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AAA+ ATPases in Protein Degradation: Structures, Functions and Mechanisms.

ABSTRACT: Adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) associated with a variety of cellular activities (AAA+), the hexameric ring-shaped motor complexes located in all ATP-driven proteolytic machines, are involved in many cellular processes. Powered by cycles of ATP binding and hydrolysis, conformational changes in AAA+ ATPases can generate mechanical work that unfolds a substrate protein inside the central axial channel of ATPase ring for degradation. Three-dimensional visualizations of several AAA+ ATPase complexes in the act of substrate processing for protein degradation have been resolved at the atomic level thanks to recent technical advances in cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Here, we summarize the resulting advances in structural and biochemical studies of AAA+ proteases in the process of proteolysis reactions, with an emphasis on cryo-EM structural analyses of the 26S proteasome, Cdc48/p97 and FtsH-like mitochondrial proteases. These studies reveal three highly conserved patterns in the structure-function relationship of AAA+ ATPase hexamers that were observed in the human 26S proteasome, thus suggesting common dynamic models of mechanochemical coupling during force generation and substrate translocation.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC7226402 | BioStudies | 2020-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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