DFT Modeling of the Alternating Radical Copolymerization and Alder-Ene Reaction between Maleic Anhydride and Olefins.
ABSTRACT: The free radical copolymerization of electron-acceptor and electron-donor vinyl monomers represents a particular case of sequence-controlled polymerization. The reactions of maleic anhydride (MA) or related compounds (acceptor comonomers) with ?-olefins (donor comonomers) result in the formation of the alternating copolymers that have clear prospects for petrochemical and biomedical applications. However, in contrast to the well-established polymerization of acrylate monomers, these processes have not been studied theoretically using the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In our research, we performed a comprehensive theoretical analysis of the free radical copolymerization of MA and closely related maleimide with different structural types of olefins at mpw1pw91/6-311g(d) level of the DFT. The results of our calculations clearly indicated the preference of the alternating reaction mode for the copolymerization of MA with ?-olefins, isobutylene and prospective unsaturated monomers, as well as methylenealkanes. The DFT modeling of the thermally induced Alder-ene reaction between MA and olefins allowed to exclude this reaction from the scope of possible side processes at moderately high temperatures. Comparative analysis of MA and N-methylmaleimide (MMI) reactivity shown that the use of MMI instead of MA makes no sense in terms of the reaction rate and selectivity.
Project description:Catalytic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of cyclic esters (lactides, lactones) and cyclic ethylene phosphates is an effective way to process materials with regulated hydrophilicity and controlled biodegradability. Random copolymers of cyclic monomers of different chemical nature are highly attractive due to their high variability of characteristics. Aryloxy-alkoxy complexes of non-toxic metals such as derivatives of 2,6-di-<i>tert</i>-butyl-4-methylphenoxy magnesium (BHT-Mg) complexes are effective coordination catalysts for homopolymerization of all types of traditional ROP monomers. In the present paper, we report the results of density functional theory (DFT) modeling of BHT-Mg-catalyzed copolymerization for lactone/lactide, lactone/ethylene phosphate and lactide/ethylene phosphate mixtures. <i>?</i>-Caprolactone (<i>?</i>-CL), <i>l</i>-lactide (<i>l</i>-LA) and methyl ethylene phosphate (MeOEP) were used as examples of monomers in DFT simulations by the Gaussian-09 program package with the B3PW91/DGTZVP basis set. Both binuclear and mononuclear reaction mechanistic concepts have been applied for the calculations of the reaction profiles. The results of calculations predict the possibility of the formation of random copolymers based on <i>l</i>-LA/MeOEP, and substantial hindrance of copolymerization for <i>?</i>-CL/<i>l</i>-LA and <i>?</i>-CL/MeOEP pairs. From the mechanistic point of view, the formation of highly stable five-membered chelate by the products of <i>l</i>-LA ring-opening and high donor properties of phosphates are the key factors that rule the reactions. The results of DFT modeling have been confirmed by copolymerization experiments.
Project description:In this contribution, we explored the copolymerization of propylene with higher ?-olefins, including 1-octene (C8) 1-dodecene (C12), 1-hexadecene (C16) and 1-eicosene (C20), by using a dimethyl pyridylamidohafnium catalyst. A series of copolymers with varied comonomer incorporation, high molecular weight and narrow molecular weight distribution were obtained at mild conditions. The effects of the insertion of the comonomers on the microstructure, thermal and final mechanical properties were systemically studied by 13C NMR, wide-angle X-ray scattering, DSC and tensile test. Excellent mechanical performances were achieved by tuning the incorporation and chain length of the higher ?-olefins. When the comonomer content reached above 12 mol.%, polypropylene-based elastomers were obtained with high ductility. A combination of excellent elastic recovery and flexibility was achieved for the P/C16 copolymers with about 20 mol.% monomer incorporation. The monomer incorporation and side chain length played a crucial role in determining the mechanical property of the outstanding polypropylene-based elastomers.
Project description:A benzoxazine containing a vinyl group (P-4va) was prepared by the reaction of phenol, 4-vinylaniline, and paraformaldehyde. A differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study revealed that ring-opening polymerization of the benzoxazine and chain polymerization of the vinyl group occurred in the same temperature range. When 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile was added as a radical initiator to P-4va, however, only the vinyl groups were polymerized at lower temperature, giving oligo(P-4va) that contains pendent benzoxazine units. Radical copolymerization of P-4va with various vinyl monomers such as styrene, methyl methacrylate (MMA), and n-butyl acrylate (BuA) was examined. The chemical structure of the copolymers was confirmed by FT-IR and 1H-NMR to be one of polyolefins bearing benzoxazine units as the pendant groups. The weight-average molecular weights of the copolymers determined by size exclusion chromatography were to be in the range of 1900-51,500 depending on the comonomers. DSC of the copolymers showed that the maxima of the exothermic peaks corresponding to the ring-opening polymerization of the pendent benzoxazine units were observed in the temperature range of 229-250 °C. Thermal cure up to 240 °C of the copolymer films afforded homogenous transparent films with improved thermal properties. Tough cured film was obtained by the copolymerization with MMA, while a tough and flexible film was obtained by the copolymerization with BuA.
Project description:For the copolymerization of non-conjugated olefins and maleimides, it is known that under certain conditions periodic ABA monomer sequences are formed. In this work, such a copolymerization is used to create polymers which have defined (periodic) monomer sequences and can be functionalized after polymerization. The copolymerization of pentafluorophenol (PFP) active esters of 4-pentenoic acid and perillic acid with N-phenyl maleimide (PhMI) was studied in 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-phenyl-2-propanol (HFPP). In DCE and for the copolymerization of the PFP ester of 4-pentenoic acid and PhMI in HFPP, polymers were formed where the active esters were separated by at least one PhMI unit. The average number of separating PhMI units can be controlled by varying the feed ratio of the monomers. For the copolymerization of the PFP ester of perillic acid in HFPP, a preference for the formation of periodic copolymers was observed, where active esters were preferably separated from each other by a maximum of two PhMI moieties. Therefore, the copolymerization of said active ester containing monomers with PhMI provides a platform to create polymers in which reactive moieties are distributed along the polymer chain in different fashions. The active esters in the non-conjugated vinyl monomers could be used in a post-polymerization functionalization step to create functionalized polymers with defined monomer sequences in a modular way.
Project description:Three random copolymers PE- co -M1, PE- co -M2, and PE- co -M3 were obtained by electrochemical polymerization of donor-acceptor-donor monomers M1, M2, and M3 with 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene moiety, respectively, using a 1:1 molar ratio of the corresponding monomers, to find new properties and a more effective way to control the optoelectronic properties in conjugated system. For comparison purpose, polymers P1, P2, and P3 were prepared from the corresponding monomer units M1-M3, respectively, by electrochemical polymerization. We also present efficient synthesis, characterization, and comparative density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the monomers M1-M3 and polymers P1-P3. Cyclic voltammetry, spectroelectrochemistry, and electrochromic properties of all of the polymers P1-P3 and copolymers PE- co -M1, PE- co -M2, and PE- co -M3 were carried out and a throughout comparison was made. We have shown that electrochemical copolymerization is a powerful strategy to tune the highest occupied molecular orbital energy level, band gap, and color of the copolymer. Thus, this finding clearly indicates that the copolymers show significantly different optoelectronic properties compared to their constituent polymers.
Project description:Strained bicyclic carbomethoxy olefins were utilized as substrates in alternating ring-opening metathesis polymerization and found to provide low-dispersity polymers with novel backbones. The polymerization of methyl bicyclo[4.2.0]oct-7-ene-7-carboxylate with cyclohexene in the presence of the fast-initiating Grubbs catalyst (H2IMes)(3-Br-Pyr)2Cl2Ru=CHPh leads to a completely linear as well as alternating copolymer, as demonstrated by NMR spectroscopy, isotopic labeling, and gel permeation chromatography. In contrast, intramolecular chain-transfer reactions were observed with [5.2.0] and [3.2.0] bicyclic carbomethoxy olefins, although to a lesser extent than with the previously reported monocyclic cyclobutenecarboxylic ester monomers [Song A.; Parker K. A.; Sampson N. S.J. Am. Chem. Soc.2009, 131, 3444]. Inclusion of cyclohexyl rings fused to the copolymer backbone minimizes intramolecular chain-transfer reactions and provides a framework for creating alternating functionality in a one-step polymerization.
Project description:The homogeneous non-catalytic hydrogenation of cis-1,4 poly(isoprene), isotactic cis-1,4 poly(1,3-pentadiene) and syndiotactic cis-1,4 poly(1,3-pentadiene) with diimide, formed by thermal decomposition of para-toluenesulfonylhydrazide, is examined. Perfectly alternating ethylene/propylene copolymers having different tacticity (i.e., isotactic and syndiotactic), which are difficult to synthesize by stereospecific copolymerization of the corresponding monomers, are obtained. Both isotactic and syndiotactic alternating ethylene/propylene copolymers are amorphous, with very low glass transition temperatures.
Project description:The alternating copolymerization of epoxides with cyclic anhydrides (CAs) is a highly diverse synthetic method for polyesters as the polymers' architectures and properties can be easily controlled depending on the combination of two monomers. Thus, a variety of catalyst designs has been reported to prepare the desired copolymers efficiently. We herein report dinuclear cobalt-salen complexes with a benzene ring as a linker and their activities in copolymerization reactions. The dinuclear cobalt complexes showed a higher catalytic activity for the copolymerization of propylene oxide with phthalic anhydride than the corresponding mononuclear cobalt-salen complex and achieved one of the highest turnover frequencies ever reported. A variety of epoxides and CAs were also found to be copolymerized successfully by the dinuclear cobalt complex with a high catalytic activity.
Project description:Glycidyl azide polymer or poly(glycidyl azide) which is considered as an excellent energetic binder or plasticizer in advanced solid propellants is generally obtained by post-modification or azidation of poly(epichlorohydrin). Here we report that glycidyl azide can be directly homopolymerized through anionic ring-opening polymerization to access poly(glycidyl azide) using onium salts as initiator and triethyl borane as activator. Molar masses of poly(glycidyl azide) up to 11.0?Kg/mol are achieved in a controlled manner with a narrow polydispersity index (PDI???1.2). Similarly, alternating poly(glycidyl azide carbonate) are also prepared through alternating copolymerization of glycidyl azide with carbon dioxide. Lastly, the copolymerization of glycidyl azide with other epoxide monomers is carried out; the azido functions carried by glycidyl azide which are successfully incorporated into the backbones of polyethers and polycarbonates based on cyclohexene oxide and propylene oxide subsequently served to introduce other functions by click chemistry.
Project description:Direct (hetero)arylation polymerization (DHAP) has emerged as a valuable and atom-economical alternative to traditional cross-coupling methods for the synthesis of low-cost and efficient conjugated polymers for organic electronics. However, when applied to the synthesis of certain (hetero)arene-based materials, a lack of C-H bond selectivity has been observed. To prevent such undesirable side-reactions, we report the design and synthesis of new, bulky, phosphine-based ligands that significantly enhance selectivity of the DHAP process for both halogenated and non-halogenated electron-rich and electron-deficient thiophene-based comonomers. To better understand the selectivity issues, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed on various halogenated and non-halogenated electron-rich and electron-deficient thiophene-based comonomers. Calculations showed that the presence of bromine atoms decreases the energy of activation (Ea) of the adjacent C-H bonds, allowing undesirable ?-defects for some brominated aromatic units. Both calculations and the new ligands should lead to the rational design of monomers and methods for the preparation of defect-free conjugated polymers from DHAP.