Outcomes in conventional laparoscopic versus robotic-assisted primary bariatric surgery: a retrospective, case-controlled study of the MBSAQIP database.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Robotic-assisted bariatric surgery is increasingly performed. There remains controversy about the overall benefit of robotic-assisted (RBS) compared to conventional laparoscopic (LBS) bariatric surgery. In this study, we used a large national risk-stratified bariatric clinical database to compare outcomes between robotic and laparoscopic gastric bypass (RNYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). METHODS:A retrospective analysis of the 2015 and 2016 Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program (MBSAQIP) Participant Use Data File (PUF) was performed. Primary robotic and laparoscopic RYNGB and SG were analyzed. Descriptive analysis was performed of the unmatched cohorts, followed by 1:3 case-controlled matching. Cases and controls were matched by patient demographics and pre-operative comorbidities, and peri-operative outcomes compared. RESULTS:77,991 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RnYGB) (7.5% robotic-assisted) and 189,503 SG (6.8% robotic-assisted) cases were identified. Operative length was significantly higher in both the robotic-assisted RnYGB and SG cohorts (p?
Project description:BACKGROUND:Proximal Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is commonly used to manage obesity, performed using laparoscopic or robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. As the prevalence of robotic bariatric surgery increases, further data is required to justify its use. METHODS:This was a large, retrospective analysis of prospectively recorded data for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) procedures performed using laparoscopic (LRYGB) or robotic (RRYGB; da Vinci Xi system, Intuitive Surgical Sàrl) surgery between January 2016 and March 2019. The surgical techniques did not differ apart from different trocar placements. Data collected included patient characteristics before and after RYGB, operative outcomes and complications. RESULTS:In total, 114 RRYGB and 108 LRYGB primary surgeries were performed. There were no significant differences between the groups, apart from a significantly shorter duration of surgery (116.9 vs. 128.9 min, respectively), lower C-reactive protein values at days 1 (31.1 vs. 44.1 mg/l) and 2 (50.3 vs. 77.8 mg/l) after the intervention, and overall complication rate (4.4 vs. 12.0%, Clavien-Dindo classification II-V) with RRYGB compared with LRYGB. There was a lower hemoglobin value in the postoperative course after RRYGB (12.1 vs. 12.6 g/dl, day 2). CONCLUSIONS:In our experience, robotic RYGB has proven to be safe and efficient, with a shorter duration of surgery and lower rate of complications than laparoscopic RYGB. RRYGB is easier to learn and seems safer in less experienced centers. Increasing experience with the robotic system can reduce the duration of surgery over time. Further studies with higher evidence level are necessary to confirm our results.
Project description:Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) has proven over the years to be one of the most effective bariatric procedures. It is highly technical, and therefore is mostly performed by bariatric and metabolic surgeons. Although Situs Inversus Totalis (SIT) is a very rare congenital condition, surgeons do occasionally have to operate intra-abdominally on those patients, consequently facing some challenges related to the unusual anatomy.We describe a rare case of LRYGB for chronic morbid obesity on a 43?year old patient with pre-operative diagnosis of situs inversus totalis without Kartagener's syndrome, using slight modification from the usual technique based on anatomical correlation without the need to change the surgeon's position or switching trocar placements as described in previous papers. This could help surgeons in general reduce the potential challenges faced when performing such procedure.Situs Inversus Totalis is a rare congenital condition, but surgeons in general do encounter those patients throughout their career. This rare condition should not solely be an indication for an open approach as minimally invasive surgery, whether laparoscopic or robotic, is safe and should still be considered the standard of care approach. Bariatric surgery is one of the most technical intra-abdominal procedures mainly due to the patients' body habitus, different instrumentations used, and the different anastomoses created. Gastric bypass and bariatric surgery in general can be safely performed on patients with SIT without the need for major adjustment to the surgeon's position, trocar placement or instruments used.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are the two most common bariatric operations. With the implementation of enhanced recovery protocols, the use of drains should decrease. METHODS:The Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program database was queried for the years 2015-2017. Our inclusion criteria included all patients undergoing a primary LRYGB, SG, and revisions. We examined demographics, operative characteristics, the use of drains, and postoperative complications. Continuous variables were summarized using means and standard deviations (SD). Categorical variables were summarized using frequencies and proportions. Student's T test (Wilcoxon sum rank test in the case of skewed data) and chi-squared analysis were used to assess the baseline differences in drain utilization. RESULTS:From 2015 to 2017, there were 388,239 bariatric cases performed without drains and 100,221 performed with drains. Twenty-nine percent of LRYGB patients had a drain placed but only 16.7% of SG patients. The percentage of LRYGB that had a drain dropped from 33.1 to 24.6% during the study period and that of SG dropped from 20.3 to 13.6%. Patients that had drains placed were more likely to have a provocative test at the time of surgery (prevalence ratio (PR) 2.24) and to have a postoperative swallow study (PR 1.93). CONCLUSIONS:Drains are still commonly used in bariatric patients. Over the study period, there was a decrease in the use of drains in both bypass and sleeve patients. Patients with a drain were more likely to have had a provocative test and a swallow study and have a higher rate of complications and mortality.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bariatric surgery has been used for treatment of severe obesity in adolescents but most studies have been small and limited in follow-up. OBJECTIVES:We hypothesized that electronic health record data could be used to compare effectiveness of bariatric procedures in adolescents. SETTING:Data were obtained from clinical research networks using a common data model to extract data from each site. METHODS:Adolescents who underwent a primary bariatric procedure from 2005 through 2015 were identified. The percent change in body mass index (BMI) at 1, 3, and 5 years was estimated using random effects linear regression for patients undergoing all operations. Propensity score adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for procedures with >25 patients at each time period. RESULTS:This cohort of 544 adolescents was predominantly female (79%) and White (66%), with mean (±standard deviation) age of 17.3 (±1.6) years and mean BMI of 49.8 (± 7.8) kg/m2. Procedures included Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB; n?=?177), sleeve gastrectomy (SG; n?=?306), and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (n?=?61). For those undergoing RYGB, SG, and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, mean (95% confidence interval) BMI changes of -31% (-30% to -33%), -28% (-27% to -29%), and -10% (-8% to -12%), were estimated at 1 year. For RYGB and SG, BMI changes of -29% (-26% to -33%) and -25% (-22% to -28%) were estimated at 3 years. CONCLUSIONS:Adolescents undergoing SG and RYGB experienced greater declines in BMI at 1- and 3-year follow-up time points, while laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding was significantly less effective for BMI reduction.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aim was to compare clinical outcomes of patients treated with totally robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (TRRYGB) with those treated with the different laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) techniques. The clinical benefit of the robotic approach to bariatric surgery compared to the standard laparoscopic approach is unclear. There are no studies directly comparing outcomes of TRRYGB with different LRYGB techniques. METHODS:Outcomes of 578 obese patients who underwent RYGB between 2011 and 2014 at an academic center were assessed. Multivariable analysis and propensity matching were used for comparing TRRYGB to different LRYGB techniques, including 21-mm EEA circular-stapled gastrojejunal anastomosis (GJA, LRYGB-21CS), linear-stapled GJA (LRYGB-LS), and hand-sewn GJA (LRYGB-HS). RESULTS:The TRRYGB technique required a longer mean operative time compared to the other groups, respectively 204?±?46 vs. 139?±?30 min (LRYGB-21CS), 206?±?37 vs. 158?±?30 min (LRYGB-LS), and 210?±?36 vs. 167?±?30 min (LRYGB-HS). TRRYGB experienced a lower stricture rate (2 vs. 17%, P?=?0.003), shorter hospital stay (2.6?±?1.2 vs. 4.3?±?5.5 days, P?=?0.008), and lower readmission rate (12 vs. 28%, P?=?0.009). No significant differences in outcomes were observed when comparing RRYGB to LRYGB-LS or LRYGB-HS. CONCLUSIONS:TRRYGB increases operative time compared to all LRYGB techniques. TRRYGB was superior to LRYGB-21CS in terms of significantly shorter hospital stay, lower readmission rate, and less frequent GJA stricture formation. TRRYGB provides no clinical advantages over the LRYGB-LS and LRYGB-HS techniques.
Project description:Adverse intraoperative events (AIEs) during surgery are a well-known entity. A better understanding of the incidence of AIEs and their relationship with outcomes is helpful for surgeon preparation and preoperative patient counseling. The goals of this study are to describe the incidence of AIEs during bariatric surgery and examine their impact on major adverse complications.The study included 5,882 subjects who had bariatric surgery in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery study between March 2005 and April 2009. Prospectively collected AIEs included organ injuries, anesthesia-related events, anastomotic revisions, and equipment failure. The relationship between AIEs and a composite end point of 30-day major adverse complications (ie, death, venous thromboembolism, percutaneous, endoscopic, or operative reintervention and failure to be discharged from the hospital within 30 days from surgery) was evaluated using a multivariable relative risk model adjusting for factors known to influence their risk.There were 1,608 laparoscopic adjusted gastric banding, 3,770 laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass operations, and 504 open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass operations. Adverse intraoperative events occurred in 5% of the overall sample and were most frequent during open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (7.3%), followed by laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (5.5%) and laparoscopic adjusted gastric banding (3%). The rate of composite end point was 8.8% in the AIE group compared with 3.9% among those without an AIE (p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis revealed that patients with an AIE were at 90% greater risk of composite complication than those without an event (relative risk = 1.90; 95% CI, 1.26-2.88; p = 0.002), independent of the type of procedure (open or laparoscopic).Incidence of an AIE is not infrequent during bariatric surgery and is associated with much higher risk of major complication. Additional study is needed to assess the association between specific AIEs and short-term complications.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Bariatric surgery is increasingly performed. Since there are numerous surgical techniques, the effects of these on the esophageal function are still poorly understood. We aimed at assessing the effect of different techniques on esophagogastric junction (EGJ), esophageal peristalsis and reflux exposure using high-resolution manometry (HRM), and impedance-pH monitoring (MII-pH). METHODS:All obese patients underwent symptomatic questionnaires, endoscopy, HRM, and MII-pH before and 1 year after surgery. Esophageal function and EGJ were classified according to Chicago Classification V. 3.0. Intragastric pressure (IGP) and gastroesophageal pressure gradient (GEPG) were assessed. Total acid exposure time (AET %), total number of refluxes, and symptom association probability (SAP) were assessed. A group of healthy volunteers (HVs) served as control. RESULTS:One hundred and twelve obese subjects and 15 HVs (normal weight) were studied. Thirteen underwent endoscopic balloon placement (BIB), 12 gastric banding (GB), 26 sleeve gastrectomy (SG), 18 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), 15 mini-gastric bypass (MGB), 16 biliointestinal bypass (BIBP), and 12 biliopancreatic diversion (BPD). IGP and GEPG significantly decreased after RYGP, BPD, and BPBP, whereas they significantly increased after GB and SG. Post-operative greater AET (p?<?0.05) and increased total number of reflux (p?<?0.001) were present after GB and SG. RYGB and MGB showed a significant decrease in AET (p?<?0.05) and total number of reflux (p?<?0.001). CONCLUSIONS:HRM verified that different bariatric techniques produced different modification of IGP and GEPG, leading to different reflux exposure. Only GB and SG can negatively impact on esophageal function and reflux exposure.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Apolipoprotein A-IV (ApoA-IV) has been shown to be involved in obesity and diabetes pathogenesis in animal studies, but its role in humans is uncertain. OBJECTIVES:The objective of this study was to determine the relation of ApoA-IV with changes in glucose metabolism and weight after bariatric surgery. SETTING:University Hospital. METHODS:The patients (n = 49) included lean controls (n = 8) and patients before and after a mean of 7 months after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB, n = 12), laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB, n = 22), or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG, n = 11). ApoA-IV and other hormone assays were performed in the fasting and the postprandial state. Pearson's correlation analyses controlled for baseline BMI and percent excess weight loss (EWL) were used to determine relationships between ApoA-IV levels and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). RESULTS:With all bariatric procedures combined, the change in ApoA-IV [533 versus 518 microg/L, P = .813] or ApoA-IV area under the curve (AUC - 1072 versus 1042, P = .939) was not significant. None of the surgeries individually affected levels of fasting or ApoA-IV AUC. Bariatric surgery resulted in a decrease in HOMA-IR (5.3 versus 2.0, P<.001). In the RYGB group, higher baseline ApoA-IV levels correlated with decrease in HOMA-IR [r = -.6, P = .008]. This relationship was independent of EWL and was not observed in the LAGB or SG group. There was no association of ApoA-IV levels with EWL, insulin secretion, Peptide-YY, or leptin levels. CONCLUSION:Preoperative ApoA-IV levels, rather than changes in levels, positively correlate with improvements in insulin sensitivity independent of weight loss after RYGB.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment to obtain weight loss in severely obese patients. The feasibility and safety of bariatric robotic surgery is the topic of this review. METHODS: A search was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, BioMed Central, and Web of Science. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies were included. Anastomotic leak rate was 8.51% in biliopancreatic diversion. 30-day reoperation rate was 1.14% in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and 1.16% in sleeve gastrectomy. Major complication rate in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass resulted higher than in sleeve gastrectomy ( 4,26% vs. 1,2%). The mean hospital stay was longer in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (range 2.6-7.4 days). CONCLUSIONS: The major limitation of our analysis is due to the small number and the low quality of the studies, the small sample size, heterogeneity of the enrolled patients and the lack of data from metabolic and bariatric outcomes. Despite the use of the robot, the majority of these cases are completed with stapled anastomosis. The assumption that robotic surgery is superior in complex cases is not supported by the available present evidence. The major strength of the robotic surgery is strongly facilitating some of the surgical steps (gastro-jejunostomy and jejunojejunostomy anastomosis in the robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or the vertical gastric resection in the robotic sleeve gastrectomy).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Surgical robots are increasingly being used in bariatric surgery. While several studies describe the safety of using barbed sutures in laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery, no reports are available for robotic bariatric procedures. The aim of our article is to determine whether barbed sutures can be used safely in robotic Roux-en-Y bypass (RYGB) surgery. METHODS:This was a single-center, single-surgeon case series of RYGB procedures using the da Vinci® Xi Surgical System (Intuitive Surgery, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) in combination with the use of barbed sutures (Stratafix, Ethicon, Johnson & Johnson, Cincinnati, OH, USA). RESULTS:Fifty robotic proximal and distal RYGB surgeries were performed. A linear stapled, side-to-side gastrojejunostomy was carried out, whereby the enterotomy was completed with a running resorbable unidirectional barbed suture, Stratafix 2-0. In one case after robotic proximal RYGB, revision surgery was required due to omentum necrosis. Another patient was readmitted due to gastrointestinal bleeding from anastomosis. No anastomotic insufficiencies, no stenoses, or higher-grade complications according to Clavien-Dindo 4a-5 were found. CONCLUSIONS:We found that the use of self-fixing barbed sutures in robotic RYGB is safe. The self-fixing suture enables the robotic surgeon to perform a simple continuous suture without the need for recurrent retraction. Although we are the first to report this procedure, we had a low number of cases and no control group; thus, further studies with a higher level of evidence are required.