Interface-Induced WSe2 In-plane Homojunction for High-Performance Photodetection.
ABSTRACT: 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have been extensively attractive for nano-electronics and nano-optoelectronics due to their unique properties. Especially, WSe2, having bipolar carrier transport ability and sizable bandgap, is a promising candidate for future photodetectors. Here, we report an in-plane WSe2 homojunction formed by the interface gate of the substrate. In this architecture, an insulated h-BN flake was used to make only part of WSe2 flake contact substrate directly. Finally, the structures of WSe2/substrate and WSe2/h-BN/substrate construct an in-plane homojunction. Interestingly, the device can operate in both photovoltaic and photoconductive modes at different biases. As a result, a responsivity of 1.07 A W-1 with a superior detectivity of over 1012 jones and a fast response time of 106??s are obtained simultaneously. Compared with previously reported methods adopted by chemical doping or electrostatic gating with extra bias voltages, our design provides a more facile and efficient way for the development of high-performance WSe2-based photodetectors.
Project description:Although hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a good candidate for gate-insulating materials by minimizing interaction from substrate, further applications to electronic devices with available two-dimensional semiconductors continue to be limited by flake size. While monolayer h-BN has been synthesized on Pt and Cu foil using chemical vapour deposition (CVD), multilayer h-BN is still absent. Here we use Fe foil and synthesize large-area multilayer h-BN film by CVD with a borazine precursor. These films reveal strong cathodoluminescence and high mechanical strength (Young's modulus: 1.16 ± 0.1 TPa), reminiscent of formation of high-quality h-BN. The CVD-grown graphene on multilayer h-BN film yields a high carrier mobility of ? 24,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at room temperature, higher than that (? 13,000 (2) V(-1) s(-1)) with exfoliated h-BN. By placing additional h-BN on a SiO2/Si substrate for a MoS2 (WSe2) field-effect transistor, the doping effect from gate oxide is minimized and furthermore the mobility is improved by four (150) times.
Project description:Interest in bringing p- and n-type monolayer semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) into contact to form rectifying pn diode has thrived since it is crucial to control the electrical properties in two-dimensional (2D) electronic and optoelectronic devices. Usually this involves vertically stacking different TMDs with pn heterojunction or, laterally manipulating carrier density by gate biasing. Here, by utilizing a locally reversed ferroelectric polarization, we laterally manipulate the carrier density and created a WSe2 pn homojunction on the supporting ferroelectric BiFeO3 substrate. This non-volatile WSe2 pn homojunction is demonstrated with optical and scanning probe methods and scanning photoelectron micro-spectroscopy. A homo-interface is a direct manifestation of our WSe2 pn diode, which can be quantitatively understood as a clear rectifying behavior. The non-volatile confinement of carriers and associated gate-free pn homojunction can be an addition to the 2D electron-photon toolbox and pave the way to develop laterally 2D electronics and photonics.
Project description:Assembling nanomaterials into hybrid structures provides a promising and flexible route to reach ultrahigh responsivity by introducing a trap-assisted gain (G) mechanism. However, the high-gain photodetectors benefitting from long carrier lifetime often possess slow response time (t) due to the inherent G-t tradeoff. Here, a light-driven junction field-effect transistor (LJFET), consisting of an n-type ZnO belt as the channel material and a p-type WSe2 nanosheet as a photoactive gate material, to break the G-t tradeoff through decoupling the gain from carrier lifetime is reported. The photoactive gate material WSe2 under illumination enables a conductive path for externally applied voltage, which modulates the depletion region within the ZnO channel efficiently. The gain and response time are separately determined by the field effect modulation and the switching speed of LJFET. As a result, a high responsivity of 4.83 × 103 A W-1 with a gain of ?104 and a rapid response time of ?10 µs are obtained simultaneously. The LJFET architecture offers a new approach to realize high-gain and fast-response photodetectors without the G-t tradeoff.
Project description:Integrating and manipulating the nano-optoelectronic properties of Van der Waals heterostructures can enable unprecedented platforms for photodetection and sensing. The main challenge of infrared photodetectors is to funnel the light into a small nanoscale active area and efficiently convert it into an electrical signal. Here, we overcome all of those challenges in one device, by efficient coupling of a plasmonic antenna to hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in hexagonal-BN to highly concentrate mid-infrared light into a graphene pn-junction. We balance the interplay of the absorption, electrical and thermal conductivity of graphene via the device geometry. This approach yields remarkable device performance featuring room temperature high sensitivity (NEP of 82 pW[Formula: see text]) and fast rise time of 17 nanoseconds (setup-limited), among others, hence achieving a combination currently not present in the state-of-the-art graphene and commercial mid-infrared detectors. We also develop a multiphysics model that shows very good quantitative agreement with our experimental results and reveals the different contributions to our photoresponse, thus paving the way for further improvement of these types of photodetectors even beyond mid-infrared range.
Project description:WSe2--a layered semiconductor that can be exfoliated into atomically thin two-dimensional sheets--offers promising characteristics for application in solar energy conversion. However, the lack of controllable, cost-effective methods to scalably fabricate homogeneous thin films currently limits practical application. Here we present a technique to prepare controlled thin films of 2D WSe2 from dispersions of solvent-exfoliated few-layer flakes. Flake self-assembly at a liquid/liquid interface (formed exceptionally from two non-solvents for WSe2) followed by substrate transfer affords large-area thin films with superior 2D flake alignment compared with traditional (liquid/air) self-assembly techniques. We further demonstrate, for the first time, solar-to-hydrogen conversion from solution-processed WSe2 thin films. Bare photoelectrodes with a thickness of ca. 25?nm exhibit sustained p-type photocurrent under simulated solar illumination, and up to 1.0?mA?cm(-2) at 0?V versus reversible hydrogen electrode with an added water reduction catalyst (Pt). The importance of the self-assembled morphology is established by photoelectrochemical and conductivity measurements.
Project description:In nano-device applications using two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals materials, a heat dissipation through nano-scale interfaces can be a critical issue for optimizing device performances. By using a time-domain thermoreflectance measurement technique, we examine a cross-plane thermal transport through mono-layered (n = 1) and bi-layered (n = 2) WSe2 flakes which are sandwiched by top metal layers of Al, Au, and Ti and the bottom Al2O3 substrate. In these nanoscale structures with hetero- and homo-junctions, we observe that the thermal boundary resistance (TBR) is significantly enhanced as the number of WSe2 layers increases. In particular, as the metal is changed from Al, to Au, and to Ti, we find an interesting trend of TBR depending on the WSe2 thickness; when referenced to TBR for a system without WSe2, TBR for n = 1 decreases, but that for n = 2 increases. This result clearly demonstrates that the stronger bonding for Ti leads to a better thermal conduction between the metal and the WSe2 layer, but in return gives rise to a large mismatch in the phonon density of states between the first and second WSe2 layers so that the WSe2-WSe2 interface becomes a major thermal resistance for n = 2. By using photoemission spectroscopy and optical second harmonic generation technique, we confirm that the metallization induces a change in the valence state of W-ions, and also recovers a non-centrosymmetry for the bi-layered WSe2.
Project description:A new driving mechanism for direction-controlled motion of nano-scale objects is proposed, based on a model of stretching a graphene strip linked to a rigid base with linear springs of identical stiffness. We find that the potential energy difference induced by the strain gradient field in the graphene strip substrate can generate sufficient force to overcome the static and kinetic friction forces between the nano-flake and the strip substrate, resulting in the nanoscale flake motion in the direction of gradient reduction. The dynamics of the nano-flake can be manipulated by tuning the stiffness of linear springs, stretching velocity and the flake size. This fundamental law of directional motion induced by strain gradient could be very useful for promising designs of nanoscale manipulation, transportation and smart surfaces.
Project description:The typical photodetectors can only detect one specific optical spectral band, such as InGaAs and graphene-PbS quantum dots for near-infrared (NIR) light detection, CdS and Si for visible light detection, and ZnO and III-nitrides for UV light detection. So far, none of the developed photodetector can achieve the multicolor detection with arbitrary spectral selectivity, high sensitivity, high speed, high signal-to-noise ratio, high stability, and simplicity (called 6S requirements). Here, we propose a universal strategy to develop multicolor photodetectors with arbitrary spectral selectivity by integrating various semiconductor nanostructures on a wide-bandgap semiconductor or an insulator substrate. Because the photoresponse of each spectral band is determined by each semiconductor nanostructure or the semiconductor substrate, multicolor detection satisfying 6S requirements can be readily satisfied by selecting the right semiconductors.
Project description:Clarifying critical differences in free charge generation and recombination processes between inorganic and organic semiconductors is important for developing efficient organic photoconversion devices such as solar cells (SCs) and photodetector. In this study, we analyzed the dependence of doping concentration on the photoconversion process at the organic pn-homojunction interface in a single organic semiconductor using the temperature dependence of J-V characteristics and energy structure measurements. Even though the organic pn-homojunction SC devices were fabricated using a single host material and the doping technique resembling an inorganic pn-homojunction, the charge generation and recombination mechanisms are similar to that of conventional donor/acceptor (D/A) type organic SCs; that is, the charge separation happens from localized exciton and charge transfer (CT) state being separated by the energy offset between adjacent molecules, and the recombination happens from localized charge carrier at two adjacent molecules. The determining factor for photoconversion processes is the localized nature of charges in organic semiconductors. The results demonstrated that controlling the delocalization of the charges is important to realize efficient organic photoconversion devices.
Project description:Graphene is a very attractive material for broadband photodetection in hyperspectral imaging and sensing systems. However, its potential use has been hindered by tradeoffs between the responsivity, bandwidth, and operation speed of existing graphene photodetectors. Here, we present engineered photoconductive nanostructures based on gold-patched graphene nano-stripes, which enable simultaneous broadband and ultrafast photodetection with high responsivity. These nanostructures merge the advantages of broadband optical absorption, ultrafast photocarrier transport, and carrier multiplication within graphene nano-stripes with the ultrafast transport of photocarriers to gold patches before recombination. Through this approach, high-responsivity operation is realized without the use of bandwidth-limiting and speed-limiting quantum dots, defect states, or tunneling barriers. We demonstrate high-responsivity photodetection from the visible to infrared regime (0.6 A/W at 0.8 μm and 11.5 A/W at 20 μm), with operation speeds exceeding 50 GHz. Our results demonstrate improvement of the response times by more than seven orders of magnitude and an increase in bandwidths of one order of magnitude compared to those of higher-responsivity graphene photodetectors based on quantum dots and tunneling barriers.