Initial success in the identification and management of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) indicates human-to-human transmission in Wuhan, China.
ABSTRACT: Coronavirus (CoV) has been one of the major pandemic threats to human health in the last two decades. The human coronavirus was first identified in 1960s. CoVs 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV have caused numerous disasters or human deaths worldwide. Recently, an outbreak of the previously unknown deadly CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2, early named 2019-nCoV) occurred in Wuhan, China, and it had caused 81238 cases of confirmed infection, including 3250 deaths until March 19, 2020. Its risks and pandemic potential have brought global consideration. We summarized epidemiology, virological characteristics, clinical symptoms, diagnostic methods, clinical treatments, and prevention methods for COVID-19 to present a reference for the future wave of probable CoV outbreaks.
Project description:The devastating effects of the recent global pandemic (termed COVID-19 for "coronavirus disease 2019") caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) are paramount with new cases and deaths growing at an exponential rate. In order to provide a better understanding of SARS CoV-2, this article will review the proteins found in the SARS CoV-2 that caused this global pandemic.
Project description:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral pneumonia, responsible for the recent pandemic, and originated from Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The causative agent of the outbreak was identified as coronavirus and designated as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2). Few years back, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS- CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) were reported to be highly pathogenic and caused severe infections in humans. In the current situation SARS-CoV-2 has become the third highly pathogenic coronavirus that is responsible for the present outbreak in human population. At the time of this review, there were more than 14 007 791 confirmed COVID-19 patients which associated with over 597 105 deaths in more then 216 countries across the globe (as reported by World Health Organization). In this review we have discussed about SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARC-CoV-2, their reservoirs, role of spike proteins and immunogenicity. We have also covered the diagnosis, therapeutics and vaccine status of SARS-CoV-2.
Project description:Since December 2019, the global pandemic caused by the highly infectious novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV (COVID-19) has been rapidly spreading. As of April 2020, the outbreak has spread to over 210 countries, with over 2,400,000 confirmed cases and over 170,000 deaths.1 COVID-19 causes a severe pneumonia characterized by fever, cough and shortness of breath. Similar coronavirus outbreaks have occurred in the past causing severe pneumonia like COVID-19, most recently, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). However, over time, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV were shown to cause extrapulmonary signs and symptoms including hepatitis, acute renal failure, encephalitis, myositis and gastroenteritis. Similarly, sporadic reports of COVID-19 related extrapulmonary manifestations emerge. Unfortunately, there is no comprehensive summary of the multiorgan manifestations of COVID-19, making it difficult for clinicians to quickly educate themselves about this highly contagious and deadly pathogen. What is more, is that SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV are the closest humanity has come to combating something similar to COVID-19, however, there exists no comparison between the manifestations of any of these novel coronaviruses. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the manifestations of the novel coronaviruses SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and COVID-19, with a particular focus on the latter, and highlight their differences and similarities.
Project description:SARS-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infectious respiratory disease causing thousands of deaths and overwhelming public health systems. The international spread of SARS-CoV-2 is associated with the ease of global travel, and societal dynamics, immunologic naiveté of the host population, and muted innate immune responses. Based on these factors and the expanding geographic scale of the disease, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic-the first caused by a coronavirus. In this review, we summarize the current epidemiological status of COVID-19 and consider the virological and immunological lessons, animal models, and tools developed in response to prior SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV outbreaks that can serve as resources for development of SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics and vaccines. In particular, we discuss structural insights into the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, a major determinant of transmissibility, and discuss key molecular aspects that will aid in understanding and fighting this new global threat.
Project description:Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has infected over 3 million people worldwide and caused over 200,000 deaths since it emerged in late 2019. There is an urgent need to develop therapies that can limit SARS-CoV-2 infection, replication, and pathogenesis. Due to the rapid emergence of SARS-CoV-2, there currently exists a lack in the knowledge of the host cellular pathways that sustain infection and contribute to pathogenesis. Here, we present a quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics survey of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero-E6 cells.
Project description:The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected over 7.1 million people and led to over 0.4 million deaths. Currently, there is no specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 medication. New drug discovery typically takes more than 10 years. Drug repositioning becomes one of the most feasible approaches for combating COVID-19. This work curates the largest available experimental data set for SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV 3CL (main) protease inhibitors. On the basis of this data set, we develop validated machine learning models with relatively low root-mean-square error to screen 1553 FDA-approved drugs as well as another 7012 investigational or off-market drugs in DrugBank. We found that many existing drugs might be potentially potent to SARS-CoV-2. The druggability of many potent SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease inhibitors is analyzed. This work offers a foundation for further experimental studies of COVID-19 drug repositioning.
Project description:Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, was identified in late 2019 and went on to cause over 3.3 million deaths in 15 months. To date, targeted antiviral interventions against COVID-19 are limited. The spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection ranges from asymptomatic to fatal disease. However, the reasons for varying outcomes to SARS-CoV-2 infection are yet to be elucidated. Here we show that an endogenously activated interferon lambda (IFNλ) pathway leads to resistance against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using a well-differentiated primary nasal epithelial cell (WD-PNEC) model from multiple adult donors, we discovered that susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, but not respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, varied. One of four donors was resistant to SARS-CoV-2 infection. High baseline IFNλ expression levels and associated interferon stimulated genes correlated with resistance to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Inhibition of the JAK/STAT pathway in WD-PNECs with high endogenous IFNλ secretion resulted in higher SARS-CoV-2 titres. Conversely, prophylactic IFNλ treatment of WD-PNECs susceptible to infection resulted in reduced viral titres. An endogenously activated IFNλ response, possibly due to genetic differences, may be one explanation for the differences in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans. Overall design: Well-differentiated primary nasal epithelial cells from different human healthy donors were mock-infected and infected with SARS-CoV-2 and gene expression was measured and compared at 48 hours and 96 hours post infection
Project description:After the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in November 2002, coronaviruses (CoVs) received worldwide attention. On December 1, 2019, the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), was reported in Wuhan, China, and CoVs returned to public view. On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the COVID-19 epidemic is a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC), and on March 11, 2020, the WHO classified COVID-19 as a pandemic disease. As of July 31, 2020, COVID-19 has affected 216 countries and regions, with 17,064,064 confirmed cases and 668,073 deaths, and the number of new cases has been increasing daily. Additionally, on March 19, 2020, there were no new confirmed cases in China, providing hope and valuable experience for the international community. In this review, we systematically compare COVID-19 and SARS in terms of epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical characteristics and discuss the current treatment approaches, scientific advancements and Chinese experience in fighting the epidemic to combat the novel coronavirus pandemic. We also discuss the lessons that we have learned from COVID-19 and SARS.
Project description:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) originated in the city of Wuhan, Hubei Province, Central China, and has spread quickly to 72 countries to date. COVID-19 is caused by a novel coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) [previously provisionally known as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)]. At present, the newly identified SARS-CoV-2 has caused a large number of deaths with tens of thousands of confirmed cases worldwide, posing a serious threat to public health. However, there are no clinically approved vaccines or specific therapeutic drugs available for COVID-19. Intensive research on the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 is urgently needed to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiological characteristics and to identify potential drug targets, which will contribute to the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies. Hence, this review will focus on recent progress regarding the structure of SARS-CoV-2 and the characteristics of COVID-19, such as the aetiology, pathogenesis and epidemiological characteristics.
Project description:The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that emerged in late 2019 has spread globally, causing a pandemic of respiratory illness designated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A better definition of the pulmonary host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is required to understand viral pathogenesis and to validate putative COVID-19 biomarkers that have been proposed in clinical studies. Here, we use targeted transcriptomics of FFPE tissue using the Nanostring GeoMX™ platform to generate an in-depth picture of the pulmonary transcriptional landscape of COVID-19, pandemic H1N1 influenza and uninfected control patients. Host transcriptomics showed a significant upregulation of genes associated with inflammation, type I interferon production, coagulation and angiogenesis in the lungs of COVID-19 patients compared to non-infected controls. SARS-CoV-2 was non-uniformly distributed in lungs (emphasising the advantages of spatial transcriptomics) with the areas of high viral load associated with an increased type I interferon response. Once the dominant cell type present in the sample, within patient correlations and patient-patient variation had been controlled for, only a very limited number of genes were differentially expressed between the lungs of fatal influenza and COVID-19 patients. Strikingly, the interferon-associated gene IFI27, previously identified as a useful blood biomarker to differentiate bacterial and viral lung infections, was significantly upregulated in the lungs of COVID-19 patients compared to patients with influenza. Collectively, these data demonstrate that spatial transcriptomics is a powerful tool to identify novel gene signatures within tissues, offering new insights into the pathogenesis of SARS-COV-2 to aid in patient triage and treatment Overall design: In this dataset, we capture GeoMx DSP RNA profiles of lung tissue from SARS-CoV2 infected patients aswell as pH1N1 and control specimens