Evaluation of Downstream Processing, Extraction, and Quantification Strategies for Single Cell Oil Produced by the Oleaginous Yeasts Saitozyma podzolica DSM 27192 and Apiotrichum porosum DSM 27194.
ABSTRACT: Single cell oil (SCO) produced by oleaginous yeasts is considered as a sustainable source for biodiesel and oleochemicals since its production does not compete with food or feed and high yields can be obtained from a wide variety of carbon sources, e.g., acetate or lignocellulose. Downstream processing is still costly preventing the broader application of SCO. Direct transesterification of freeze-dried biomass is widely used for analytical purposes and for biodiesel production but it is energy intensive and, therefore, expensive. Additionally, only fatty acid esters are produced limiting the subsequent applications. The harsh conditions applied during direct esterification might also damage high-value polyunsaturated fatty acids. Unfortunately, universal downstream strategies effective for all yeast species do not exist and methods have to be developed for each yeast species due to differences in cell wall composition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate three industrially relevant cell disruption methods combined with three extraction systems for the SCO extraction of two novel, unconventional oleaginous yeasts, Saitozyma podzolica DSM 27192 and Apiotrichum porosum DSM 27194, based on cell disruption efficiency, lipid yield, and oil quality. Bead milling (BM) and high pressure homogenization (HPH) were effective cell disruption methods in contrast to sonification. By combining HPH (95% cell disruption efficiency) with ethanol-hexane-extraction 46.9 ± 4.4% lipid/CDW of S. podzolica were obtained which was 2.7 times higher than with the least suitable combination (ultrasound + Folch). A. porosum was less affected by cell disruption attempts. Here, the highest disruption efficiency was 74% after BM and the most efficient lipid recovery method was direct acidic transesterification (27.2 ± 0.5% fatty acid methyl esters/CDW) after freeze drying. The study clearly indicates cell disruption is the decisive step for SCO extraction. At disruption efficiencies of >90%, lipids can be extracted at high yields, whereas at lower cell disruption efficiencies, considerable amounts of lipids will not be accessible for extraction regardless of the solvents used. Furthermore, it was shown that hexane-ethanol which is commonly used for extraction of algal lipids is also highly efficient for yeasts.
Project description:Here, we report draft genome sequence of oleaginous yeast strain <i>Saitozyma</i> sp. JCM 24511, which is phylogenetically closely related to <i>Saitozyma podzolica</i> These data will have implications not only for the study of the oleaginous activities of yeasts but also for the study of the plant-microorganism microbiome.
Project description:We report here the draft genome of Saitozyma podzolica DSM 27192 sequenced based on PacBio chemistry. This yeast isolate produces large amounts of single-cell oil (SCO) and gluconic acid (GA). Information from the genome sequence will provide additional insight into the genetic mechanism of SCO and GA metabolism in this organism.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Single cell oils (SCOs) accumulated by oleaginous fungi have emerged as a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. Though fungi from mangrove ecosystem have been reported for production of several lignocellulolytic enzymes, they remain unexplored for their SCO producing ability. Thus, these oleaginous fungi from the mangrove ecosystem could be suitable candidates for production of SCOs from lignocellulosic biomass. The accumulation of lipids being species specific, strain selection is critical and therefore, it is of importance to evaluate the fungal diversity of mangrove wetlands. The whole cells of these fungi were investigated with respect to oleaginicity, cell mass, lipid content, fatty acid methyl ester profiles and physicochemical properties of transesterified SCOs in order to explore their potential for biodiesel production. RESULTS: In the present study, 14 yeasts and filamentous fungi were isolated from the detritus based mangrove wetlands along the Indian west coast. Nile red staining revealed that lipid bodies were present in 5 of the 14 fungal isolates. Lipid extraction showed that these fungi were able to accumulate?>?20% (w/w) of their dry cell mass (4.14 - 6.44?g?L-1) as lipids with neutral lipid as the major fraction. The profile of transesterified SCOs revealed a high content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids i.e., palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0) and oleic (C18:1) acids similar to conventional vegetable oils used for biodiesel production. The experimentally determined and predicted biodiesel properties for 3 fungal isolates correlated well with the specified standards. Isolate IBB M1, with the highest SCO yield and containing high amounts of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid was identified as Aspergillus terreus using morphotaxonomic study and 18?S rRNA gene sequencing. Batch flask cultures with varying initial glucose concentration revealed that maximal cell biomass and lipid content were obtained at 30gL-1. The strain was able to utilize cheap renewable substrates viz., sugarcane bagasse, grape stalk, groundnut shells and cheese whey for SCO production. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that SCOs of oleaginous fungi from the mangrove wetlands of the Indian west coast could be used as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production with Aspergillus terreus IBB M1 as a promising candidate.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Oleaginous filamentous fungi can accumulate large amount of cellular lipids and potentially serve as a major source of oleochemicals for food, feed, chemical, pharmaceutical, and transport industries. Transesterification of microbial oils is an essential step in microbial lipid production at both laboratory and industrial scale. Direct transesterification can considerably reduce costs, increase sample throughput and improve lipid yields (in particular fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs). There is a need for the assessment of the direct transesterification methods on a biomass of filamentous fungi due to their unique properties, specifically resilient cell wall and wide range of lipid content and composition. In this study we have evaluated and optimised three common direct transesterification methods and assessed their suitability for processing of fungal biomass.<h4>Results</h4>The methods, based on hydrochloric acid (Lewis method), sulphuric acid (Wahlen method), and acetyl chloride (Lepage method), were evaluated on six different strains of Mucoromycota fungi by using different internal standards for gas chromatography measurements. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used for the detection of residual lipids in the biomass after the transesterification reaction/extraction, while transesterification efficiency was evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results show that the majority of lipids, in particular triglycerides, were extracted for all methods, though several methods had substandard transesterification yields. Lewis method, optimised with respect to solvent to co-solvent ratio and reaction time, as well as Lepage method, offer precise estimate of FAME-based lipids in fungal biomass.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The results show that Lepage and Lewis methods are suitable for lipid analysis of oleaginous filamentous fungi. The significant difference in lipid yields results, obtained by optimised and standard Lewis methods, indicates that some of the previously reported lipid yields for oleaginous filamentous fungi must be corrected upwards. The study demonstrates value of biomass monitoring by FTIR, importance of optimal solvent to co-solvent ratio, as well as careful selection and implementation of internal standards for gas chromatography.
Project description:Due to the depletion of fossil fuel resources and concern about increasing atmospheric CO2 levels, the production of microbial oil as source for energy and chemicals is considered as a sustainable alternative. A promising candidate strain for the production of microbial oil is the oleaginous yeast Schwanniomyces occidentalis CBS 2864. To compete with fossil resources, cultivation and processing of S. occidentalis requires improvement. Currently, different cell wall disruption techniques based on mechanical, chemical, physiological, and biological methods are being investigated using a variety of oil producing yeasts and microalgae. Most of these techniques are not suitable for upscaling because they are technically or energetically unfavorable. Therefore, new techniques have to be developed to overcome this challenge. Here, we demonstrate an effective mild enzymatic approach for cell disruption to facilitate lipid extraction from the oleaginous yeast S. occidentalis. Most oil was released by applying 187 mg L-1 tailor-made enzymes from Trichoderma harzianum CBS 146429 against the yeast cell wall of S. occidentalis at pH 5.0 and 40 °C with 4 h of incubation time after applying 1 M NaOH as a pretreatment step.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Crude glycerol (CG) and hemicellulose hydrolysate (HH) are low-value side-products of biodiesel transesterification and pulp-and paper industry or lignocellulosic ethanol production, respectively, which can be converted to microbial lipids by oleaginous yeasts. This study aimed to test the ability of oleaginous yeasts to utilise CG and HH and mixtures of them as carbon source.<h4>Results</h4>Eleven out of 27 tested strains of oleaginous yeast species were able to grow in plate tests on CG as sole carbon source. Among them, only one ascomycetous strain, belonging to Lipomyces starkeyi, was identified, the other 10 strains were Rhodotorula spec. When yeasts were cultivated in mixed CG/ HH medium, we observed an activation of glycerol conversion in the Rhodotorula strains, but not in L. starkeyi. Two strains-Rhodotorula toruloides CBS 14 and Rhodotorula glutinis CBS 3044 were further tested in controlled fermentations in bioreactors in different mixtures of CG and HH. The highest measured average biomass and lipid concentration were achieved with R. toruloides in 10% HH medium mixed with 55 g/L CG-19.4 g/L and 10.6 g/L, respectively, with a lipid yield of 0.25 g lipids per consumed g of carbon source. Fatty acid composition was similar to other R. toruloides strains and comparable to that of vegetable oils.<h4>Conclusions</h4>There were big strain differences in the ability to convert CG to lipids, as only few of the tested strains were able to grow. Lipid production rates and yields showed that mixing GC and HH have a stimulating effect on lipid accumulation in R. toruloides and R. glutinis resulting in shortened fermentation time to reach maximum lipid concentration, which provides a new perspective on converting these low-value compounds to microbial lipids.
Project description:Oleaginous microorganisms, such as different yeast and algal species, can represent a sustainable alternative to plant oil for the production of biodiesel. They can accumulate fatty acids (FA) up to 70% of their dry weight with a predominance of (mono)unsaturated species, similarly to what plants do, but differently from animals. In addition, their growth is not in competition either with food, feed crops, or with agricultural land.Despite these advantages, the exploitation of the single cell oil system is still at an early developmental stage. Cultivation mode and conditions, as well as lipid extraction technologies, represent the main limitations. The monitoring of lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms is consequently crucial to develop and validate new approaches, but at present the majority of the available techniques is time consuming, invasive and, when relying on lipid extraction, can be affected by FA degradation.In this work the fatty acid accumulation of the oleaginous yeasts Cryptococcus curvatus and Rhodosporidium toruloides and of the non-oleaginous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (as a negative control) was monitored in situ by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Indeed, this spectroscopic tool can provide complementary information to those obtained by classical techniques, such as microscopy, flow cytometry and gas chromatography. As shown in this work, through the analysis of the absorption spectra of intact oleaginous microorganisms it is possible not only to monitor the progression of FA accumulation but also to identify the most represented classes of the produced lipids.Here we propose FTIR microspectroscopy - supported by multivariate analysis - as a fast, reliable and non invasive method to monitor and analyze FA accumulation in intact oleaginous yeasts. The results obtained by the FTIR approach were in agreement with those obtained by the other classical methods like flow cytometry and gas chromatography. Moreover, the possibility to track lipid production in real time is highly desirable to support the initial screening of strains and media as well as to optimize the scaling up experiments, which are essential for a viable and successful development of an industrial production process.
Project description:To assess whether Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy could be used to evaluate and monitor lipid extraction processes, the extraction methods of Folch, Bligh and Lewis were used. Biomass of the oleaginous fungi Mucor circinelloides and Mortierella alpina were employed as lipid-rich material for the lipid extraction. The presence of lipids was determined by recording infrared spectra of all components in the lipid extraction procedure, such as the biomass before and after extraction, the water and extract phases. Infrared spectra revealed the incomplete extraction after all three extraction methods applied to M.circinelloides and it was shown that mechanical disruption using bead beating and HCl treatment were necessary to complete the extraction in this species. FTIR spectroscopy was used to identify components, such as polyphosphates, that may have negatively affected the extraction process and resulted in differences in extraction efficiency between M.circinelloides and M.alpina. Residual lipids could not be detected in the infrared spectra of M.alpina biomass after extraction using the Folch and Lewis methods, indicating their complete lipid extraction in this species. Bligh extraction underestimated the fatty acid content of both M.circinelloides and M.alpina biomass and an increase in the initial solvent-to-sample ratio (from 3:1 to 20:1) was needed to achieve complete extraction and a lipid-free IR spectrum. In accordance with previous studies, the gravimetric lipid yield was shown to overestimate the potential of the SCO producers and FAME quantification in GC-FID was found to be the best-suited method for lipid quantification. We conclude that FTIR spectroscopy can serve as a tool for evaluating the lipid extraction efficiency, in addition to identifying components that may affect lipid extraction processes.
Project description:Lipase B from Candida antarctica (CAL-B) is largely employed as a biocatalyst for hydrolysis, esterification, and transesterification reactions. CAL-B is a good model enzyme to study factors affecting the enzymatic structure, activity and/or stability after an immobilization process. In this study, we analyzed the immobilization of CAL-B enzyme on different magnetic nanoparticles, synthesized by the coprecipitation method inside inverse micelles made of zwitterionic surfactants, with distinct carbon chain length: 4 (ImS4), 10 (ImS10) and 18 (ImS18) carbons. Magnetic nanoparticles ImS4 and ImS10 were shown to cross-link to CAL-B enzyme via a Michael-type addition, whereas particles with ImS18 were bond via pyridine formation after glutaraldehyde cross-coupling. Interestingly, the Michael-type cross-linking generated less stable immobilized CAL-B, revealing the influence of a cross-linking mode on the resulting biocatalyst behavior. Curiously, a direct correlation between nanoparticle agglomerate sizes and CAL-B enzyme reuse stability was observed. Moreover, free CAL-B enzyme was not able to catalyze transesterification due to the high methanol concentration; however, the immobilized CAL-B enzyme reached yields from 79.7 to 90% at the same conditions. In addition, the transesterification of lipids isolated from oleaginous yeasts achieved 89% yield, which confirmed the potential of immobilized CAL-B enzyme in microbial production of biodiesel.
Project description:Carotenogenic yeasts are non-conventional oleaginous microorganisms capable of utilizing various waste substrates. In this work, four red yeast strains (Rhodotorula, Cystofilobasidium, and Sporobolomyces sp.) were cultivated in media containing crude, emulsified, and enzymatically hydrolyzed animal waste fat, compared with glucose and glycerol, as single C-sources. Cell morphology (cryo-SEM (cryo-scanning electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy)), production of biomass, lipase, biosurfactants, lipids (gas chromatography/flame ionization detection, GC/FID) carotenoids, ubiquinone, and ergosterol (high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC/PDA) in yeast cells was studied depending on the medium composition, the C source, and the carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio. All studied strains are able to utilize solid and processed fat. Biomass production at C/N = 13 was higher on emulsified/hydrolyzed fat than on glucose/glycerol. The production of lipids and lipidic metabolites was enhanced for several times on fat; the highest yields of carotenoids (24.8 mg/L) and lipids (54.5%/CDW (cell dry weight)) were found in S. pararoseus. Simultaneous induction of lipase and biosurfactants was observed on crude fat substrate. An increased C/N ratio (13-100) led to higher biomass production in fat media. The production of total lipids increased in all strains to C/N = 50. Oppositely, the production of carotenoids, ubiquinone, and ergosterol dramatically decreased with increased C/N in all strains. Compounds accumulated in stressed red yeasts have a great application potential and can be produced efficiently during the valorization of animal waste fat under the biorefinery concept.