Mediation Effect of Suicide-Related Social Media Use Behaviors on the Association Between Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempt: Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:A limited number of studies have examined the differences in suicide-related social media use behaviors between suicide ideators and suicide attempters or have sought to elucidate how these social media usage behaviors contributed to the transition from suicidal ideation to suicide attempt. OBJECTIVE:Suicide attempts can be acquired through suicide-related social media use behaviors. This study aimed to propose 3 suicide-related social media use behaviors (ie, attending to suicide information, commenting on or reposting suicide information, or talking about suicide) based on social cognitive theory, which proposes that successive processes governing behavior transition include attentional, retention, production, and motivational processes. METHODS:We aimed to examine the mediating role of suicide-related social media use behaviors in Chinese social media users with suicidal risks. A sample of 569 Chinese social media users with suicidal ideation completed measures on suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and suicide-related social media use behaviors. RESULTS:The results demonstrated that suicide attempters showed a significantly higher level of suicidal ideation (t563.64=5.04; P<.001; two-tailed) and more suicide-related social media use behaviors, which included attending to suicide information (t567=1.94; P=.05; two-tailed), commenting on or reposting suicide information (t567=2.12; P=.03; two-tailed), or talking about suicide (t542.22=5.12; P<.001; two-tailed). Suicidal ideation also affected suicide attempts through the mediational chains. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings thus support the social cognitive theory, and there are implications for population-based suicide prevention that can be achieved by identifying behavioral signals.
Project description:Stress exposure is central to theories of suicide. To advance understanding of the relation between stress and suicide, we examined whether specific, theoretically-pertinent life stressors were differentially related to suicidal thinking versus suicidal behaviors among hospitalized adolescents. Participants were 197 (144 female) adolescents aged 13 to 19 years old (M?=?15.61, SD?=?1.48) recruited from an acute residential psychiatric treatment program. Participants were categorized into mutually exclusive groups: psychiatric controls (n?=?38) with no lifetime history of suicide ideation or suicide attempts, suicide ideators (n?=?99) with current ideation and no lifetime attempts, and suicide attempters (n?=?60) with a lifetime history of suicide ideation and at least one attempt in the past month. Adolescents completed the Stress and Adversity Inventory for Adolescents (Adolescent STRAIN), which assessed life events and chronic difficulties occurring in five social-psychological categories: Interpersonal Loss, Physical Danger, Humiliation, Entrapment, and Role Change/Disruption. Additionally, they completed a structured interview and symptom questionnaires to capture concurrent psychopathology. Controlling for demographic and clinical covariates, only Interpersonal Loss events distinguished attempters from psychiatric controls (OR?=?2.27) and ideators (OR?=?1.49); no events or difficulties differentiated ideators from controls. These effects persisted when analyses were restricted to single attempters and when events following the most recent attempt were excluded. The findings elucidate potential social-environmental triggers of suicide. Ultimately, this may improve the identification of ideators most likely to make an attempt, enabling the deployment of targeted early interventions.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of the Youth-Nominated Support Team-Version II (YST-II) for suicidal adolescents, an intervention based on social support and health behavior models, which was designed to supplement standard treatments. Psychiatrically hospitalized and suicidal adolescents, 13-17 years of age, were randomly assigned to treatment-as-usual (TAU) + YST-II (n = 223) or TAU only (n = 225). YST-II provided tailored psychoeducation to youth-nominated adults in addition to weekly check-ins for 3 months following hospitalization. In turn, these adults had regular supportive contact with adolescents. Adolescents assigned to TAU + YST-II had an average of 3.43 (SD = 0.83) nominated adults. Measures included the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior (SIQ-JR; W. M. Reynolds, 1988), Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (E. O. Poznanski & H. B. Mokros, 1996), Beck Hopelessness Scale (A. T. Beck & R. A. Steer, 1993), and Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS; K. Hodges, 1996). YST-II had very limited positive effects, which were moderated by history of multiple suicide attempts, and no negative effects. It resulted in more rapid decreases in suicidal ideation (SIQ-JR) for multiple suicide attempters during the initial 6 weeks after hospitalization (small-to-moderate effect size). For nonmultiple attempters, it was associated with greater declines in functional impairment (CAFAS) at 3 and 12 months (small effect sizes). YST-II had no effects on suicide attempts and no enduring effects on SIQ-JR scores.
Project description:Psychological theories of suicide suggest that certain traits may reduce aversion to physical threat and increase the probability of transitioning from suicidal ideation to action. Here, we investigated whether blunted sensitivity to bodily signals is associated with suicidal action by comparing individuals with a history of attempted suicide to a matched psychiatric reference sample without suicide attempts. We examined interoceptive processing across a panel of tasks: breath-hold challenge, cold-pressor challenge, and heartbeat perception during and outside of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Suicide attempters tolerated the breath-hold and cold-pressor challenges for significantly longer and displayed lower heartbeat perception accuracy than non-attempters. These differences were mirrored by reduced activation of the mid/posterior insula during attention to heartbeat sensations. Our findings suggest that suicide attempters exhibit an 'interoceptive numbing' characterized by increased tolerance for aversive sensations and decreased awareness of non-aversive sensations. We conclude that blunted interoception may be implicated in suicidal behavior.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Clinical heterogeneity is a key challenge to understanding suicidal risk, as different pathways to suicidal behavior are likely to exist. We aimed to identify such pathways by uncovering latent classes of late-life depression cases and relating them to prior and future suicidal behavior. METHODS:Data were collected from June 2010 to September 2015. In this longitudinal study we examined distinct associations of clinical and cognitive/decision-making factors with suicidal behavior in 194 older (50+ years) nondemented, depressed patients; 57 nonpsychiatric healthy controls provided benchmark data. The DSM-IV was used to establish diagnostic criteria. We identified multivariate patterns of risk factors, defining clusters based on personality traits, perceived social support, cognitive performance, and decision-making in an analysis blinded to participants' history of suicidal behavior. We validated these clusters using past and prospective suicidal ideation and behavior. RESULTS:Of 5 clusters identified, 3 were associated with high risk for suicidal behavior: (1) cognitive deficits, dysfunctional personality, low social support, high willingness to delay future rewards, and overrepresentation of high-lethality attempters; (2) high-personality pathology (ie, low self-esteem), minimal or no cognitive deficits, and overrepresentation of low-lethality attempters and ideators; (3) cognitive deficits, inability to delay future rewards, and similar distribution of high- and low-lethality attempters. There were significant between-cluster differences in number (P < .001) and lethality (P = .002) of past suicide attempts and in the likelihood of future suicide attempts (P = .010, 30 attempts by 22 patients, 2 fatal) and emergency psychiatric hospitalizations to prevent suicide (P = .005, 31 participants). CONCLUSIONS:Three pathways to suicidal behavior in older patients were found, marked by (1) very high levels of cognitive and dispositional risk factors suggesting a dementia prodrome, (2) dysfunctional personality traits, and (3) impulsive decision-making and cognitive deficits.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Suicide is a global public health concern. To inform the prevention and treatment of suicidality, it is crucial to identify transdiagnostic vulnerability factors for suicide and suicide-related conditions. One candidate factor is anxiety sensitivity (AS)-the fear of anxiety-related sensations-which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a host of mental health outcomes, including suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Importantly, AS is distinct from trait anxiety and negative affectivity, highlighting its potential incremental utility in the understanding of psychopathology. Despite a burgeoning body of literature demonstrating that AS is linked to suicidal thoughts and behaviors, this research has yet to be synthesized. METHOD:This meta-analysis includes 33 articles representing 34 nonredundant samples (N = 14,002) that examined at least one relationship between AS global or subfactor (i.e., cognitive, physical, social) scores and suicidal ideation and/or suicide risk. RESULTS:Findings revealed small-to-moderate and moderate associations between global AS and suicidal ideation (r = .24, 95% confidence interval (CI): [.21, .26], p < .001) and suicide risk (r = .35, 95% CI [.31, .38], p < .001), respectively. All AS subfactors evinced significant associations with suicidal ideation (rs = .13-.24) and suicide risk (rs = .22-.32). CONCLUSIONS:AS is related to suicidal ideation and global suicide risk. Research is needed to disentangle AS from other indices of distress in the prediction of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Project description:OBJECTIVES:No consensus has been reached regarding the theoretical dimensions underlying the Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) and Beck's Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSI), widely used in research and clinical practice. This undermines the understanding and management of suicidal behavior. METHODS:The factor structure of the SSI and the BSI was investigated in 201 patients visiting the emergency department of the Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland, for suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt. RESULTS:Exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) identified a unique theoretical dimension. Item removal based on analyses of communalities improved the explained part of variance in both scales. A joint factor analysis provided results very similar to those yielded by initial EFAs. CONCLUSIONS:The single factor underlying the SSI and the BSI was composed of items encompassing a construct of suicide desire. Nonretained items corresponded to other elements of suicidal behavior (e.g., plans and preparations regarding the upcoming suicide attempt). These scales could not discriminate between suicide ideators and suicide attempters.
Project description:The presence of an anxiety disorder is associated with greater frequency of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Given the high personal and societal costs of suicidal behaviors, suicide prevention is a priority. Understanding factors present within individuals with anxiety disorders that increase suicide risk may inform prevention efforts. The aims of the present study were to examine the prevalence of suicidal ideation and behaviors, as well as factors associated with suicide risk in patients with anxiety disorders in primary care. Data from a large scale randomized controlled study were analyzed to assess prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors, as well as factors associated with suicide risk. Results revealed that suicidal ideation and behaviors were relatively common in this group. When examining mental and physical health factors jointly, presence of depression, mental health-related impairment, and social support each uniquely accounted for variance in suicide risk score. Methodological limitations include cross-sectional data collection and lack of information on comorbid personality disorders. Moreover, patients included were from a clinical trial with exclusion criteria that may limit generalizability. Results highlight the complex determinants of suicidal behavior and the need for more nuanced suicide assessment in this population, including evaluation of comorbidity and general functioning.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Both biological and social mechanisms have been implicated in the transmission of suicidal behavior in younger and middle-aged adults. Yet, while suicide rates rise with age, it is not clear whether such mechanisms operate in late life. Thus, we looked for evidence of social and familial suicidal transmission in elderly with late- vs. early-onset suicidal behavior by examining exposure to suicidal behavior within biological relatives and broader social networks. METHOD:Participants were 356 adults, aged 50 or older (mean: 67), divided into five groups: early-onset suicide attempters (first lifetime attempt before age 60), late-onset attempters, suicide ideators (without attempt history), depressed non-suicidal controls, and non-psychiatric controls. History of suicidal behavior in one's biological relatives and friends/unrelated kin was assessed via clinical interview, and group differences were examined via generalized linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS:There was a main effect of group (?24?=?18.38, p?<?0.001) such that familial or social exposure to suicidal behavior was more prevalent in early- than late-onset attempters. Late-onset attempters' exposure was similar to non-suicidal groups'. However, there was no significant group by relationship interaction, indicating that suicidal behavior was not significantly more prominent among the biological relatives of either attempter group. LIMITATIONS:Participants' report of exposure is subject to awareness and recall biases. CONCLUSION:Suicidal clustering in biological relatives and friends/unrelated kin is associated with early-, but not late-onset suicidal behavior in older adults. Suicidal transmission in older adults follows a pattern of familial and social clustering suggestive of social transmission.
Project description:Suicide is a spectrum of behavior including suicide ideation and suicidal attempt and is undoubtedly the outcome of the interaction of several factors. The role of two main constructs of human nature, aggression and impulsivity, has been discussed broadly in relation to suicide, as endophenotypes or traits of personality, in research and in clinical practice across diagnoses. The objective of our study was to assess impulsive and aggressive behaviors among primitive people of the Idu Mishmi tribe, who are known for high suicide completer and attempter rates.The study group was comprised of 177 unrelated Idu Mishmi participants divided into two sets: 39 suicide attempters and 138 non-attempters. Data on demographic factors and details of suicide attempts were collected. Participants completed a set of instruments for assessment of aggression and impulsivity traits.In the Idu Mishimi population we screened (n = 177), 22.03% of the individuals had attempted suicide, a high percentage. The suicide attempters also showed a significant sex difference: 35.9% were male and 64.10% were female (p = .002*). The suicide attempters (A) scored significantly higher than non-attempters (NA) on aggression (A = 23.93,NA = 18.46) and impulsivity (A = 75.53,NA = 71.59, with p value = 0.05). The trait impulsiveness showed a significantly higher difference (F (1, 117) = 7.274) in comparison to aggression (F (1, 117) = 2.647), suggesting a profound role of impulsiveness in suicide attempts in the Idu Mishmi population. Analysis of sub-traits of aggression and impulsivity revealed significant correlations between them. Using different models, multivariate logistic regression implied roles of gender (OR = 1.079 (0.05)) and impulsiveness (OR = 3.355 (0.013)) in suicide attempts.Results demonstrate that gender and impulsivity are strong risk factors for suicide attempts in the Idu Mishmi population.