Prolonged response to liposomal irinotecan in a patient with stage IV pancreatic/bile duct cancer previously treated with FOLFIRINOX and gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel.
ABSTRACT: At 9%, and 2% when diagnosed at advanced stage, the 5-year relative survival rate for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (pdac) is the lowest of any cancer. The currently approved treatment options for metastatic pdac in the United States are folfirinox [irinotecan-fluorouracil (5fu)-leucovorin (lv)-oxaliplatin], gemcitabine-nab-paclitaxel, and liposomal irinotecan plus 5fu-lv. Liposomal irinotecan is a novel formulation of irinotecan encapsulated within a lipid bilayer, which favours local metabolic activation. The napoli-1 trial demonstrated the efficacy of liposomal irinotecan in combination with 5fu and lv for the treatment of advanced pdac after progression on gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. The 1-year survival in those patients was 25%; however, none had had irinotecan-refractory disease before treatment with liposomal irinotecan. Furthermore, the U.S. National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend liposomal irinotecan plus 5fu-lv in patients who have received prior fluoropyrimidine-based therapy if no prior irinotecan therapy has been given. Here, we report a male patient with stage iv cancer of pancreas or bile duct (site unconfirmed) who experienced a prolonged (51 weeks) response to liposomal irinotecan plus 5fu-lv despite prior disease progression on irinotecan. Several factors have previously been associated with long-term survival in patients receiving liposomal irinotecan therapy: no prior irinotecan-based chemotherapy, high Karnofsky performance status score, age 65 years or less, serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 less than 59 U/mL, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio 5 or less, and absence of liver metastasis. The patient in the present report had none of those characteristics indicative of long-term survival, except his age at diagnosis-47 years.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The NAnoliPOsomaL Irinotecan (NAPOLI-1) study (NCT01494506) was the largest global phase 3 study in a post-gemcitabine metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (mPAC) population (N = 417). The subanalyses reported here investigated the prognostic effect of tumor characteristics and disease stage, prior treatment characteristics, baseline patient characteristics on survival outcomes in NAPOLI-1, and whether liposomal irinotecan (nal-IRI) + 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (5-FU/LV) benefited patients with mPAC across subgroups. METHODS:Post hoc analyses were performed in the NAPOLI-1 population (4 across tumor characteristics and disease stage, 6 across prior treatment characteristics, and 4 across patient baseline characteristics). Survival outcomes were estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and patient safety data were evaluated. RESULTS:Mortality and morbidity risk was lower on nal-IRI+5-FU/LV treatment across subgroups. Exceptions were patients who had received prior nonliposomal irinotecan and those who had undergone prior Whipple procedure (overall survival hazard ratio = 1.25 and 1.23, respectively). Decreased appetite, liver metastases, and number of measurable metastatic lesions seemed to be prognostic of survival in this population. Subgroup safety data were generally comparable with those in the overall NAPOLI-1 safety population. CONCLUSIONS:A diverse population of patients with mPAC that progressed on gemcitabine-based therapy benefited from nal-IRI+5-FU/LV versus 5-FU/LV, potentially helping guide treatment decisions for challenging cases.
Project description:Liposomal irinotecan (nal-IRI; Onivyde<sup>®</sup>; also known as pegylated liposomal irinotecan) has been developed with the aim of maximising anti-tumour efficacy while minimising drug-related toxicities compared with the conventional (non-liposomal) formulation of this topoisomerase 1 inhibitor. In combination with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (5-FU/LV), nal-IRI is the first agent to be specifically approved for use in patients with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (mPDAC) who have progressed following gemcitabine-based therapy. In the pivotal, phase III NAPOLI-1 trial, intravenous administration of nal-IRI?+?5-FU/LV to gemcitabine-pretreated patients with mPDAC (as a second-line treatment in approximately two-thirds of cases) was associated with a significant ??2-month median overall survival advantage compared with 5-FU/LV alone. Moreover, adding nal-IRI to 5-FU/LV extended survival with a manageable safety profile and without adversely affecting health-related quality of life, thereby producing significant and clinically meaningful gains in quality-adjusted survival relative to 5-FU/LV alone. Complementing the observed efficacy and safety of nal-IRI in NAPOLI-1 are an increasing number of real-world studies, which provide evidence of the effectiveness of this combination therapy in the treatment of mPDAC that has progressed following gemcitabine-based therapy in contemporary clinical practice in Europe, the USA and East Asia. Thus, nal-IRI, in combination with 5-FU/LV, is the first regimen specifically approved for use as a second- or subsequent-line therapy in gemcitabine-pretreated patients with mPDAC and, as such, represents a valuable treatment option in this setting.
Project description:There are questions surrounding the real-world effectiveness of chemotherapeutic treatments for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. This literature review compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes of available real-world evidence (RWE) for liposomal irinotecan in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin (LV), a treatment regimen indicated for patients with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (mPDAC) who previously progressed on gemcitabine-based therapy. A targeted literature search was conducted in the PubMed Central® and Embase® databases to identify available RWE regarding patients with mPDAC receiving liposomal irinotecan published within the last 5?years (January 2014-September 2019). Data were extracted for prior lines of therapy, performance status, overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), duration of exposure, and adverse events. Six studies met inclusion criteria. A comparison of baseline patient characteristics and results with the included evidence reveals a clinically fragile, real-world patient population in terms of age (range: 61-68), prior lines of therapy with 34-61% of patients receiving ?2 lines of lines of prior therapy and performance status [49.8-100% of patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 0-1]. Studies observed wide OS (range: 5.3-9.4?months) and similar PFS (range: 2.3-4.1?months), with two studies measuring duration of exposure (7.3?weeks, 3.1?months). Patients analyzed by RWE studies tended to be older with significant disease progression, poor performance status, and more heavily pretreated compared with the phase?III registrational trial (NAPOLI-1). Despite this, patients treated with liposomal irinotecan?+?5-FU/LV therapy had similar outcomes as those in NAPOLI-1.
Project description:NAPOLI-1 (NCT01494506) was a phase III study of liposomal irinotecan (nal-IRI) plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (5-FU/LV) in patients with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (mPDAC) previously treated with gemcitabine-based therapy. This post hoc analysis of NAPOLI-1 aimed to develop a predictive nomogram for overall survival (OS) at 6 and 12 months. Analyses were derived from all patients in NAPOLI-1 randomized to receive nal-IRI+5-FU/LV, nal-IRI monotherapy, or 5-FU/LV combination therapy. OS was associated with baseline factors using univariate and multivariable Cox analyses. A predictive nomogram was derived and validated using a concordance index and calibration plots. The univariate analyses identified 21 independent factors that contributed to OS, with eight factors significantly associated with OS. The Karnofsky Performance Score contributed the largest number of points (100), followed by presence of liver metastasis (98) and randomization to nal-IRI+5-FU/LV (96). The other baseline factors showing effects were albumin (g/dL), neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (U/mL), disease stage at diagnosis, and body mass index (kg/m2). The nomogram was used to predict the 6- and 12-month survival probability. The mean absolute errors between the observed and predicted probabilities for OS at 3, 6, and 9 months were 0.07, 0.08, and 0.07, respectively. This nomogram, based on NAPOLI-1, provides additional insight to aid decision-making for patients with mPDAC after previous gemcitabine-based therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Effective treatment options for advanced pancreatic cancer are finite. NAPOLI-1, a phase III randomized trial, demonstrated the efficacy of nanoliposomal irinotecan with fluorouracil/leucovorin (nal-IRI?+?5-FU/LV) for the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer following progression on gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. There are limited additional data on the safety and efficacy of nal-IRI?+?5-FU/LV following FDA approval in October 2015. We examined the post-approval safety and effectiveness of nal-IRI?+?5-FU/LV in advanced pancreatic cancer patients receiving treatment at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was conducted of all patients beginning treatment with nal-IRI?+?5-FU/LV from October 2015 through June 2017. Using the electronic medical record and institutional database, information was extracted pertaining to demographics, performance status (ECOG), prior therapies, dose, duration of treatment, adverse events, progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and treatment response. RESULTS:Fifty six patients were identified. Median progression free survival (PFS) was 2.9 months and median overall survival (OS) was 5.3 months. Patients with prior disease progression on irinotecan experienced PFS and OS of 2.2 and 3.9 mo, respectively. Patients without prior irinotecan exposure experienced significantly longer PFS (4.8 mo, p?=?0.02) and OS (7.7 mo, p?=?0.002), as did patients who received prior irinotecan without disease progression (PFS, 5.7 mo, p?=?0.04; OS, 9.0 mo, p?=?.04). Progression on prior irinotecan was associated with greater lines of prior advanced disease chemotherapy (2 vs 1). Dose reductions (DR) were most frequently due to fatigue (42%) and diarrhea (37%), but were not associated with worse outcomes. In fact, patients with ?1 DR experienced longer PFS (5.4 v 2.6 mo, p?=?0.035). Sequential therapy with nab-paclitaxel + gemcitabine (nab-P?+?Gem) followed by nal-IRI?+?5-FU/LV (n?=?25) resulted in OS of 23.0 mo. Mutations in TP53 were associated with shorter PFS. CONCLUSIONS:These data support the safety and efficacy of nal-IRI?+?5-FU/LV, reinforcing results of NAPOLI-1. Patients without disease progression on prior irinotecan fared significantly better than patients with progression, when treated with nal-IRI?+?5-FU/LV. Sequential therapy with nab-P?+?Gem followed by nal-IRI?+?5-FU/LV demonstrates encouraging median OS. These findings provide guidance for patients most likely to benefit from nal-IRI?+?5-FU/LV.
Project description:The global, randomized NAPOLI-1 phase 3 trial reported a survival benefit with liposomal irinotecan (nal-IRI) plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (nal-IRI+5-FU/LV) in patients with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (mPDAC) after previous gemcitabine-based therapy. Median overall survival (OS) with nal-IRI+5-FU/LV was 6.1 vs 4.2 months with 5-FU/LV alone (unstratified hazard ratio [HR] = 0.67, P = .012). Herein, we report efficacy and safety results from a post-hoc subgroup analysis of Asian patients treated at Asian centers. Primary study endpoint was OS; secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and safety. Patients receiving nal-IRI+5-FU/LV (n = 34) had significantly longer median OS versus 5-FU/LV (n = 35) (8.9 vs 3.7 months; unstratified HR = 0.51, P = .025). Patients had significantly increased median PFS with nal-IRI+5-FU/LV versus 5-FU/LV (4.0 vs 1.4; unstratified HR = 0.48, P = .011), and increased ORR (8.8% vs 0; P = .114). nal-IRI monotherapy (n = 50) numerically improved efficacy endpoints versus 5-FU/LV (n = 48): median OS was 5.8 versus 4.3 months (HR = 0.83, P = .423) and median PFS was 2.8 versus 1.4 months (HR = 0.69, P = .155). Grade ?3 neutropenia was reported more frequently with nal-IRI+5-FU/LV versus 5-FU/LV (54.5% vs 3.4%), and incidence of grade ?3 diarrhea was comparable between the two arms (3.0% vs 6.9%). This subgroup analysis confirms nal-IRI+5-FU/LV as an efficacious treatment option that improves survival in Asian patients with mPDAC that progressed after gemcitabine-based therapy, with a safety profile agreeing with previous findings. The nal-IRI+5-FU/LV regimen should represent a new standard of care for these patients in Asia. (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01494506).
Project description:Nanoliposomal irinotecan (nal-IRI) was originally developed using an efficient and high-loading capacity system to encapsulate irinotecan within a liposomal carrier, producing a therapeutic agent with improved biodistribution and pharmacokinetic characteristics compared to free drug. Specifically, administration of nal-IRI results in prolonged exposure of SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan, within tumors, while at the same time offering the advantage of less systemic toxicity than traditional irinotecan. These favorable properties of nal-IRI, confirmed in a variety of tumor xenograft models, led to its clinical evaluation in a number of disease indications for which camptothecins have proven activity, including in colorectal, gastric, and pancreatic cancers. The culmination of these clinical trials was the NAPOLI-1 (Nanoliposomal irinotecan with fluorouracil and folinic acid in metastatic pancreatic cancer after previous gemcitabine-based therapy) trial, an international Phase III study evaluating nal-IRI both alone and in combination with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin in patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma following progression on gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. Positive results from NAPOLI-1 led to approval of nal-IRI (with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin) in October 2015 by the US Food and Drug Administration specifically for the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer in the second-line setting and beyond, a clinical context in which there had previously been no accepted standard of care. As such, nal-IRI represents an important landmark in cancer drug development, and potentially ushers in a new era where a greater number of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer can be sequenced through multiple lines of therapy translating into meaningful improvements in survival.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIM:There is no standard salvage chemotherapy for metastatic periampullary adenocarcinoma and duodenal adenocarcinoma and the prognosis of those who fail oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and 5FU is dismal. We examined nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) as salvage therapy for these two malignancies. METHODS:Patients who failed oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and 5FU and whose archival tumors stained immunohistochemical (IHC) tumor positive for CK7 or MUC1 received nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine therapy with or without cisplatin. RESULTS:Three patients, 2 with metastatic ampullary adenocarcinoma and 1 with duodenal adenocarcinoma with positive IHC staining for CK7 or MUC1 who failed 2 lines of chemotherapy with oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and 5FU received nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine with or without cisplatin. All achieved excellent tumor response on CT scans with marked falls in tumor markers CA19-9 and CEA as well as ≥1 year of progression-free survival. All 3 have continued to survive 2-3 years since diagnosed with stage 4 metastatic adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSIONS:Nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine with or without cisplatin should be investigated as a standard-of-care chemotherapy regimen for patients with ampullary adenocarcinoma and duodenal adenocarcinoma.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In the NAPOLI-1 phase 3 trial, liposomal irinotecan (nal-IRI) +5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (5-FU/LV) significantly increased mPFS versus 5-FU/LV (3.1 vs. 1.5 months [unstratified HR = 0.56, p = 0.0001]) in patients with mPAC that progressed on prior gemcitabine-based therapy. This randomized phase 2 trial evaluated nal-IRI+5-FU/LV tolerability (Part 1), safety, and efficacy (Part 2; outcomes reported here) in Japanese patients with mPAC that progressed on gemcitabine-based therapy.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients were randomized 1:1 and stratified by KPS (70 and 80 vs. ?90) and baseline albumin (?4.0 g/dl vs. <4.0 g/dl). Primary endpoint was PFS; secondary endpoints were ORR, DCR, OS, TTF, CA19-9 response, and QoL. The ITT population comprised all randomized patients.<h4>Results</h4>Patient characteristics differed between nal-IRI+5-FU/LV (n = 40) and 5-FU/LV (n = 39) arms, including baseline hepatic lesions (63% vs. 51%), stage IV disease at diagnosis (78% vs. 51%), and post-study anticancer therapy (55% vs. 72%). Investigator-assessed mPFS increase with nal-IRI+5-FU/LV was clinically meaningful and statistically significant versus 5-FU/LV (2.7 vs. 1.5 months, HR = 0.60). Independently assessed mPFS showed similar trends (1.7 vs. 1.6 months, HR = 0.79). mOS was 6.3 months with nal-IRI+5-FU/LV and not reached with 5-FU/LV. ORR increased significantly with nal-IRI+5-FU/LV versus 5-FU/LV (18% vs. 0, rate difference 17.5). Commonly reported grade ?3 treatment-emergent AEs were decreased neutrophil count (37% vs. 3%), decreased white blood cell count (20% vs. 0), and diarrhea (17% vs. 3%).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In conclusion, clinically meaningful and statistically significant gains in investigator-assessed PFS and ORR were observed with nal-IRI+5-FU/LV versus 5-FU/LV in Japanese patients, with no new or unexpected safety signals. (Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02697058).
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal disease. The majority of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic disease with a prognosis of short months. Therapeutic options are limited and until recently, there was no standard second-line chemotherapy option. Liposomal constructs have been engineered to encapsulate chemotherapy thereby preventing premature metabolism, improving distribution and minimizing toxicity. Favourable preclinical data on liposomal irinotecan and early phase trials, led to a recently published phase III trial of liposomal irinotecan in combination with fluorouracil and folinic acid in patients with metastatic PDAC, who progressed after gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. As a direct result, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) have approved the use of liposomal irinotecan in this setting. However, first-line treatment options for this disease now include the combination regimen, FOLFIRINOX, in patients with good performance status, and the role of second-line combination treatment with liposomal irinotecan in this setting is unclear. Recent advances have changed the therapeutic landscape, as clinicians are now able to choose a sequential approach to treatment tailored to the individual patient characteristics. This article reviews current treatment options for metastatic PDAC and focuses on the efficacy, safety and place in therapy of liposomal irinotecan.