Inhibition of miR-19a partially reversed the resistance of colorectal cancer to oxaliplatin via PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway.
ABSTRACT: Oxaliplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic drug that is effective and commonly used in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, long-term use of oxaliplatin usually induces significant drug resistance. It is urgent to develop strategies to reverse the oxaliplatin resistance to CRC cells. In the present study, we established the model of oxaliplatin-resistant CRC cell lines (SW480/R and HT29/R) through continuous treatment of SW480 and HT29 cells with oxaliplatin. Results of qRT-PCR analysis showed that expression of miR-19a was significantly increased in SW480/R and HT29/R compared to their parental SW480 and HT29. However, combination treatment with anti-miR-19a, an antisense oligonucleotide of miR-19a, was found to resensitize SW480/R and HT29/R cells to oxaliplatin treatment. In the mechanism research, we found that anti-miR-19a increased the expression of PTEN and thus inhibited the phosphorylation of PI3K and AKT in SW480/R and HT29/R cells. As a result, mitochondrial apoptosis induced by oxaliplatin was expanded. We demonstrated that PTEN was the target of miR-19a and inhibition of miR-19a partially reversed the resistance of colorectal cancer to oxaliplatin via PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway.
Project description:Background:Oxaliplatin is one kind of platinum-based drug. It is effective and commonly used in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, development of acquired drug resistance is still a big obstacle during the oxaliplatin therapy. It is urgent to take strategies to decrease the oxaliplatin resistance of CRC. Materials and Methods:Oxaliplatin-resistant HT29 and SW480 (HT29/R and SW480/R) cells were acquired through long-term exposure to oxaliplatin by using the routine HT29 and SW480 cells. Relative glucose consumption, lactate generation and LDH activity were tested to evaluate the glycolysis of CRC cell lines. MTT assays were conducted to evaluate the differences of oxaliplatin sensitivity between HT29/R (SW480/R) cells and their parental HT29 (SW480) cells. Regulation of miR-138 on PDK1 was confirmed through qRT-PCR, Western blot and dual-luciferase reporter assays. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured by flow cytometry. Results:HT29/R and SW480/R cells exhibited higher glucose consumption, lactate production and LDH activity compared to their parental HT29 and SW480 cells. However, oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in HT29/R and SW480/R cells is lower than that in HT29 and SW480 cells, respectively. Results of MTT assays showed that treatment with miR-138 can increase the cytotoxicity of oxaliplatin to HT29/R and SW480/R cells. Research on mechanisms showed that PDK1 was the target of miR-138. Overexpression of miR-138 can inhibit the expression of PDK1, and thus increase the OCR of HT29/R and SW480/R cells. Under the treatment of oxaliplatin, the miR-138-overexpressed HT29/R and SW480/R cells generated more amount of ROS to get into the apoptosis process. Conclusion:Overexpression of miR-138 suppressed the PDK1 expression to decrease the oxaliplatin resistance of CRC.
Project description:Chemoresistance is the main cause of treatment failure in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). However, molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain to be elucidated. In a previous work we identified low levels of PKM2 as a putative oxaliplatin-resistance marker in HT29 CRC cell lines and also in patients. In order to assess how PKM2 influences oxaliplatin response in CRC cells, we silenced PKM2 using specific siRNAs in HT29, SW480 and HCT116 cells. MTT test demonstrated that PKM2 silencing induced resistance in HT29 and SW480 cells and sensitivity in HCT116 cells. Same experiments in isogenic HCT116 p53 null cells and double silencing of p53 and PKM2 in HT29 cells failed to show an influence of p53. By using trypan blue stain and FITC-Annexin V/PI tests we detected that PKM2 knockdown was associated with an increase in cell viability but not with a decrease in apoptosis activation in HT29 cells. Fluorescence microscopy revealed PKM2 nuclear translocation in response to oxaliplatin in HCT116 and HT29 cells but not in OXA-resistant HTOXAR3 cells. Finally, by using a qPCR Array we demonstrated that oxaliplatin and PKM2 silencing altered cell death gene expression patterns including those of BMF, which was significantly increased in HT29 cells in response to oxaliplatin, in a dose and time-dependent manner, but not in siPKM2-HT29 and HTOXAR3 cells. BMF gene silencing in HT29 cells lead to a decrease in oxaliplatin-induced cell death. In conclusion, our data report new non-glycolytic roles of PKM2 in response to genotoxic damage and proposes BMF as a possible target gene of PKM2 to be involved in oxaliplatin response and resistance in CRC cells.
Project description:Our previous study demonstrated that miR-124 was downregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC) compared with normal mucosa, and the downregulated expression of miR-124 was an independent prognostic factor in CRC patients. However, the function of miR-124 in CRC patients treated with chemotherapy is currently unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the miR-124 expression and its regulative role in oxaliplatin (L-OHP)-based chemotherapy of CRC patients. We observed that low miR-124 expression was correlated with worse overall survival (OS) in the 220 patients who received postoperative chemotherapy of 5-fluorouracil [5-FU]+leucovorin+L-OHP (FOLFOX) or capecitabine+L-OHP (XELOX). miR-124 overexpression promoted L-OHP-induced, but not 5-FU-induced, cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HT29 and SW480 cells. CAPN2 was a direct target of miR-124, and its protein expression was reduced by forced expression of miR-124. miR-124 inhibited tumorigenesis and promoted OS of mice bearing xenograft tumors, especially upon L-OHP treatment. miR-124 also promoted L-OHP-induced apoptosis and restrained CAPN2 protein expression in xenograft tumors. Our results suggest that miR-124 could be considered as both a predictor of L-OHP-based chemotherapy for personalized treatment and a therapeutic target for CRC.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major threats to human health worldwide. In the treatment of CRC, chemoresistance affects the efficacy of platinum-based therapies. Oxaliplatin is one of the most commonly used first-line medications for the treatment of CRC; however, chemoresistance is common among patients receiving oxaliplatin treatment, which significantly decreases its therapeutic efficacy. The present study focused on the roles of microRNA (miR)-96 in the oxaliplatin resistance of CRC cells and the underlying mechanisms. First, the expression of miR-96 was compared between CRC and adjacent tissues. Furthermore, target genes of miR-96 were predicted, and a dual-luciferase reporter assay was employed to confirm whether the candidate tropomyosin 1 (TPM1) is a direct target of miR-96. In addition, CRC cells were transfected with miR-96 inhibitor, miR-negative control, small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting TPM1 or siRNA NC, and then treated with oxaliplatin. CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry were performed to examine the proliferation and apoptosis of the CRC cell line SW480. Next, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blot analysis were performed to determine the mRNA and/or protein levels of miR-96, Bcl-2, BAX and TPM1. The results indicated that miR-96 was upregulated in CRC compared with normal adjacent tissues, while TPM1 was downregulated. The luciferase activity was reduced following transfection with miR-96 mimics and luciferase reporter plasmid containing the wild-type sequence of the 3'-untranslated region of TPM1. Furthermore, knockdown of miR-96 combined with oxaliplatin reduced the viability and induced apoptosis of CRC cells, which was further verified by decreased expression of Bcl-2 and the increased expression of TPM1 and BAX. Taken together, the downregulation of miR-96 enhanced the sensitivity of CRC cells to oxaliplatin.
Project description:Most patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) eventually develop resistance to systemic combination therapy. miR-195-5p and miR-497-5p are downregulated in CRC tissues and associated with drug resistance. Sensitization to 5-FU, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan by transfection with miR-195-5p and miR-497-5p mimics was studied using cell viability and clonogenic assays in cell lines HCT116, RKO, DLD-1, and SW480. In addition, proteomic analysis of transfected cells was implemented to identify potential targets. Significantly altered proteins were subjected to STRING (protein-protein interaction networks) database analysis to study the potential mechanisms of drug resistance. Cell viability analysis of transfected cells revealed increased sensitivity to oxaliplatin in microsatellite instable (MSI)/P53 wild-type HCT116 and RKO cells. HCT116 transfected cells formed significantly fewer colonies when treated with oxaliplatin. In sensitized cells, proteomic analysis showed 158 and 202 proteins with significantly altered expression after transfection with miR-195-5p and miR-497-5p mimics respectively, of which CHUK and LUZP1 proved to be coinciding downregulated proteins. Resistance mechanisms of these proteins may be associated with nuclear factor kappa-B signaling and G1 cell-cycle arrest. In conclusion, miR-195-5p and miR-497-5p replacement enhanced sensitivity to oxaliplatin in treatment naïve MSI/P53 wild-type CRC cells. Proteomic analysis revealed potential miRNA targets associated with the cell-cycle which possibly bare a relation with chemotherapy sensitivity.
Project description:YB-1 is a multifunctional protein that affects transcription, splicing, and translation. Overexpression of YB-1 in breast cancers causes cisplatin resistance. Recent data have shown that YB-1 is also overexpress in colorectal cancer. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that YB-1 also confers oxaliplatin resistance in colorectal adenocarcinomas.We show for the first time that transfection of YB-1 cDNA confers oxaliplatin resistance in two colorectal cancer cell lines (SW480 and HT29 cell lines). Furthermore, we identified by mass spectrometry analyses important YB-1 interactors required for such oxaliplatin resistance in these colorectal cancer cell lines. A tagged YB-1 construct was used to identify proteins interacting directly to YB-1 in such cells. We then focused on proteins that are potentially involved in colorectal cancer progression based on the Oncomine microarray database. Genes encoding for these YB-1 interactors were also examined in the public NCBI comparative genomic hybridization database to determine whether these genes are localized to regions of chromosomes rearranged in colorectal cancer tissues. From these analyses, we obtained a list of proteins interacting with YB-1 and potentially involved in oxaliplatin resistance. Oxaliplatin dose response curves of SW480 and HT29 colorectal cancer cell lines transfected with several siRNAs corresponding to each of these YB-1 interactors were obtained to identify proteins significantly affecting oxaliplatin sensitivity upon gene silencing. Only the depletion of either NONO or RALY sensitized both colorectal cancer cell lines to oxaliplatin. Furthermore, depletion of NONO or RALY sensitized otherwise oxaliplatin resistant overexpressing YB-1 SW480 or HT29 cells.These results suggest knocking down NONO or RALY significant counteracts oxaliplatin resistance in colorectal cancers overexpressing the YB-1 protein.
Project description:miRNAs have been implicated in processing of cardiac hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced injury. Recent studies demonstrated that miR-19a might provide a potential cardioprotective effect on myocardial disease. However, the effect of miR-19a in regulating myocardial ischemic injury has not been previously addressed. The present study was to investigate the effect of miR-19a on myocardial ischemic injury and identified the potential molecular mechanisms involved. Using the H/R model of rat cardiomyocytes H9C2 in vitro, we found that miR-19a was in low expression in H9C2 cells after H/R treatment and H/R dramatically decreased cardiomyocyte viability, and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which were attenuated by co-transfection with miR-19a mimic. Dual-luciferase reporter assay and Western blotting assay revealed that PTEN was a direct target gene of miR-19a, and miR-19a suppressed the expression of PTEN via binding to its 3'-UTR. We further identified that overexpression of miR-19a inhibited the expression of PTEN at the mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, PTEN was highly expressed in H/R H9C2 cells and the apoptosis induced by H/R was associated with the increase in PTEN expression. Importantly, miR-19a mimic significantly increased p-Akt levels under H/R. In conclusion, our findings indicate that miR-19a could protect against H/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by inhibiting PTEN /PI3K/p-Akt signaling pathway.
Project description:We have shown earlier that inhibition of aldose reductase (AR), an oxidative stress-response protein, prevents colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Changes in microribonucleic acid (miR) expression can contribute to cancer by modulating the functional expression of critical genes involved in cancer growth and metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which AR regulates miR expression and their dependent mitogenic effects in cancer cells are not known. Therefore, we investigated how AR regulates growth factor-induced expression of miRs and growth of colon cancer cells.Inhibition of AR significantly downregulated growth factor-induced miR-21 expression in human colon cancer cells, HT29, SW480, and Caco-2. Further, AR inhibition also increased phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) (a direct target of miR-21) and forkhead box O3A (FOXO3a) in colon cancer cells. Our results obtained with HT29 cells ablated with FOXO3a siRNA showed increased activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation and miR-21 expression, indicating that FOXO3a represses miR-21 via AP-1 inactivation. Inhibition of AR also prevented the epidermal growth factor-induced phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), serine/threonine kinase (AKT), c-Jun, c-Fos, PTEN, and FOXO3a, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-binding activity of AP-1. More importantly, in human colon adenocarcinoma xenograft tissues, miR-21 expression was lower, and PTEN and FOXO3a levels were significantly higher in AR inhibitor-treated mice compared to controls.These findings demonstrate a novel role of AR in the regulation of miR-21 and its target PTEN in growth factor-induced colon cancer cell growth.Collectively, these results show a novel role of AR in mediation of growth factor-induced colon cancer growth by modulating miR-21, PTEN, and FOXO3a expression through reactive oxygen species (ROS)/PI3K/AKT/AP-1.
Project description:Patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) are commonly treated with systemic combination therapy but suffer eventually from drug resistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are suggested to play a role in treatment resistance of CRC. We studied whether restoring downregulated miR-195-5p and 497-5p sensitize CRC cells to currently used chemotherapeutics 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin and irinotecan. Sensitivity to 5-FU, oxaliplatin and irinotecan before and after transfection with miR-195-5p and miR-497-5p mimics was analyzed in CRC cell lines HCT116, RKO, DLD-1 and SW480. Mass spectrometry based proteomic analysis of transfected and wild-type cells was used to identify targets involved in sensitivity to chemotherapy. Proteomic analysis revealed 181 proteins with significantly altered expression after transfection with miR-195-5p mimic in HCT116 and RKO, including 118 downregulated and 63 upregulated proteins. After transfection with miR-497-5p mimic, 130 proteins were significantly downregulated and 102 were upregulated in HCT116 and RKO (P<0.05 and FC<-3 or FC>3). CHUK and LUZP1 were coinciding downregulated proteins in sensitized CRC cells after transfection with either mimic. Resistance mechanisms of these two proteins may be related to nuclear factor kappa-B signaling and G1 cell cycle arrest, respectively. Restoring miR-195-5p and miR-497-5p expression enhanced sensitivity to chemotherapy, mainly oxaliplatin, in CRC cells and could be a promising treatment strategy for patients with mCRC. Proteomics revealed potential targets of these miRNAs involved in sensitivity to chemotherapy.
Project description:MiR-19a, a member of mir-17-92 microRNA clusters, has been demonstrated to promote cell proliferation and angiogenesis via regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway, the major insulin signaling pathway. However, whether miR-19a plays an important role in glycogen synthesis in hepatocytes remains unknown. Here, we define the impact of miR-19a on glycogen synthesis and IL-6-induced reduced glycogenesis in hepatocytes and its underlying mechanisms. Our studies indicate that miR-19a was down-regulated in the livers of db/db mice and mice injected with IL-6, as well as mouse NCTC 1469 hepatocytes and HEP 1-6 hepatocytes treated by IL-6. We found that over-expression of miR-19a in NCTC 1469 cells and HEP 1-6 cells led to increased activation of the AKT/GSK pathway and synthesis of glycogen, whereas down-regulation of miR-19a impaired AKT/GSK phosphorylation and glycogenesis. Over-expression of miR-19a ameliorated IL-6-induced reduced glycogen synthesis in hepatocytes. Moreover, we identified PTEN as the target of miR-19a by a luciferase assay. Down-regulation of PTEN rescued the effects of miR-19a suppression on the activation of the AKT/GSK pathway and improved glycogenesis in NTC 1469 cells. These findings show for the first time that miR-19a might activate the AKT/GSK pathway and glycogenesis via down-regulation of PTEN expression.