low iron stress, promoted the efficient absorption of Fe, maintained a higher photosynthetic area and photosynthetic rate, thereby facilitating the accumulation of photosynthetic products. Moreover, higher soluble protein content and activities of CAT and POD permitted high osmotic regulation and scavenging ability, which is an important physiological mechanism for ZH 2 adaptation to low Fe stress.
Project description:This study links changes in the tobacco endogenous metal-homeostasis network caused by transgene expression with engineering of novel features. It also provides insight into the concentration-dependent mutual interactions between Zn and Cd, leading to differences in the metal partitioning between wild-type and transgenic plants. In tobacco, expression of the export protein AtHMA4 modified Zn/Cd root/shoot distribution, but the pattern depended on their concentrations in the medium. To address this phenomenon, the expression of genes identified by suppression subtractive hybridization and the Zn/Cd accumulation pattern were examined upon exposure to six variants of low/high Zn and Cd concentrations. Five tobacco metal-homeostasis genes were identified: NtZIP2, NtZIP4, NtIRT1-like, NtNAS, and NtVTL. In the wild type, their expression depended on combinations of low/high Zn and Cd concentrations; co-ordinated responses of NtZIP1, NtZIP2, and NtVTL were shown in medium containing 4 µM Cd, and at 0.5 µM versus 10 µM Zn. In transgenics, qualitative changes detected for NtZIP1, NtZIP4, NtIRT1-like, and NtVTL are considered crucial for modification of Zn/Cd supply-dependent Zn/Cd root/shoot distribution. Notwithstanding, NtVTL was the most responsive gene in wild-type and transgenic plants under all concentrations of Zn and Cd tested; thus it is a candidate gene for the regulation of metal cross-homeostasis processes involved in engineering new metal-related traits.
Project description:Background and Aims:Salinity affects the bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) in soils and Cd accumulation in plants, but the associated mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to assess the metabolic response to NaCl and Cd and the relationship between metabolites and Cd accumulation in the halophyte Carpobrotus rossii, which has potential for Cd phytoextraction. Methods:Plants were grown in nutrient solution with 0-400 mm NaCl in the presence of 5 or 15 µm Cd, with varied or constant solution Cd2+ activity. Plant growth and Cd uptake were measured, and the accumulation of peptides, and organic and amino acids in plant tissues were assessed. Key Results:The addition of NaCl to Cd-containing solutions improved plant growth along with 70-87 % less shoot Cd accumulation, resulting from decreases in Cd root uptake and root-to-shoot translocation irrespective of Cd2+ activity in solutions. Moreover, Cd exposure increased the concentration of phytochelatins, which correlated positively with Cd concentrations in plants regardless of NaCl addition. In comparison, Cd inhibited the synthesis of organic acids in shoots and roots in the absence of NaCl, but increased it in shoots in the presence of NaCl. While Cd increased the concentrations of amino acids in plant shoots, the effect of NaCl on the synthesis of amino acids was inconsistent. Conclusions:Our data provide the first evidence that NaCl decreased Cd shoot accumulation in C. rossii by decreasing Cd root uptake and root-to-shoot translocation even under constant Cd2+ activity. The present study also supports the important role of peptides and organic acids, particular of phytochelatins, in Cd tolerance and accumulation although the changes of those metabolites was not the main reason for the decreased Cd accumulation.
Project description:The impact of long-term chronic cadmium stress (ChS, 0.1 µM Cd, 85 days) or short-term acute cadmium stress (AS, 10 µM Cd, 4 days) on Carlina acaulis (Asteraceae) metabolites was compared to identify specific traits. The content of Cd was higher under AS in all organs in comparison with ChS (130 vs. 16 µg·g-1 DW, 7.9 vs. 3.2 µg·g-1 DW, and 11.5 vs. 2.4 µg·g-1 DW in roots, leaves, and trichomes, respectively) while shoot bioaccumulation factor under ChS (ca. 280) indicates efficient Cd accumulation. High content of Cd in the trichomes from the AS treatment may be an anatomical adaptation mechanism. ChS evoked an increase in root biomass (hormesis), while the impact on shoot biomass was not significant in any treatment. The amounts of ascorbic acid and sum of phytochelatins were higher in the shoots but organic (malic and citric) acids dominated in the roots of plants from the ChS treatment. Chlorogenic acid, but not ursolic and oleanolic acids, was elevated by ChS. These data indicate that both chelation and enhancement of antioxidative power contribute to protection of plants exposed to long-term (chronic) Cd presence with subsequent hormetic effect.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Concentrations of cadmium (Cd) in the grain of many durum wheats (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) grown in North American prairie soils often exceed international trade standards. Genotypic differences in root-to-shoot translocation of Cd are a major determinant of intraspecific variation in the accumulation of Cd in grain. We tested the extent to which changes in whole-plant Cd accumulation and the distribution of Cd between tissues influences Cd accumulation in grain by measuring Cd accumulation throughout the grain filling period in two near-isogenic lines (NILs) of durum wheat that differ in grain Cd accumulation. RESULTS: Roots absorbed Cd and transported it to the shoots throughout the grain filling period, but the low- and high-Cd NILs did not differ in whole-plant Cd uptake. Although the majority of Cd accumulation was retained in the roots, the low- and high-Cd NILs differed substantively in root-to-shoot translocation of Cd. At grain maturity, accumulation of Cd in the shoots was 13% (low-Cd NIL) or 37% (high-Cd NIL) of whole-plant Cd accumulation. Accumulation of Cd in all shoot tissue, including grain, was at least 2-fold greater in the high-Cd NIL at all harvests. There was no net remobilization of shoot Cd pools during grain filling. The timing of Cd accumulation in grain was positively correlated with grain biomass accumulation, and the rate of grain filling peaked between 14 and 28 days post-anthesis, when both NILs accumulated 60% of total grain biomass and 61-66% of total grain Cd content. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that genotypic variation in root-to-shoot translocation of Cd controls accumulation of Cd in durum wheat grain. Continued uptake of Cd by roots and the absence of net remobilization of Cd from leaves during grain filling support a direct pathway of Cd transport from roots to grain via xylem-to-phloem transfer in the stem.