Effects of a mannan-rich yeast cell wall-derived preparation on cecal concentrations and tissue prevalence of Salmonella Enteritidis in layer chickens.
ABSTRACT: Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) has been the most common Salmonella serotype associated with foodborne infections in the last several years. Dietary applications of yeast-based preparations in feed have shown to reduce Salmonella colonization in chickens augmenting SE control strategies. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a mannan-rich yeast cell wall-derived preparation (Actigen®) administered in feed at a rate of 400 g/ton on SE colonization in the cecum and internal organs of commercial layer chickens. Sixteen week-old layer pullets were orally challenged with a selected nalidixic acid resistant SE strain at a dose of 1.7×10^9 colony forming units (CFU) per bird. SE colonization was assessed by evaluating isolation rates from ovary and pooled liver/spleen samples as well as enumeration of SE in cecal pouches one week post-challenge. Recovery rates of SE from the ovaries of directly challenged birds receiving Actigen® were significantly lower (P <0.02) than those in directly challenged birds fed an unsupplemented control diet. Recovery rates of SE from pooled liver/spleen samples were not significantly different between Actigen®-treated pullets and controls (P = 0.22). Using direct plate count methods, cecal SE concentrations were 1 log10 lower (P <0.001) in challenged pullets in the Actigen®-supplemented group than in the challenged controls. The SE concentration distributions in the ceca were similar in groups testing positive and groups testing negative for SE in the ovaries and liver/spleens tissues. As a result, SE concentrations in the ceca could not be directly related to the occurrence or prevalence of SE in these tissues. In conclusion, Actigen® supplementation appears to decrease the prevalence of SE in ovarian tissue and concentrations of SE in cecal contents and may be useful as a tool for reducing the risk of eggshell contamination and transovarian transmission of SE in eggs.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study assessed the effects of probiotics on cecal microbiota, gene expression of intestinal tight junction proteins, and immune response in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. METHODS:One-day-old broiler chickens (n = 240) were randomly allocated to four treatments: negative control (Cont), multi-strain probiotic-treated group (Pro), Salmonella-infected group (Sal), and multi-strain probiotic-treated and Salmonella-infected group (ProSal). All chickens except those in the Cont and Pro groups were gavaged with 1×108 cfu/mL of S. enterica subsp. enterica 4 days after hatching. RESULTS:Our results indicated that body weight, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio of birds were significantly reduced (p<0.05) by Salmonella challenge. Chickens challenged with Salmonella decreased cecal microbial diversity. Chickens in the Sal group exhibited abundant Proteobacteria than those in the Cont, Pro, and ProSal groups. Salmonella infection downregulated gene expression of Occludin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO1), and Mucin 2 in the jejunum and Occludin and Claudin in the ileum. Moreover, the Sal group increased gene expression of interferon-? (IFN-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1?, and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha factor (LITAF) and reduced levels of transforming growth factor-?4 and IL-10 compared with the other groups (p<0.05). However, chickens receiving probiotic diets increased Lactobacillaceae abundance and reduced Enterobacteriaceae abundance in the ceca. Moreover, supplementation with probiotics increased the mRNA expression of Occludin, ZO1, and Mucin 2 in the ileum (p<0.05). In addition, probiotic supplementation downregulated the mRNA levels of IFN-? (p<0.05) and LITAF (p = 0.075) and upregulated IL-10 (p = 0.084) expression in the cecal tonsil. CONCLUSION:The administration of multi-strain probiotics modulated intestinal microbiota, gene expression of tight junction proteins, and immunomodulatory activity in broiler chickens.
Project description:Cross-talk between the gut microbiota and neurochemicals affects health and well-being of animals. However, little is known about this interaction in chickens despite their importance in food production. Probiotics and live Salmonella vaccines are microbial products commonly given orally to layer pullets to improve health and ensure food safety. This study’s objective was to determine how these oral treatments, individually or in combination, would impact the gut environment of chickens. White Leghorn chicks were either non-treated (CON) or orally given probiotics (PRO), a recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine (RASV; VAX), or both (P+V). Birds were fed with probiotics daily beginning at 1-day-old and orally immunized with RASV at 4-days-old and boosted 2 weeks post-primary vaccination. At 5 weeks, ceca content, ceca tissues, and small intestinal scrapings (SISs) were collected from ten birds/group post-euthanasia for analyses. Catecholamine, but not serotonergic, metabolism was affected by treatments. Dopamine metabolism, indicated by L-DOPA and DOPAC levels, were increased in P+V birds versus CON and PRO birds. Based on 16S sequencing, beta diversity was more similar among vaccinated birds versus birds given probiotics, suggesting live Salmonella vaccination has a major selective pressure on microbial diversity. Abundances of Akkermansia muciniphila and Enterobacteriaceae positively correlated with levels of tyrosine and norepinephrine, respectively. Both enumeration and 16S sequencing, determined that PRO exhibited the greatest levels of Enterobacteriaceae in the ceca and feces, which was associated with greater IgA production against E. coli virulence factors as tested by ELISA. In summary, we demonstrate that using probiotics alone versus in combination with a live vaccine has major implications in catecholamine production and the microbiota of layer pullets. Additionally, unique correlations between changes in some neurochemicals and specific bacteria have been shown.
Project description:Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica induces an early, short-lived pro-inflammatory response in chickens that is asymptomatic of clinical disease and results in a persistent colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that transmits infections to naïve hosts via fecal shedding of bacteria. The underlying mechanisms that control this persistent colonization of the ceca of chickens by Salmonella are only beginning to be elucidated. We hypothesize that alteration of host signaling pathways mediate the induction of a tolerance response. Using chicken-specific kinomic immune peptide arrays and quantitative RT-PCR of infected cecal tissue, we have previously evaluated the development of disease tolerance in chickens infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) in a persistent infection model (4-14 days post infection). Here, we have further outlined the induction of an tolerance defense strategy in the cecum of chickens infected with S. Enteritidis beginning around four days post-primary infection. The response is characterized by alterations in the activation of T cell signaling mediated by the dephosphorylation of phospholipase c-?1 (PLCG1) that inhibits NF-?B signaling and activates nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) signaling and blockage of interferon-? (IFN-?) production through the disruption of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway (dephosphorylation of JAK2, JAK3, and STAT4). Further, we measured a significant down-regulation reduction in IFN-? mRNA expression. These studies, combined with our previous findings, describe global phenotypic changes in the avian cecum of Salmonella Enteritidis-infected chickens that decreases the host responsiveness resulting in the establishment of persistent colonization. The identified tissue protein kinases also represent potential targets for future antimicrobial compounds for decreasing Salmonella loads in the intestines of food animals before going to market.
Project description:We have been investigating modulation strategies tailored around the selective stimulation of the host's immune system as an alternative to direct targeting of microbial pathogens by antibiotics. One such approach is the use of a group of small cationic peptides (BT) produced by a Gram-positive soil bacterium, Brevibacillus texasporus. These peptides have immune modulatory properties that enhance both leukocyte functional efficiency and leukocyte proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA transcription activities in vitro. In addition, when provided as a feed additive for just 4 days posthatch, BT peptides significantly induce a concentration-dependent protection against cecal and extraintestinal colonization by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. In the present studies, we assessed the effects of feeding BT peptides on transcriptional changes on proinflammatory cytokines, inflammatory chemokines, and Toll-like receptors (TLR) in the ceca of broiler chickens with and without S. Enteritidis infection. After feeding a BT peptide-supplemented diet for the first 4 days posthatch, chickens were then challenged with S. Enteritidis, and intestinal gene expression was measured at 1 or 7 days postinfection (p.i.) (5 or 11 days of age). Intestinal expression of innate immune mRNA transcripts was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Analysis of relative mRNA expression showed that a BT peptide-supplemented diet did not directly induce the transcription of proinflammatory cytokine, inflammatory chemokine, type I/II interferon (IFN), or TLR mRNA in chicken cecum. However, feeding the BT peptide-supplemented diet primed cecal tissue for increased (P ? 0.05) transcription of TLR4, TLR15, and TLR21 upon infection with S. Enteritidis on days 1 and 7 p.i. Likewise, feeding the BT peptides primed the cecal tissue for increased transcription of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1? [IL-1?], IL-6, IL-18, type I and II IFNs) and inflammatory chemokine (CxCLi2) in response to S. Enteritidis infection 1 and 7 days p.i. compared to the chickens fed the basal diet. These small cationic peptides may prove useful as alternatives to antibiotics as local immune modulators in neonatal poultry by providing prophylactic protection against Salmonella infections.
Project description:Campylobacter is one of the major foodborne pathogens that result in severe gastroenteritis in humans, primarily through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Chickens are the reservoir host of Campylobacter, where the pathogen colonizes the ceca, thereby leading to contamination of carcass during slaughter. A reduction in cecal colonization by Campylobacter would directly translate into reduced product contamination and risk of human infections. With increasing consumer demand for antibiotic free chickens, significant research is being conducted to discover natural, safe and economical antimicrobials that can effectively control Campylobacter colonization in birds. This study investigated the efficacy of in-feed supplementation of a phytophenolic compound, ?-resorcylic acid (BR) for reducing Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens. In two separate, replicate trials, day-old-chicks (Cobb500; n = 10 birds/treatment) were fed with BR (0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1%) in feed for a period of 14 days (n = 40/trial). Birds were challenged with a four-strain mixture of Campylobacter jejuni (?106 CFU/ml; 250 ?l/bird) on day 7 and cecal samples were collected on day 14 for enumerating surviving Campylobacter in cecal contents. In addition, the effect of BR on the critical colonization factors of Campylobacter (motility, epithelial cell attachment) was studied using phenotypic assay, cell culture, and real-time quantitative PCR. Supplementation of BR in poultry feed for 14 days at 0.5 and 1% reduced Campylobacter populations in cecal contents by ?2.5 and 1.7 Log CFU/g, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant differences in feed intake and body weight gain were observed between control and treatment birds fed the compound (P > 0.05). Follow up mechanistic analysis revealed that sub-inhibitory concentration of BR significantly reduced Campylobacter motility, attachment to and invasion of Caco-2 cells. In addition, the expression of C. jejuni genes coding for motility (motA, motB, fliA) and attachment (jlpA, ciaB) was down-regulated as compared to controls (P < 0.05). These results suggest that BR could potentially be used as a feed additive to reduce Campylobacter colonization in broilers.
Project description:Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the immune response of broilers vaccinated with Salmonella chitosan-nanoparticle (CNP) vaccine and challenged with Salmonella. The Salmonella CNP vaccine was synthesized with Salmonella enterica outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and flagellin proteins. In Experiment I, birds were orally gavaged with PBS or 500, 1000, or 2000?g of CNP vaccine 1 and 7d-of-age. At 14d-of-age, birds were orally challenged with 1 X 105 CFU/bird of live S. Enteritidis (SE). Macrophage-nitrite production 11d-post-challenge was higher (P<0.05) in the 500?g group when compared to the control. At d14 (8h-post-challenge), broilers vaccinated with 1000?g CNP had higher (P<0.05) serum anti-OMPs IgG and IgA and cloacal anti-OMP IgA amounts. At 11d-post-challenge, birds vaccinated with 1000?g CNP vaccine had greater (P<0.05) bile anti-OMP and anti-flagellin IgA amounts. At 11d-post-challenge, birds administered 1000?g CNP vaccine has increased (P<0.05) IL-1? and IL-10 mRNA in cecal tonsils. In Experiment II, birds were orally gavaged with PBS or 1000?g CNP or a live commercial vaccine at 1 and 7d-of-age. At 14d-of-age, birds were orally challenged with 1 X 105 CFU/bird of live SE or S. Heidelberg (SH). Birds vaccinated with CNP showed higher (P<0.05) serum anti-OMPs IgG amounts at 8h-post-challenge. At 4d-post-SH challenge, birds vaccinated with CNP had higher (P<0.05) bile anti-flagellin IgA amounts. CNP decreased (P<0.05) anti-OMPs IgG levels in serum at 2d-post-SE challenge and 4d-post-SH or SE challenge. Salmonella Enteritidis loads in cecal content at 2d-post-challenge was decreased (P<0.05) by 65.9% in birds vaccinated with CNP, when compared to the control. Chitosan-nanovaccine had no adverse effects on bird's production performance. In conclusion, 1000?g CNP vaccine can induce a specific immune response against Salmonella and has the potential to mitigate SE cecal colonization in broiler birds.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni is a leading bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease worldwide. While C. jejuni is a commensal organism in chickens, case-studies have demonstrated a link between infection with C. jejuni and the consumption of foods that have been cross-contaminated with raw or undercooked poultry. We hypothesized that vaccination of chickens with C. jejuni surface-exposed colonization proteins (SECPs) would reduce the ability of C. jejuni to colonize chickens, thereby reducing the contamination of poultry products at the retail level and potentially providing a safer food product for consumers. To test our hypothesis, we injected chickens with recombinant C. jejuni peptides from CadF, FlaA, FlpA, CmeC, and a CadF-FlaA-FlpA fusion protein. Seven days following challenge, chickens were necropsied and cecal contents were serially diluted and plated to determine the number of C. jejuni per gram of material. The sera from the chickens were also analyzed to determine the concentration and specificity of antibodies reactive against the C. jejuni SECPs. Vaccination of chickens with the CadF, FlaA, and FlpA peptides resulted in a reduction in the number of C. jejuni in the ceca compared to the non-vaccinated C. jejuni-challenged group. The greatest reduction in C. jejuni colonization was observed in chickens injected with the FlaA, FlpA, or CadF-FlaA-FlpA fusion proteins. Vaccination of chickens with different SECPs resulted in the production of C. jejuni-specific IgY antibodies. In summary, we show that the vaccination of poultry with individual C. jejuni SECPs or a combination of SECPs provides protection of chickens from C. jejuni colonization.
Project description:This study assessed the effect of in ovo threonine supplementation on the response of broiler chicks challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis, considering bacterial counts in cecal contents, intestinal morphology, body weight, and weight gain. Fertilized eggs were inoculated in the amniotic fluid with saline (NT) or 3.5% threonine (T) solution at day 17.5 of incubation. At hatch, chicks were individually weighed and cloacal swabs were screened for Salmonella. At 2 days of age, half of the birds from each in ovo treatment were given either 0.5?mL of nutrient broth (sham-inoculated) or nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella Enteritidis (SE NalR) in nutrient broth (8.3?×?107 colony forming units (CFU) SE NalR/mL). The birds were distributed using a completely randomized design with four treatments after the Salmonella challenge: no in ovo Thr supplementation and sham-inoculated in the posthatch challenge (NT-SHAM), in ovo Thr supplementation and sham-inoculated (T-SHAM), no in ovo Thr supplementation and SE NalR-challenged (NT-SE), and in ovo Thr supplementation and SE NalR-challenged (T-SE). In ovo threonine supplementation reduced Salmonella Enteritidis colonization 168-hour postinoculation and reduced the negative effects associated with Salmonella infection on intestinal morphology and performance, with results similar to those of the sham-inoculated birds. In ovo Thr supplementation increased the expression of MUC2 at hatch and the expression of MUC2 and IgA at 2 days of age and 168-hour postinoculation. Our results suggest that providing in ovo threonine promotes intestinal health in broilers challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis in the first days of life.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause disease in numerous species. Salmonella-related infections originating from poultry and/or poultry products are a major cause of human foodborne illness with S. Enteritidis the leading cause worldwide. Despite the importance of Salmonella to human health and chickens being a reservoir, little is known of the response to infection within the chicken gastrointestinal tract. Using chicken-specific kinome immune peptide arrays we compared a detailed kinomic analysis of the chicken jejunal immune response in a single line of birds with high and low Salmonella loads. Four-day-old chicks were challenged with S. Enteritidis (105?cfu) and cecal content and a section of jejunum collected at three times: early [4-7?days post-infection (dpi)], middle (10-17?dpi), and late (24-37?dpi). Salmonella colonization was enumerated and birds with the highest (n?=?4) and lowest (n?=?4) loads at each time were selected for kinomic analyses. Key biological processes associated with lower loads of Salmonella clustered around immune responses, including cell surface receptor signaling pathway, positive regulation of cellular processes, defense response, innate immune response, regulation of immune response, immune system process, and regulation of signaling. Further evaluation showed specific pathways including chemokine, Jak-Stat, mitogen activated protein kinase, and T cell receptor signaling pathways were also associated with increased resistance. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that it is possible to identify key mechanisms and pathways that are associated with increased resistance against S. Enteritidis cecal colonization in chickens. Therefore, providing a foundation for future studies to identify specific proteins within these pathways that are associated with resistance, which could provide breeders additional biomarkers to identify birds naturally more resistant to this important foodborne pathogen.
Project description:Extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains cause many diseases in humans and animals. While remaining asymptomatic, they can colonize the intestine for subsequent extra-intestinal infection and dissemination in the environment. We have previously identified the fos locus, a gene cluster within a pathogenicity island of the avian ExPEC strain BEN2908, involved in the metabolism of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS). It is assumed that these sugars are metabolized by the probiotic bacteria of the microbiota present in the intestine, leading to a decrease in the pathogenic bacterial population. However, we have previously shown that scFOS metabolism helps BEN2908 to colonize the intestine, its reservoir. As the fos locus is located on a pathogenicity island, one aim of this study was to investigate a possible role of this locus in the virulence of the strain for chicken. We thus analysed fos gene expression in extracts of target organs of avian colibacillosis and performed a virulence assay in chickens. Moreover, in order to understand the involvement of the fos locus in intestinal colonization, we monitored the expression of fos genes and their implication in the growth ability of the strain in intestinal extracts of chicken. We also performed intestinal colonization assays in axenic and Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) chickens. We demonstrated that the fos locus is not involved in the virulence of BEN2908 for chickens and is strongly involved in axenic chicken cecal colonization both in vitro and in vivo. However, even if the presence of a microbiota does not inhibit the growth advantage of BEN2908 in ceca in vitro, overall, growth of the strain is not favoured in the ceca of SPF chickens. These findings indicate that scFOS metabolism by an ExPEC strain can contribute to its fitness in ceca but this benefit is fully dependent on the bacteria present in the microbiota.