Data of the design of solar assisted district cooling systems.
ABSTRACT: The collected datasets are relevant and related to Optimization of Design and Operation of Solar Assisted District Cooling Systems  paper. Part of the data is collected on the main and common components of the system. That includes solar collectors unit price ($/m2), type, and efficiency; absorption chiller capacity (kW), type, initial cost ($), and COP; the hot/chilled water thermal energy storage tank type, initial cost ($) and capacity (kWh); and auxiliary boiler initial cost ($), capacity (kW), type and efficiency. The other part of the data is collected on hourly cooling demand over the year for the state of Qatar (kW), hourly global solar irradiance over the year for the state of Qatar (W/m2) and variable cost of producing and storing chilled and hot water ($/kWh, $/kW). The data are collected from different resources such as government websites, commercial websites, government sectors, journals and real-life case studies. The value of this data comes from that most of the data required to conduct such research in this area are available in one resource. Also, some of the data such as the annual hourly cooling demand and global solar radiation are not available online. Moreover, the collected data are already filtered and the units are consistent and ready to be used. Finally, the data considered to be crucial and the core of such research are available in this paper.
Project description:We use 36 years (1980-2015) of hourly weather data over the contiguous United States (CONUS) to assess the impact of low-cost energy storage on highly reliable electricity systems that use only variable renewable energy (VRE; wind and solar photovoltaics). Even assuming perfect transmission of wind and solar generation aggregated over CONUS, energy storage costs would need to decrease several hundred-fold from current costs (to ?$1/kWh) in fully VRE electricity systems to yield highly reliable electricity without extensive curtailment of VRE generation. The role of energy storage changes from high-cost storage competing with curtailment to fill short-term gaps between VRE generation and hourly demand to near-free storage serving as seasonal storage for VRE resources. Energy storage faces "double penalties" in VRE/storage systems: with increasing capacity, (1) the additional storage is used less frequently and (2) hourly electricity costs would become less volatile, thus reducing price arbitrage opportunities for the additional storage.
Project description:Adsorption-driven heat transfer technology using water as working fluid is a promising eco-friendly strategy to address the exponential increase of global energy demands for cooling and heating purposes. Here we present the water sorption properties of a porous aluminum carboxylate metal-organic framework, [Al(OH)(C6H3NO4)]·nH2O, KMF-1, discovered by a joint computational predictive and experimental approaches, which exhibits step-like sorption isotherms, record volumetric working capacity (0.36?mL?mL-1) and specific energy capacity (263 kWh m-3) under cooling working conditions, very high coefficient of performances of 0.75 (cooling) and 1.74 (heating) together with low driving temperature below 70?°C which allows the exploitation of solar heat, high cycling stability and remarkable heat storage capacity (348 kWh m-3). This level of performances makes this porous material as a unique and ideal multi-purpose water adsorbent to tackle the challenges of thermal energy storage and its further efficient exploitation for both cooling and heating applications.
Project description:Water distillation with solar thermal technology could be one of the most promising way to address the global freshwater scarcity, with its low cost and minimum environmental impacts. However, the low liquid water productivity, which is caused by the heat loss and inadequate heat utilization in solar-thermal conversion process, hinders its practical application. Here, a compact solar-thermal membrane distillation system with three structure features: highly localized solar-thermal heating, effective cooling strategy, and recycling the latent heat, is proposed. The steam generation rate is 0.98 kg m-2 h-1 under solar illumination of 1 kW m-2 in the open system, while the liquid water productivity could be 1.02 kg m-2 h-1 with the solar efficiency up to 72% with a two-level device. The outdoor experiments show a water productivity of 3.67 kg m-2 with salt rejection over 99.75% in one cloudy day. These results demonstrate an easy and high-efficiency way for water distillation, especially suitable for household solar water purification.
Project description:This article contains the average daily electric load profile (for 24 h of the day) for the five categories of residential buildings (duplex, single family bungalow, traditional court yard, flat/apartment dwelling and 'face-me-I-face-you') in three Local Government Areas (LGAs) of the state of Lagos, Nigeria. In each of the LGAs, 10 buildings per residential building type were surveyed for the collection of data with the aid of a questionnaire. In each surveyed household, a household member completed the energy audit section of the questionnaire with the assistance of the questionnaire administrator while the section of the questionnaire designed as a time-of-use diary was left with the household for completion. For each building surveyed, the data retrieved from the completed time-of-use diary was used in Microsoft Excel for computing the hourly electricity load profile for the seven days of the week. In order to obtain the hourly energy load (in watts) for each building, the power rating of the appliances used during each of the 24 h of the day was summed and the result in watts was converted to kWh by dividing by 1000. Each dwelling's daily load profile was obtained as an average of the load profile for the seven days of the week. The article as well provides data on the solar photovoltaic systems' components designed to supply electricity to the building and the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of the systems for the base case scenario and different sensitivity cases obtained from simulations using HOMER Pro. The load profile data provided in this article can be reused by other researchers in the design of solar photovoltaic systems for residential buildings.
Project description:Large-scale U.S. dependence on thermoelectric (steam electric) generation requiring water for cooling underscores the need to understand controls on this water use. The study objective was to quantify water consumption and withdrawal for thermoelectric generation, identifying controls, using Texas as a case study. Water consumption for thermoelectricity in Texas in 2010 totaled ?0.43 million acre feet (maf; 0.53 km(3)), accounting for ?4% of total state water consumption. High water withdrawals (26.2 maf, 32.3 km(3)) mostly reflect circulation between ponds and power plants, with only two-thirds of this water required for cooling. Controls on water consumption include (1) generator technology/thermal efficiency and (2) cooling system, resulting in statewide consumption intensity for natural gas combined cycle generators with mostly cooling towers (0.19 gal/kWh) being 63% lower than that of traditional coal, nuclear, or natural gas steam turbine generators with mostly cooling ponds (0.52 gal/kWh). The primary control on water withdrawals is cooling system, with ?2 orders of magnitude lower withdrawals for cooling towers relative to once-through ponds statewide. Increases in natural gas combined cycle plants with cooling towers in response to high production of low-cost natural gas has greatly reduced water demand for thermoelectric cooling since 2000.
Project description:Inspired by lotus leaves, self-floating Janus cotton fabric is successfully fabricated for solar steam generation with salt-rejecting property. The layer-selective soot-deposited fabrics not only act as a solar absorber but also provide the required superhydrophobicity for floating on the water. With a polyester protector, the prepared Janus evaporator exhibits a sustainable evaporation rate of 1.375 kW m<sup>-2</sup> h<sup>-1</sup> and an efficiency of 86.3% under 1 sun (1 kW m<sup>-2</sup>) and also performs well under low intensity and inclined radiation. Furthermore, no special apparatus and/or tedious processes are needed for preparing this device. With a cost of less than $1 per m<sup>2</sup>, this flexible Janus absorber is a promising tool for portable solar vapor generator.
Project description:This paper describes an open data set of 3,053 energy meters from 1,636 non-residential buildings with a range of two full years (2016 and 2017) at an hourly frequency (17,544 measurements per meter resulting in approximately 53.6 million measurements). These meters were collected from 19 sites across North America and Europe, with one or more meters per building measuring whole building electrical, heating and cooling water, steam, and solar energy as well as water and irrigation meters. Part of these data was used in the Great Energy Predictor III (GEPIII) competition hosted by the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) in October-December 2019. GEPIII was a machine learning competition for long-term prediction with an application to measurement and verification. This paper describes the process of data collection, cleaning, and convergence of time-series meter data, the meta-data about the buildings, and complementary weather data. This data set can be used for further prediction benchmarking and prototyping as well as anomaly detection, energy analysis, and building type classification.
Project description:Demonstrations of passive daytime radiative cooling have primarily relied on complex and costly spectrally selective nanophotonic structures with high emissivity in the transparent atmospheric spectral window and high reflectivity in the solar spectrum. Here, we show a directional approach to passive radiative cooling that exploits the angular confinement of solar irradiation in the sky to achieve sub-ambient cooling during the day regardless of the emitter properties in the solar spectrum. We experimentally demonstrate this approach using a setup comprising a polished aluminum disk that reflects direct solar irradiation and a white infrared-transparent polyethylene convection cover that minimizes diffuse solar irradiation. Measurements performed around solar noon show a minimum temperature of 6?°C below ambient temperature and maximum cooling power of 45 W?m-2. Our passive cooling approach, realized using commonly available low-cost materials, could improve the performance of existing cooling systems and enable next-generation thermal management and refrigeration solutions.
Project description:Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are promising candidates for the next generation of solar cells because they are easy to fabricate and have high power conversion efficiencies. However, there has been no detailed analysis of the cost of PSC modules. We selected two representative examples of PSCs and performed a cost analysis of their productions: one was a moderate-efficiency module produced from cheap materials, and the other was a high-efficiency module produced from expensive materials. The costs of both modules were found to be lower than those of other photovoltaic technologies. We used the calculated module costs to estimate the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of PSCs. The LCOE was calculated to be 3.5-4.9 US cents/kWh with an efficiency and lifetime of greater than 12% and 15 years respectively, below the cost of traditional energy sources.
Project description:The challenge in solar energy today is not the cost of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation, already competing with fossil fuel prices, but rather utility-scale energy storage and flexibility in supply. Low-cost thermal energy storage (TES) exists but relies on expensive heat engines. Here, we introduce the concept of luminescent solar power (LSP), where sunlight is absorbed in a photoluminescent (PL) absorber, followed by red-shifted PL emission matched to an adjacent PV cell's band edge. This way the PV cell operates nearly as efficiently as under direct illumination but with minimal excessive heat. The PL absorber temperature rises because of thermalization, allowing it to store the excessive heat, which can later be converted into electricity. Tailored luminescent materials that support an additional 1.5 kW h PV electricity for every 1 kW h of (virtual) heat engine electricity with a dynamic shift between the two sources are experimentally demonstrated. Such an ideal hybrid system may lead to a potential reduction in the cost of electricity for a base-load solution.