Significantly enhancing production of trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline by integrated system engineering in Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT: Trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline is produced by trans-proline-4-hydroxylase with l-proline through glucose fermentation. Here, we designed a thorough "from A to Z" strategy to significantly improve trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline production. Through rare codon selected evolution, Escherichia coli M1 produced 18.2 g L-1 l-proline. Metabolically engineered M6 with the deletion of putA, proP, putP, and aceA, and proB mutation focused carbon flux to l-proline and released its feedback inhibition. It produced 15.7 g L-1 trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline with 10 g L-1 l-proline retained. Furthermore, a tunable circuit based on quorum sensing attenuated l-proline hydroxylation flux, resulting in 43.2 g L-1 trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline with 4.3 g L-1 l-proline retained. Finally, rationally designed l-proline hydroxylase gave 54.8 g L-1 trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline in 60 hours almost without l-proline remaining-the highest production to date. The de novo engineering carbon flux through rare codon selected evolution, dynamic precursor modulation, and metabolic engineering provides a good technological platform for efficient hydroxyl amino acid synthesis.
Project description:Pseudomonas putida KT2440 uses proline as the sole C and N source. Utilization of this amino acid involves its uptake, which is mediated by the PutP protein, and its conversion into glutamate, mediated by the PutA protein. Sequence analysis revealed that the putA and putP genes are transcribed divergently. Expression from the putP and putA genes was analyzed at the mRNA level in different host backgrounds in the absence and presence of proline. Expression from the put promoters was induced by proline. The transcription initiation points of the putP and putA genes were precisely mapped via primer extension, and sequence analysis of the upstream DNA region showed well-separated promoters for these two genes. The PutA protein acts as a repressor of put gene expression in P. putida because expression from the put promoters is constitutive in a host background with a knockout putA gene. This regulatory activity is independent of the catabolic activity of PutA, because we show that a point mutation (Glu896-->Lys) that prevents catalytic activity allowed the protein to retain its regulatory activity. Expression from the put promoters in the presence of proline in a putA-proficient background requires a positive regulatory protein, still unidentified, whose expression seems to be sigma(54) dependent because the put genes were not expressed in a sigma(54)-deficient background. Expression of the putA and putP genes was equally high in the presence of proline in sigma(38)- and ihf-deficient P. putida backgrounds.
Project description:Pseudomonas putida KT2442 is a root-colonizing strain which can use proline, one of the major components in root exudates, as its sole carbon and nitrogen source. A P. putida mutant unable to grow with proline as the sole carbon and nitrogen source was isolated after random mini-Tn5-Km mutagenesis. The mini-Tn5 insertion was located at the putA gene, which is adjacent to and divergent from the putP gene. The putA gene codes for a protein of 1,315 amino acid residues which is homologous to the PutA protein of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Rhodobacter capsulatus, and several Rhizobium strains. The central part of P. putida PutA showed homology to the proline dehydrogenase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster, whereas the C-terminal end was homologous to the pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase of S. cerevisiae and a number of aldehyde dehydrogenases. This suggests that in P. putida, both enzymatic steps for proline conversion to glutamic acid are catalyzed by a single polypeptide. The putP gene was homologous to the putP genes of several prokaryotic microorganisms, and its gene product is an integral inner-membrane protein involved in the uptake of proline. The expression of both genes was induced by proline added in the culture medium and was regulated by PutA. In a P. putida putA-deficient background, expression of both putA and putP genes was maximal and proline independent. Corn root exudates collected during 7 days also strongly induced the P. putida put genes, as determined by using fusions of the put promoters to 'lacZ. The induction ratio for the putA promoter (about 20-fold) was 6-fold higher than the induction ratio for the putP promoter.
Project description:Microbial physiology plays a crucial role in whole-cell biotransformation, especially for redox reactions that depend on carbon and energy metabolism. In this study, regio- and enantio-selective proline hydroxylation with recombinant Escherichia coli expressing proline-4-hydroxylase (P4H) was investigated with respect to its interconnectivity to microbial physiology and metabolism. P4H production was found to depend on extracellular proline availability and on codon usage. Medium supplementation with proline did not alter p4h mRNA levels, indicating that P4H production depends on the availability of charged prolyl-tRNAs. Increasing the intracellular levels of soluble P4H did not result in an increase in resting cell activities above a certain threshold (depending on growth and assay temperature). Activities up to 5-fold higher were reached with permeabilized cells, confirming that host physiology and not the intracellular level of active P4H determines the achievable whole-cell proline hydroxylation activity. Metabolic flux analysis revealed that tricarboxylic acid cycle fluxes in growing biocatalytically active cells were significantly higher than proline hydroxylation rates. Remarkably, a catalysis-induced reduction of substrate uptake was observed, which correlated with reduced transcription of putA and putP, encoding proline dehydrogenase and the major proline transporter, respectively. These results provide evidence for a strong interference of catalytic activity with the regulation of proline uptake and metabolism. In terms of whole-cell biocatalyst efficiency, proline uptake and competition of P4H with proline catabolism are considered the most critical factors.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 utilizes proline as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen via a bifunctional enzyme (the putA gene product) that has both proline dehydrogenase (EC 184.108.40.206) and pyrroline 5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (EC 220.127.116.11) activities. We characterized the pruR-putAP loci encoding the proline catabolic system of this strain. In contrast to the putA and putP (encoding proline permease) genes of other gram- negative bacteria, which are located at divergent or separate loci, Northern blotting demonstrated that the two genes form an operon in strain PAO1. While the phylogenetic lineage of the PutP protein of strain PAO1 was related to that of the origin (80% identity to the P. putida counterpart), PutA of PAO1 (PutA(PAO)) was rather distantly related (47% identity) to the P. putida counterpart. Moreover, unlike the PutA proteins of P. putida and enteric bacteria, PutA(PAO) appeared to lack a regulatory function. Upstream of the putAP operon, the divergent PA0781 gene specified a hypothetical outer membrane protein with a molecular weight of 74,202. This gene appeared to be dispensable for proline utilization as indicated by the normal growth of a knockout mutant of PA0781 on medium containing proline. The pruR (proline utilization regulator) gene immediately upstream of PA0781 encoded a transcriptional activator of the AraC/XylS protein family and mediated the proline-responsive expression of putAP. Primer extension studies identified a PruR-dependent promoter responsive to proline in the 5'-flanking region of putA. Thus, the proline utilization system of P. aeruginosa differs from that of P. putida with respect to putA structure, the organization of the putAP genes, and the regulatory mechanism of putA expression.
Project description:Echinocandins are antifungal nonribosomal hexapeptides produced by fungi. Two of the amino acids are hydroxy-l-prolines: trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline and, in most echinocandin structures, (trans-2,3)-3-hydroxy-(trans-2,4)-4-methyl-l-proline. In the case of echinocandin biosynthesis by Glarea lozoyensis, both amino acids are found in pneumocandin A0, while in pneumocandin B0 the latter residue is replaced by trans-3-hydroxy-l-proline (3-Hyp). We have recently reported that all three amino acids are generated by the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent proline hydroxylase GloF. In echinocandin B biosynthesis by Aspergillus species, 3-Hyp derivatives have not been reported. Here we describe the heterologous production and kinetic characterization of HtyE, the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent proline hydroxylase from the echinocandin B biosynthetic cluster in Aspergillus pachycristatus Surprisingly, l-proline hydroxylation with HtyE resulted in an even higher proportion (?30%) of 3-Hyp than that with GloF. This suggests that the selectivity for methylated 3-Hyp in echinocandin B biosynthesis is due solely to a substrate-specific adenylation domain of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase. Moreover, we observed that one product of HtyE catalysis, 3-hydroxy-4-methyl-l-proline, is slowly further oxidized at the methyl group, giving 3-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethyl-l-proline, upon prolonged incubation with HtyE. This dihydroxylated amino acid has been reported as a building block of cryptocandin, an echinocandin produced by CryptosporiopsisIMPORTANCE Secondary metabolites from bacteria and fungi are often produced by sets of biosynthetic enzymes encoded in distinct gene clusters. Usually, each enzyme catalyzes one biosynthetic step, but multiple reactions are also possible. Pneumocandins A0 and B0 are produced by the fungus Glarea lozoyensis They belong to the echinocandin family, a group of nonribosomal cyclic lipopeptides that exhibit a strong antifungal activity. Chemical derivatives are important drugs for the treatment of systemic fungal infections. We have recently shown that in the biosynthesis of pneumocandins A0 and B0, three hydroxyproline building blocks are provided by one proline hydroxylase. Here we demonstrate that the proline hydroxylase from echinocandin B biosynthesis in Aspergillus pachycristatus produces the same hydroxyprolines, with an increased proportion of trans-3-hydroxyproline. However, echinocandin B biosynthesis does not require trans-3-hydroxyproline; its formation remains cryptic. While one can only speculate on the evolutionary background of this unexpected finding, proline hydroxylation in G. lozoyensis and A. pachycristatus provides an unusual insight into peptide antibiotic biosynthesis-namely, the complex interplay between the selectivity of a hydroxylase and the substrate specificity of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase.
Project description:The multifunctional Escherichia coli proline utilization A (PutA) flavoprotein functions both as a membrane-associated proline catabolic enzyme and as a transcriptional repressor of the proline utilization genes putA and putP. To better understand the mechanism of transcriptional regulation by PutA, we have mapped the put-regulatory region, determined a crystal structure of the PutA ribbon-helix-helix domain (PutA52, a polypeptide corresponding to residues 1-52 of E. coli PutA) complexed with DNA, and examined the thermodynamics of DNA binding to PutA52. Five operator sites, each containing the sequence motif 5'-GTTGCA-3', were identified using gel-shift analysis. Three of the sites are shown to be critical for repression of putA, whereas the two other sites are important for repression of putP. The 2.25-A-resolution crystal structure of PutA52 bound to one of the operators (operator 2; 21 bp) shows that the protein contacts a 9-bp fragment corresponding to the GTTGCA consensus motif plus three flanking base pairs. Since the operator sequences differ in flanking bases, the structure implies that PutA may have different affinities for the five operators. This hypothesis was explored using isothermal titration calorimetry. The binding of PutA52 to operator 2 is exothermic, with an enthalpy of -1.8 kcal/mol and a dissociation constant of 210 nM. Substitution of the flanking bases of operator 4 into operator 2 results in an unfavorable enthalpy of 0.2 kcal/mol and a 15-fold-lower affinity, showing that base pairs outside of the consensus motif impact binding. Structural and thermodynamic data suggest that hydrogen bonds between Lys9 and bases adjacent to the GTTGCA motif contribute to transcriptional regulation by fine-tuning the affinity of PutA for put control operators.
Project description:Proline utilization A (PutA) from Escherichia coli is a membrane-associated trifunctional flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of proline to glutamate and moonlights as a transcriptional regulator. As a regulatory protein, PutA represses transcription of the put regulon, which contains the genes encoding PutA and the proline transporter PutP. The binding of proline to the proline dehydrogenase active site and the subsequent reduction of the flavin induce high affinity membrane association of PutA and relieve repression of the put regulon, thereby causing PutA to switch from its regulatory to its enzymatic role. Here, we present evidence suggesting that residues of the ?3-?3 loop of the proline dehydrogenase domain (??)8 barrel are involved in proline-mediated allosteric regulation of PutA-membrane binding. Mutation of the conserved residues Asp370 and Glu372 in the ?3-?3 loop abrogates the ability of proline to induce functional membrane association. Both in vitro lipid/membrane binding assays and in vivo cell-based assays demonstrate that mutagenesis of Asp370 (D370N/A) or Glu372 (E372A) dramatically impedes PutA functional switching. The crystal structures of the proline dehydrogenase domain mutants PutA86-630D370N and PutA86-630D370A complexed with the proline analogue l-tetrahydro-2-furoic acid show that the mutations cause only minor perturbations to the active site but no major structural changes, suggesting that the lack of proline response is not due to a failure of the mutated active sites to correctly bind the substrate. Rather, these results suggest that the ?3-?3 loop may be involved in transmitting the status of the proline dehydrogenase active site and flavin redox state to the distal membrane association domain.
Project description:We report here the cloning and sequencing of the gene for proline dehydrogenase (putA) of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. An open reading frame coding for 1,016 amino acids was identified. The B. japonicum gene codes for a bifunctional protein with proline dehydrogenase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) dehydrogenase activities, as it does in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Comparison of the sequences of these proteins with other proline and P5C dehydrogenase sequences identified proline dehydrogenase and P5C dehydrogenase catalytic domains. Within the proline dehydrogenation domain, several areas of high identity were observed between B. japonicum, E. coli, S. typhimurium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae put1, and Drosophila melanogaster slgA. Within the P5C dehydrogenase domain, several areas of high identity were observed between B. japonicum, E. coli, S. typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis ipa76d, and S. cerevisiae put2. A consensus catalytic site for semialdehyde dehydrogenase was observed in the P5C dehydrogenase domain. This suggests that the substrate for this domain may be the open-chain gamma-glutamylsemialdehyde, not its cyclized form, P5C. Unlike the gene isolated from E. coli, S. typhimurium, and K. pneumoniae, the B. japonicum putA gene does not appear to be part of an operon with the proline porter gene (putP). Additionally, the B. japonicum gene lacks the putative C-terminal regulatory domain present in the E. coli and S. typhimurium genes. The gene was disrupted by insertion of antibiotic resistance gene cassettes, which were then recombined into the bacterial chromosome. Symbiotically active mutant strains that were devoid of putA activity were isolated. With this proline dehydrogenase clone, we will test the hypothesis that putA in symbiotic nitrogen-fixing B. japonicum bacteroids is transcriptionally regulated by drought and other stresses.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogenic bacterium, causes acute and chronic infections. Upon entering the host, P. aeruginosa alters global gene expression to adapt to host environment and avoid clearance by the host immune system. Proline utilization A (PutA) is a bifunctional enzyme, which converts proline to glutamate. Here we report that PutA was required for the virulence of P. aeruginosa in a murine acute pneumonia model. A putA mutant was more susceptible to oxidative stress compared to the wild type strain. An AraC/XylS family protein, PruR, directly bound to the upstream of -35 box in the putA promoter and activated putA expression. High concentration of proline in bacteria up-regulated pruR expression, which led to the activation of putA expression. As a feedback regulation, glutamate produced by PutA released PruR from the putA promoter and turned off the putA expression. PruR affected bacterial virulence through the regulation of the putA expression. Altogether, these data are the first to reveal that PutA plays an important role in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa, as well as to describe the genetic regulation of PutA in P. aeruginosa.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of food-borne disease in industrialized countries. Carbohydrate utilization by C. jejuni is severely restricted, and knowledge about which substrates fuel C. jejuni infection and growth is limited. Some amino acids have been shown to serve as carbon sources both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we investigated the contribution of serine and proline catabolism to the invitro and invivo growth of C. jejuni 81-176. We confirmed that the serine transporter SdaC and the serine ammonia-lyase SdaA are required for serine utilization, and demonstrated that a predicted proline permease PutP and a bifunctional proline/delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase PutA are required for proline utilization by C. jejuni 81-176. C. jejuni 81-176 mutants unable to utilize serine were shown to be severely defective for colonization of the intestine and systemic tissues in a mouse model of infection. In contrast, C. jejuni 81-176 mutants unable to utilize proline were only defective for intestinal colonization. These results further emphasize the importance of amino acid utilization in C. jejuni colonization of various tissues.