Satisfaction and experiences of patients taking fingolimod and involved in a pharmacy-based patient support program in Switzerland - a qualitative study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Fingolimod is an oral multiple sclerosis drug that is considered a specialty drug due to its high cost and safety issues. The Fingolimod Patient Support Program (F-PSP) is a specialty pharmacy service developed to ensure the responsible use of fingolimod by promoting patient safety and medication adherence. This study aims to explore the satisfaction, experiences and perceptions regarding the F-PSP among patients currently involved in this program or recently withdrawn. METHODS:A qualitative study was conducted via individual, face-to-face semistructured interviews with patients involved in the F-PSP. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded and analyzed via thematic content analysis. RESULTS:The main themes identified from the interviews (n?=?17) were overall perception of the F-PSP, perception of the pharmacist-led consultations, perception of the tools (electronic monitor and drug intake graph), reasons to participate or potentially withdraw, and suggestions for improvements. Participants perceived the F-PSP as a reassuring support that complemented their medical care, providing a more human, personalized and person-centered approach than usual pharmacy care. Pharmacist-led consultations were valued for the medication-related and holistic support they provided. The importance of the pharmacist's attitude was emphasized. The electronic monitor was valued for promoting daily medication adherence and allowing the involvement of relatives, which reassured participants and their relatives. The participants appreciated the drug intake graph because it provided an objective overview of medication adherence, thereby reassuring, rewarding, and motivating them. The main reason to join the program was to be supported, especially with respect to medication adherence. CONCLUSIONS:Participants were satisfied with the F-PSP, each for different reasons. Their feedback enabled the identification of measures for the optimization of the F-PSP and should facilitate its dissemination and transfer to other drugs/diseases/populations. Essential elements of generic pharmacist-led patient support programs considered valuable from the patients' perspective were identified.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine whether a pharmacist-led intervention improves medication adherence among patients who have filled a first-time prescription for a cardiovascular medicine. METHODS:Design: Unblinded randomized controlled trial. SETTING:67 Norwegian pharmacies, October 2014-June 2015. PARTICIPANTS:1480 adults with a first-time prescription for a cardiovascular medicine. INTERVENTION:Participants in the intervention group received two consultations with a pharmacist 1-2 and 3-5 weeks after filling the prescription. Participants in the control group received care according to usual practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:The primary outcome was self-reported adherence as measured by the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8), at 7 and 18 weeks after filling the prescription. Adherence from baseline to week 52 was estimated using data from the Norwegian Prescription Database (NPD). KEY FINDINGS:Data from MMAS-8 showed that 91.3% of the patients in the intervention group were adherent after 7 weeks versus 86.8% in the control group (4.5% difference, 95% CI 0.8-8.2, P = 0.017). The corresponding proportions were 88.7% versus 83.7% after 18 weeks (5.0% difference, 95% CI 0.8-9.2, P = 0.021). NPD data (n = 1294) showed no significant difference in adherence after 52 weeks (95% CI -2.0 to 7.8, P = 0.24). However, adherence among statin users (n = 182) was 66.5% in the intervention group versus 57.4% among new statin users in the general population (n = 1500) (difference 9.1%, 95% CI 1.5-16.0, P = 0.019). CONCLUSION:The main outcome measure indicates that a short, structured pharmacist-led intervention may increase medication adherence for patients starting on chronic cardiovascular medication. However, these findings could not be confirmed by the NPD data analysis.
Project description:Introduction: Non-adherence to medication is a complex health care problem. In spite of substantial efforts, up till now little progress has been made to effectively tackle the problem with adherence-enhancing interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a patient-tailored, pharmacist-led and theory-driven intervention program aimed to enhance self-reported adherence to antihypertensive medication. Materials and Methods: A parallel-group randomized controlled trial in 20 community pharmacies with nine months follow-up was conducted. Patients (45-75 years) using antihypertensive medication and considered non-adherent based on both pharmacy dispensing data and a self-report questionnaire were eligible to participate. The intervention program consisted of two consultations with the pharmacist to identify participants' barriers to adhere to medication and to counsel participants in overcoming these barriers. The primary outcome was self-reported medication adherence. Secondary outcomes were beliefs about medicines, illness perceptions, quality of life and blood pressure. Mixed-model and generalized estimating equation (GEE) analyses were used to assess overall effects of the intervention program and effects per time point. Results: 170 patients were included. No significant differences between intervention and control groups were found in self-reported adherence, quality of life, illness perceptions, beliefs about medicines (concern scale), and blood pressure. After nine months, intervention participants had significantly stronger beliefs about the necessity of using their medicines as compared to control participants (mean difference 1.25 [95% CI: 0.27 to 2.24], p = 0.012). Discussion: We do not recommend to implement the intervention program in the current form for this study population. Future studies should focus on how to select eligible patient groups with appropriate measures in order to effectively target adherence-enhancing interventions. Trial Register: NTR5017 http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=5017.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Adherence to medication is often low. Pharmacists may improve adherence, but a one-size-fits-all approach will not work: different patients have different needs. Goal of the current study is to assess the effectiveness of a patient-tailored, telephone-based intervention by a pharmacist at the start of pharmacotherapy aimed at improving medication adherence, satisfaction with information and counselling and the beliefs about medicines. METHODS/DESIGN: A cluster randomized controlled intervention trial in 30 Dutch pharmacies, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 intervention groups. Each group consists of an intervention arm and an usual care arm. The intervention arm in the first group is the usual care arm in the second group and vice versa. One intervention arm focuses on patients starting with antidepressants or bisphosphonates and the other on antilipaemic drugs or renin angiotensin system (RAS)-inhibitors. The intervention consists of a telephone call by a pharmacist 2 or 3 weeks after a new prescription. A random sample of pharmacies will send questionnaires 3 months after the first prescription. This contains socio-demographic questions, a measure of beliefs about medicines (BMQ), satisfaction with information received (SIMS, abbreviated) and frequency of pharmacy counselling (Consumer Quality Index, CQI, abbreviated). The primary outcome measure will be medication adherence calculated from dispensing records retrieved 12 months after the intervention. Patients' beliefs on medication, perception of the quality of information received and pharmacy counselling are secondary outcomes. DISCUSSION: The TelCIP study will determine the effectiveness of telephone counselling to improve adherence in patients initiating a new treatment. By measuring satisfaction with information and counselling and beliefs about medication the study will also give clues for the reason of a potential increase in adherence. Finally the study will provide information on which patients are most likely to benefit from this intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered at http://www.trialregister.nl under the identifier NTR3237.
Project description:S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy is an outpatient treatment for gastric cancer. To evaluate the role of the pharmacist outpatient service in increasing medication adherence and reducing adverse events associated with S-1, the present study retrospectively analyzed prescription recommendations from pharmacists to physicians and the persistence rate of S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy use in patients with gastric cancer. A total of 40 subjects who utilized the pharmacist outpatient service between November 2014 and March 2016 comprised the pharmacist group; and 94 patients who underwent S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer between September 2012 and October 2014, but not as pharmacist outpatients, comprised the control group. Data on the prescription recommendations, persistence rate of S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy for 1 year and relative dose intensity were collected. The number of interventions and consultations for the pharmacist outpatient group were 40 and 644, respectively. Prescription recommendations regarding dosage, drug administration interval, and supportive therapy were provided in 62, 15 and 132 cases, respectively. The prescription proposal acceptance rate was 92.5%. The persistence rate of S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy for 1 year was significantly higher in the pharmacist group (82.5%) compared with the control group (39.4%; P<0.0001). The discontinuation rate due to adverse events was significantly lower in the pharmacist group (7.5%) compared with the control group (31.9%; P=0.0015). In subjects who completed S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy, the relative dose intensities in the control and pharmacist groups were 82.9 and 84.7%, respectively. In conclusion, the continued pharmaceutical intervention ensured a high persistence rate of S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Gathering relevant patient information during over-the-counter (OTC) consultations increases the likelihood of safe, effective and person-centred outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the key determinants to information gathering during consultations for non-prescription medicine requests in community pharmacies in Scotland. DESIGN:Semi-structured interviews using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), with community pharmacy teams across Scotland. Interviews explored participants' knowledge of current guidance, skills required to elicit information and barriers and facilitators associated with this behaviour. Theory-based content analysis was undertaken using the TDF as an initial coding framework to identify key determinants and map them to salient domains. Salience was determined by prominence or variation in views. Comparative analysis was undertaken by professional role. RESULTS:Thirty interviews were conducted with pharmacists (n=19) and medicine counter assistants (MCAs) (n=11). Eight salient domains were identified: environmental context and resources (privacy), beliefs about consequences (patient safety), skills (communication, decision-making), social influences (patient awareness of pharmacist role), knowledge (awareness and use of standard operating procedures), social professional role and identity (perception of own role), behavioural regulation (training) and intention (to gather information). Similar domains were salient for pharmacists and MCAs; however, different beliefs were associated with different roles. Overarching themes were identified: best practice, health literacy, decision-making and professionalism. CONCLUSIONS:Multiple influences and complexities affect the effective management of OTC consultations. While similar factors impact on both pharmacists and MCAs at a patient, professional and environmental level, subtle differences exist in how these influence their management of OTC consultations. This study highlights the importance of tailoring interventions to reflect different roles, functions and responsibilities of community pharmacy personnel.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Oral medication for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus plays an important role in diabetes care and is associated with a high level self-care behavior and self-management. However, poor adherence to diabetes treatment is common which causes severe health complications and increased mortality. Barriers to adherence may consist of complex treatment regimens often along with long-term multi-therapies, side effects due to the medication as well as insufficient, incomprehensible or confusing information or instructions provided by the health care provider. Multidisciplinary approaches can support adherence success and can enable a more effective management of diabetes care. One approach in diabetes care can be the involvement of a pharmacist. The aim was to analyze the effectiveness of adherence-enhancing pharmacist interventions for oral medication in type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. The study quality was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. RESULTS: Of 491 hits, six publications were included. Two studies mainly examining educational interventions showed a significant improvement in adherence. Moreover, the quality of the included studies was deficient. CONCLUSION: Although pharmacist interventions might potentially improve adherence to type 2 diabetes mellitus medication, high-quality studies are needed to assess effectiveness.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Within the sphere of diabetes self-management, much emphasis has been placed on medication adherence. There has been a shift in thinking about medication adherence, moving from "compliance" and historically paternalistic models of care, to seeking better ways of characterizing dynamic and complex relationships that determine medication adherence and diabetes control. This study sought to understand the relationship between patient's attitudes and medication adherence for oral anti-diabetics in Thailand. METHODS:In-depth interviews of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, taking oral anti-diabetic drugs, at the out-patient clinic run by the Department of Family Medicine, Chiang Mai University between May and December 2016. Thematic analysis followed the WHO framework for medication adherence in chronic disease to explore patient's attitudes and their influence on medication compliance. RESULTS:Of 24 patients, 9 were men. The mean age was 62?years (SD 8.9?years). 67% had high compliance. Four themes were identified as important factors related to medication adherence: attitudes toward disease, attitudes toward treatment, attitudes toward family support and attitudes toward health care team. Specifically, symptoms at diagnosis, understanding and acceptance in taking medication, the presence of family support and the perception of concern by the doctor relate to improved medication compliance. CONCLUSIONS:Medication adherence in Thai patients with diabetes requires support from both the health care providers and the family. The patient's perception of the doctor's concern creates greater patient trust in the health care team. This trust, along with family support, helps deepen patients' understanding of the disease, accept the chronic nature of their disease, and engenders a positive attitude towards taking medication that can improve medication adherence.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Medication errors and adverse drug events are common after hospital discharge due to changes in medication regimens, suboptimal discharge instructions, and prolonged time to follow-up. Pharmacist-based interventions may be effective in promoting the safe and effective use of medications, especially among high-risk patients such as those with low health literacy. METHODS AND RESULTS:The Pharmacist Intervention for Low Literacy in Cardiovascular Disease (PILL-CVD) study is a randomized controlled trial conducted at 2 academic centers-Vanderbilt University Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital. Patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome or acute decompensated heart failure were randomly assigned to usual care or intervention. The intervention consisted of pharmacist-assisted medication reconciliation, inpatient pharmacist counseling, low-literacy adherence aids, and tailored telephone follow-up after discharge. The primary outcome is the occurrence of serious medication errors in the first 30 days after hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes are health care utilization, disease-specific quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. Enrollment was completed September 2009. A total of 862 patients were enrolled, and 430 patients were randomly assigned to receive the intervention. Analyses will determine whether the intervention was effective in reducing serious medication errors, particularly in patients with low health literacy. CONCLUSIONS:The PILL-CVD study was designed to reduce serious medication errors after hospitalization through a pharmacist-based intervention. The intervention, if effective, will inform health care facilities on the use of pharmacist-assisted medication reconciliation, inpatient counseling, low-literacy adherence aids, and patient follow-up after discharge. Clinical Trial Registration- clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT00632021.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study explored the reasons for patients' non-adherence to cardiometabolic medications, and tested the acceptability of the interactive voice response (IVR) as a way to address these reasons, and support patients, between primary care consultations. DESIGN, METHOD, PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING:The study included face-to-face interviews with 19 patients with hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus, selected from primary care databases, and presumed to be non-adherent. Thirteen of these patients pretested elements of the IVR intervention few months later, using a think-aloud protocol. Five practice nurses were interviewed. Data were analysed using multiperspective, and longitudinalthematic analysis. RESULTS:Negative beliefs about taking medications, the complexity of prescribed medication regimens, and the limited ability to cope with the underlying affective state, within challenging contexts, were mentioned as important reasons for non-adherence. Nurses reported time constraints to address each patient's different reasons for non-adherence, and limited efficacy to support patients, between primary care consultations. Patients gave positive experiential feedback about the IVR messages as a way to support them take their medicines, and provided recommendations for intervention content and delivery mode. Specifically, they liked the voice delivering the messages and the voice recognition software. For intervention content, they preferred messages that were tailored, and included messages with 'information about health consequences', 'action plans', or simple reminders for performing the behaviour. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes, and practice nurses, suggested messages tailored to each patient's reasons for non-adherence. Participants recommended IVR as an acceptable platform to support adherence to cardiometabolic medications between primary care consultations. Future studies could usefully test the acceptability, and feasibility, of tailored IVR interventions to support medication adherence, as an adjunct to primary care.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Amidst the high disease burden, non-adherence to medications among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been reported to be common and devastating. Sarawak Pharmaceutical Services Division has formulated a pharmacist-led, multiple-theoretical-grounding, culturally sensitive and structured group-based program, namely "Know Your Medicine - Take if for Health" (MEDIHEALTH), to improve medication adherence among Malay patients with T2DM. However, to date, little is known about the effectiveness and sustainability of the Program. METHODS/DESIGN:This is a prospective, parallel-design, two-treatment-group randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of MEDIHEALTH in improving medication adherence. Malay patients who have underlying T2DM, who obtain medication therapy at Petra Jaya Health Clinic and Kota Samarahan Health Clinic, and who have a moderate to low adherence level (8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, Malaysian specific, score <6) were randomly assigned to the treatment group (MEDIHEALTH) or the control group. The primary outcome of this study is medication adherence level at baseline and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months post-intervention. The secondary outcomes are attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, intention and knowledge related to medication adherence measured at baseline and 1, 6 and 12 months post-intervention. The effectiveness and sustainability of the Program will be triangulated by findings from semi-structured interviews with five selected participants conducted 1 month after the intervention and in-depth interviews with two main facilitators and two managerial officers in charge of the Program 12 months after the intervention. Statistical analyses of quantitative data were conducted using SPSS version 22 and Stata version 14. Thematic analysis for qualitative data were conducted with the assistance of ATLAS.ti 8. DISCUSSION:This study provides evidence on the effectiveness and sustainability of a structured group-based educational program that employs multiple theoretical grounding and a culturally sensitive approach in promoting medication adherence among Malays with underlying T2DM. Both the quantitative and qualitative findings of this study could assist in the future development of the Program. TRIAL REGISTRATION:National Medical Research Register, NMRR-17-925-35875 (IIR). Registered on 19 May 2017. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03228706 . Registered on 25 July 2017.