Partners in Crime: The Interplay of Proteins and Membranes in Regulated Necrosis.
ABSTRACT: Pyroptosis, necroptosis, and ferroptosis are well-characterized forms of regulated necrosis that have been associated with human diseases. During regulated necrosis, plasma membrane damage facilitates the movement of ions and molecules across the bilayer, which finally leads to cell lysis and release of intracellular content. Therefore, these types of cell death have an inflammatory phenotype. Each type of regulated necrosis is mediated by a defined machinery comprising protein and lipid molecules. Here, we discuss how the interaction and reshaping of these cellular components are essential and distinctive processes during pyroptosis, necroptosis, and ferroptosis. We point out that although the plasma membrane is the common target in regulated necrosis, different mechanisms of permeabilization have emerged depending on the cell death form. Pore formation by gasdermins (GSDMs) is a hallmark of pyroptosis, while mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) protein facilitates membrane permeabilization in necroptosis, and phospholipid peroxidation leads to membrane damage in ferroptosis. This diverse repertoire of mechanisms leading to membrane permeabilization contributes to define the specific inflammatory and immunological outcome of each type of regulated necrosis. Current efforts are focused on new therapies that target critical protein and lipid molecules on these pathways to fight human pathologies associated with inflammation.
Project description:The discovery of alternative signaling pathways that regulate cell death has revealed multiple strategies for promoting cell death with diverse consequences at the tissue and organism level. Despite the divergence in the molecular components involved, membrane permeabilization is a common theme in the execution of regulated cell death. In apoptosis, the permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane by BAX and BAK releases apoptotic factors that initiate the caspase cascade and is considered the point of no return in cell death commitment. Pyroptosis and necroptosis also require the perforation of the plasma membrane at the execution step, which involves Gasdermins in pyroptosis, and MLKL in the case of necroptosis. Although BAX/BAK, Gasdermins and MLKL share certain molecular features like oligomerization, they form pores in different cellular membranes via distinct mechanisms. Here, we compare and contrast how BAX/BAK, Gasdermins, and MLKL alter membrane permeability from a structural and biophysical perspective and discuss the general principles of membrane permeabilization in the execution of regulated cell death.
Project description:Pyroptosis is a highly inflammatory and lytic type of programmed cell death (PCD) commenced by inflammasomes, which sense perturbations in the cytosolic environment. Recently, several ground-breaking studies have linked a family of pore-forming proteins known as gasdermins (GSDMs) to pyroptosis. The human genome encodes six GSDM proteins which have a characteristic feature of forming pores in the plasma membrane resulting in the disruption of cellular homeostasis and subsequent induction of cell death. GSDMs have an N-terminal cytotoxic domain and an auto-inhibitory C-terminal domain linked together through a flexible hinge region whose proteolytic cleavage by various enzymes releases the N-terminal fragment that can insert itself into the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane by binding to acidic lipids leading to pore formation. Emerging studies have disclosed the involvement of GSDMs in various modalities of PCD highlighting their role in diverse cellular and pathological processes. Recently, the cryo-EM structures of the GSDMA3 and GSDMD pores were resolved which have provided valuable insights into the pore formation process of GSDMs. Here, we discuss the current knowledge regarding the role of GSDMs in PCD, structural and molecular aspects of autoinhibition, and pore formation mechanism followed by a summary of functional consequences of gasdermin-induced membrane permeabilization.
Project description:Pyroptosis is a type of lytic programmed cell death triggered by various inflammasomes that sense danger signals. Pyroptosis has recently attracted great attention owing to its contributory role in cancer. Pyroptosis plays an important role in cancer progression by inducing cancer cell death or eliciting anticancer immunity. The participation of gasdermins (GSDMs) in pyroptosis is a noteworthy recent discovery. GSDMs have emerged as a group of pore-forming proteins that serve important roles in innate immunity and are composed of GSDMA-E and Pejvakin (PJVK) in human. The N-terminal domains of GSDMs, expect PJVK, can form pores on the cell membrane and function as effector proteins of pyroptosis. Remarkably, it has been found that GSDMs are abnormally expressed in several forms of cancers. Moreover, GSDMs are involved in cancer cell growth, invasion, metastasis and chemoresistance. Additionally, increasing evidence has indicated an association between GSDMs and clinicopathological features in cancer patients. These findings suggest the feasibility of using GSDMs as prospective biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, therapeutic intervention and prognosis. Here, we review the progress in unveiling the characteristics and biological functions of GSDMs. We also focus on the implication and molecular mechanisms of GSDMs in cancer pathogenesis. Investigating the relationship between GSDMs and cancer biology could assist us to explore new therapeutic avenues for cancer prevention and treatment.
Project description:In contrast to apoptosis and autophagy, necrotic cell death was considered to be a random, passive cell death without definable mediators. However, this dogma has been challenged by recent developments suggesting that necrotic cell death can also be a regulated process. Regulated necrosis includes multiple cell death modalities such as necroptosis, parthanatos, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP)-mediated necrosis. Several distinctive executive molecules, particularly residing on the mitochondrial inner and outer membrane, amalgamating to form the MPTP have been defined. The c-subunit of the F1F0ATP synthase on the inner membrane and Bax/Bak on the outer membrane are considered to be the long sought components that form the MPTP. Opening of the MPTP results in loss of mitochondrial inner membrane potential, disruption of ATP production, increased ROS production, organelle swelling, mitochondrial dysfunction and consequent necrosis. Cyclophilin D, along with adenine nucleotide translocator and the phosphate carrier are considered to be important regulators involved in the opening of MPTP. Increased production of ROS can further trigger other necrotic pathways mediated through molecules such as PARP1, leading to irreversible cell damage. This review examines the roles of PARP1 and cyclophilin D in necrotic cell death. The hierarchical role of p53 in regulation and integration of key components of signaling pathway to elicit MPTP-mediated necrosis and ferroptosis is explored. In the context of recent insights, the indistinct role of necroptosis signaling in tubular necrosis after ischemic kidney injury is scrutinized. We conclude by discussing the participation of p53, PARP1 and cyclophilin D and their overlapping pathways to elicit MPTP-mediated necrosis and ferroptosis in acute kidney injury.
Project description:In this chapter, the various subroutines of regulated cell death are neatly described by highlighting apoptosis and subforms of regulated necrosis such as necroptosis, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, and NETosis. Typically, all forms of regulated necrosis are defined by finite rupture of the plasma cell membrane. Apoptosis is characterized by an enzymatic machinery that consists of caspases which cause the morphologic features of this type of cell death. Mechanistically, apoptosis can be instigated by two major cellular signalling pathways: an intrinsic pathway that is initiated inside cells by mitochondrial release of pro-apoptotic factors or an extrinsic pathway that is initiated at the cell surface by various death receptors. In necroptosis, the biochemical processes are distinct from those found in apoptosis; in particular, there is no caspase activation. As such, necroptosis is a kinase-mediated cell death that relies on “receptor-interacting protein kinase 3” which mediates phosphorylation of the pseudokinase “mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein.” While ferroptosis is an iron-dependent, oxidative form of regulated necrosis that is biochemically characterized by accumulation of ROS from iron metabolism, oxidase activity, and lipid peroxidation products, pyroptosis is defined as a form of cell death (predominantly of phagocytes) that develops during inflammasome activation and is executed by caspase-mediated cleavage of the pore-forming protein gasdermin D. Finally, NETosis refers to a regulated death of neutrophils that is characterized by the release of chromatin-derived weblike structures released into the extracellular space. The chapter ends up with a discussion on the characteristic feature of regulated necrosis: the passive release of large amounts of constitutive DAMPs as a consequence of final plasma membrane rupture as well as the active secretion of inducible DAMPs earlier during the dying process. Notably, per cell death subroutine, the active secretion of inducible DAMPs varies, thereby determining different immunogenicity of dying cells.
Project description:Regulated necrosis has been reported to exert an important role in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Damage to renal tubular epithelial cells and subsequent cell death initiate the progression of acute kidney injury (AKI) and subsequent chronic kidney disease (CKD). We found that ferroptosis appeared in tubular epithelial cells (TECs) of various human kidney diseases and the upregulation of tubular proferroptotic gene ACSL4 was correlated with renal function in patients with acute kidney tubular injury. XJB-5-131, which showed high affinity for TECs, attenuated I/R-induced renal injury and inflammation in mice by specifically inhibiting ferroptosis rather than necroptosis and pyroptosis. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) indicated that ferroptosis-related genes were mainly expressed in tubular epithelial cells after I/R injury, while few necroptosis- and pyroptosis-associated genes were identified to express in this cluster of cell. Taken together, ferroptosis plays an important role in renal tubular injury and the inhibition of ferroptosis by XJB-5-131 is a promising therapeutic strategy for protection against renal tubular cell injury in kidney diseases.
Project description:In response to a wide range of stimulations, host cells activate pyroptosis, a kind of inflammatory cell death which is provoked by the cytosolic sensing of danger signals and pathogen infection. In manipulating the cleavage of gasdermins (GSDMs), researchers have found that GSDM proteins serve as the real executors and the deterministic players in fate decisions of pyroptotic cells. Whether inflammatory characteristics induced by pyroptosis could cause damage the host or improve immune activity is largely dependent on the context, timing, and response degree. Here, we systematically review current points involved in regulatory mechanisms and the multidimensional roles of pyroptosis in several metabolic diseases and the tumor microenvironment. Targeting pyroptosis may reveal potential therapeutic avenues.
Project description:Six Gasdermins (GSDM) family members participate in various biological processes especially pyroptosis, as well as in the initiation and development of many types of cancer. However, the systematic analysis of the GSDM family in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is lacking. In this study, several bioinformatics databases were recruited to analyze the roles of the GSDMs in differential expression, prognostic correlation, functional enrichment exploration, immune modulation, genetic alterations, and methylated modification in patients with HCC. Consequently, the mRNA expression of all the six GSDMs was accordantly increased in HCC, while only the protein expressions of GSDMB, GSDMD, and GSDME were apparently increased in HCC tissue. The expression of all the GSDMs (except GSDMA) was significantly higher in tumor stage 1-3 subgroups, compared with that in normal subgroups. Higher GSDME expression was significantly associated with shorter overall survival (OS) and disease specific survival (DSS) in patients with HCC. GSDMD had the highest genetic alteration rate among the GSDMs. The three signal pathways which were most likely related to GSDMs-associated molecules were the cell adhesion, growth regulation, and hormone metabolic process. The majority of GSDMs members were positively correlated with the infiltration of B cells, neutrophils, and dendritic cells, however negatively correlated with macrophage. All of the six GSDM members showed remarkably decreased methylation levels in HCC tissues. In conclusion, the GSDM family (especially GSDME) had the potential to become essential biomarkers to better improve the diagnosis and prognosis of HCC, as well as provided insight for the development of therapeutic targets.
Project description:Ferroptosis is a regulated form of necrotic cell death that is caused by the accumulation of oxidized phospholipids, leading to membrane damage and cell lysis<sup>1,2</sup>. Although other types of necrotic death such as pyroptosis and necroptosis are mediated by active mechanisms of execution<sup>3-6</sup>, ferroptosis is thought to result from the accumulation of unrepaired cell damage<sup>1</sup>. Previous studies have suggested that ferroptosis has the ability to spread through cell populations in a wave-like manner, resulting in a distinct spatiotemporal pattern of cell death<sup>7,8</sup>. Here we investigate the mechanism of ferroptosis execution and discover that ferroptotic cell rupture is mediated by plasma membrane pores, similarly to cell lysis in pyroptosis and necroptosis<sup>3,4</sup>. We further find that intercellular propagation of death occurs following treatment with some ferroptosis-inducing agents, including erastin<sup>2,9</sup> and C' dot nanoparticles<sup>8</sup>, but not upon direct inhibition of the ferroptosis-inhibiting enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4)<sup>10</sup>. Propagation of a ferroptosis-inducing signal occurs upstream of cell rupture and involves the spreading of a cell swelling effect through cell populations in a lipid peroxide- and iron-dependent manner.
Project description:The death of endocrine cells is involved in type 1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmunity, adrenopause and hypogonadotropism. Insights from research on basic cell death have revealed that most pathophysiologically important cell death is necrotic in nature, whereas regular metabolism is maintained by apoptosis programmes. Necrosis is defined as cell death by plasma membrane rupture, which allows the release of damage-associated molecular patterns that trigger an immune response referred to as necroinflammation. Regulated necrosis comes in different forms, such as necroptosis, pyroptosis and ferroptosis. In this Perspective, with a focus on the endocrine environment, we introduce these cell death pathways and discuss the specific consequences of regulated necrosis. Given that clinical trials of necrostatins for the treatment of autoimmune conditions have already been initiated, we highlight the therapeutic potential of such novel therapeutic approaches that, in our opinion, should be tested in endocrine disorders in the future.