Hot Deformation Behavior and Microstructure Evolution of Cu-Ni-Co-Si Alloys.
ABSTRACT: The Cu-1.7Ni-1.4Co-0.65Si (wt%) alloy is hot compressed by a Gleeble-1500D machine under a temperature range of 760 to 970 °C and a strain rate range of 0.01 to 10 s-1. The flow stress increases with the extension of strain rate and decreases with the rising of deformation temperature. The dynamic recrystallization behavior happens during the hot compression deformation process. The hot deformation activation energy of the alloy can be calculated as 468.5 kJ/mol, and the high temperature deformation constitutive equation is confirmed. The hot processing map of the alloy is established on the basis of hot deformation behavior and hot working characteristics. With the optimal thermal deformation conditions of 940 to 970 °C and 0.01 to 10 s-1, the fine equiaxed grain and no holes are found in the matrix, which can provide significant guidance for hot deformation processing technology of Cu-Ni-Co-Si alloy.
Project description:Multiple hot-compression tests were carried out on the 6082 aluminum (Al) alloy using a Gleeble-1500 thermal simulation testing machine. Data on flow stresses of the 6082 Al alloy at deformation temperatures of 623 to 773 K and strain rates from 0.01 to 5 s-1 were attained. Utilizing electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM), the dynamic recrystallization behaviors of the 6082 Al alloy during hot compression in isothermal conditions were explored. With the test data, a hot-working processing map for the 6082 Al alloy (based on dynamic material modeling (DMM)) was drawn. Using the work-hardening rate, the initial critical strain causing dynamic recrystallization was determined, and an equation for the critical strain was constructed. A dynamic model for the dynamic recrystallization of the 6082 Al alloy was established using analyses and test results from the EBSD. The results showed that the safe processing zone (with a high efficiency of power dissipation) mainly corresponded to a zone with deformation temperatures of 703 to 763 K and strain rates of 0.1 to 0.3 s-1. The alloy was mainly subjected to continuous dynamic recrystallization in the formation of the zone. According to the hot-working processing map and an analysis of the microstructures, it is advised that the following technological parameters be selected for the 6082 Al alloy during hot-forming: a range of temperatures between 713 and 753 K and strain rates between 0.1 and 0.2 s-1.
Project description:Mg-Gd-Y-Zn-Zr Mg alloys show excellent performance in high-end manufacturing due to its strength, hardness and corrosion resistance. However, the hot deformation and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behaviors of Mg-13.5Gd-3.2Y-2.3Zn-0.5Zr were not studied. For this article, hot compression behavior of homogenized high rare-earth (RE) content Mg-13.5Gd-3.2Y-2.3Zn-0.5Zr (wt%) alloy was investigated by using the Gleeble-3500D thermo-simulation test machine under the temperature of 350?500 °C and the strain rate of 0.001?1 s-1. It was found that the high flow stress corresponded to the low temperature and high strain rate, which showed DRX steady state curve during the hot compression. The hot deformation average activation was 263.17 kJ/mol, which was obtained by the analysis of the hyperbolic constitutive equation and the Zener-Hollomon parameter. From observation of the microstructure, it was found that kink deformation of long period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase was one of the important coordination mechanisms of hot deformation at low temperature. The processing map with the strain of 0.5 was established under the basis of dynamic material model (DMM); it described two high power dissipation domains: one appearing in the temperature range of 370?440 °C and the strain rate range of 0.001?0.006 s-1, the other appearing in the temperature range of 465?500 °C and strain rate range of 0.001?0.05 s-1, in which dynamic recrystallization (DRX) mainly ocurred. The highest degree of DRX was 18% from the observation of the metallographic.
Project description:The hot deformation behavior and microstructural evolution of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (7150) alloy was studied during hot compression at various temperatures (300 to 450 °C) and strain rates (0.001 to 10 s-1). A decline ratio map of flow stresses was proposed and divided into five deformation domains, in which the flow stress behavior was correlated with different microstructures and dynamic softening mechanisms. The results reveal that the dynamic recovery is the sole softening mechanism at temperatures of 300 to 400 °C with various strain rates and at temperatures of 400 to 450 °C with strain rates between 1 and 10 s-1. The level of dynamic recovery increases with increasing temperature and with decreasing strain rate. At the high deformation temperature of 450 °C with strain rates of 0.001 to 0.1 s-1, a partially recrystallized microstructure was observed, and the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) provided an alternative softening mechanism. Two kinds of DRX might operate at the high temperature, in which discontinuous dynamic recrystallization was involved at higher strain rates and continuous dynamic recrystallization was implied at lower strain rates.
Project description:The hot deformation behavior of a high carbon carbide-free bainitic steel was studied through isothermal compression tests that were performed on a Gleeble-1500D thermal mechanical simulator at temperatures of 1223-1423 K and strain rates of 0.01-5 s-1. The flow behavior, constitutive equations, dynamic recrystallization (DRX) characteristics, and processing map were respectively analyzed in detail. It is found that the flow stress increases with increasing the strain rate and decreases with increasing the temperature, and the single-peak DRX can be easily observed at high temperatures and/or low strain rates. The internal relationship between the flow stress and processing parameters was built by the constitutive equations embracing a parameter of Z/A, where the activation energy for hot deformation is 351.539 kJ/mol and the stress exponent is 4.233. In addition, the DRX evolution and the critical conditions for starting DRX were discussed. Then the model of the DRX volume fraction was developed with satisfied predictability. Finally, the processing maps at different strains were constructed according to the dynamic material model. The safety domains and flow instability regions were identified. The best processing parameters of this steel are within the temperature range of 1323-1423 K and strain rate range of 0.06-1 s-1.
Project description:In the present work, the microstructure, texture, mechanical properties as well as hot deformation behavior of a Mg-2Zn-1Al-0.3Ca sheet manufactured by twin roll casting were investigated. The twin roll cast state reveals a dendritic microstructure with intermetallic compounds predominantly located in the interdendritic areas. The twin roll cast samples were annealed at 420 °C for 2 h followed by plane strain compression tests in order to study the hardening and softening behavior. Annealing treatment leads to the formation of a grain structure, consisting of equiaxed grains with an average diameter of approximately 19 µm. The twin roll cast state reveals a typical basal texture and the annealed state shows a weakened texture, by spreading basal poles along the transverse direction. The twin roll cast Mg-2Zn-1Al-0.3Ca alloy offers a good ultimate tensile strength of 240 MPa. The course of the flow curves indicate that dynamic recrystallization occurs during hot deformation. For the validity range from 250 °C to 450 °C as well as equivalent logarithmic strain rates from 0.01 s-1 to 10 s-1 calculated model coefficients are shown. The average activation energy for plastic flow of the twin roll cast and annealed Mg-2Zn-1Al-0.3Ca alloy amounts to 180.5 kJ/mol. The processing map reveals one domain with flow instability at temperatures above 370 °C and strain rates ranging from 3 s-1 to 10 s-1. Under these forming conditions, intergranular cracks arose and grew along the grain boundaries.
Project description:The excellent cryogenic tensile properties of the CrMnFeCoNi alloy are generally caused by deformation twinning, which is difficult to achieve at room temperature because of insufficient stress for twinning. Here, we induced twinning at room temperature to improve the cryogenic tensile properties of the CrMnFeCoNi alloy. Considering grain size effects on the critical stress for twinning, twins were readily formed in the coarse microstructure by cold rolling without grain refinement by hot rolling. These twins were retained by partial recrystallization and played an important role in improving strength, allowing yield strengths approaching 1?GPa. The persistent elongation up to 46% as well as the tensile strength of 1.3?GPa are attributed to additional twinning in both recrystallized and non-recrystallization regions. Our results demonstrate that non-recrystallized grains, which are generally avoided in conventional alloys because of their deleterious effect on ductility, can be useful in achieving high-strength high-entropy alloys.
Project description:Hot deformation behavior of Fe-30Mn-0.11C steel was investigated. Hot compression tests were carried out at various temperatures ranging from 800 °C to 1200 °C and at different strain rates of 0.01 s-1 to 10 s-1. The constitutive equation based on peak stress was established. Hot processing maps at different strains and recrystallization diagrams were also established and analyzed. The results show that dynamic recrystallization easily occur at high deformation temperatures and low strain rates. Safe and unstable zones are determined at the true strain of 0.6 and 0.7, and the hot deformation process parameters of partial dynamic recrystallization of the tested steel are also obtained.
Project description:In this paper, analytical results are compared for the newly developed steels, Fe-Mn-Al-C (X105) and Fe-Mn-Al-Nb-Ti-C (X98), after being hot-rolled and also after undergoing thermomechanical treatment in a Gleeble simulator. These steels have a relatively low density (~6.68 g/cm3) and a content of approx. 11% aluminum. The multistage compression of axisymmetric samples constituting a simulation of the real technological process and hot-rolling performed on a semi-industrial line were carried out using three cooling variants: in water, in air, and after isothermal heating and cooling in water. The temperature at the end of the thermomechanical treatment for all variants was 850 °C. On the basis of detailed structural studies, it was found that the main mechanism for removing the effects of the strain hardening that occurred during the four-stage compression involved the dynamic recrystallization occurring in the first and second stages, the hot formability and dynamic recovery in successive stages of deformation, and the static and/or metadynamic recrystallization that occurred at intervals between individual deformations, as well as after the last deformation during isothermal heating. Analysis of the phase composition and structure allowed us to conclude that the tested steels have an austenitic-ferritic structure with carbide precipitates. Research using scanning and transmission electron microscopy identified ?-(Fe, Mn)3AlC and M7C3 carbides in both the analyzed steels. In addition, complex carbides based on Nb and Ti were identified in X98 steel; (Ti, Nb)C carbides occurred in the entire volume of the material. Slow cooling after thermomechanical treatment influenced the formation of larger ?-carbides at the border of the austenite and ferrite grains than in the case of rapid cooling. The size and morphology of the carbides found in the examined steels was varied. Back-scattered electron diffraction studies showed that wide-angle boundaries dominated in these steels.
Project description:To elucidate the hot deformation characteristics of TiAl alloys, flow stress prediction, microstructural evolution and deformation mechanisms were investigated in Ti-44Al-5Nb-1Mo-2V-0.2B alloy by isothermal compression tests. A constitutive relationship using the Arrhenius model involving strain compensation and back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) model were developed. A comparison of two models suggested that the BP-ANN model had excellent capabilities and was more accurate in predicting flow stress. Based on the microstructural analysis, bending and elongation of colonies, ? and B2 grains were the main microstructural constituents at low temperature and high strain rate. Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) of ? and dynamic recovery (DRY) of ?/B2 were the main deformation mechanisms. With the increase of temperature and decrease of strain rate, phase transformation played an important role. The flake-like ? precipitates in B2 grains, and a coarsening of ? lamellae via ? lath dissolution during compression were observed. Additionally, the flow softening process commenced with dislocation pile-up and formation of sub-grain boundaries, followed by grain refinement, twins and nano-lamellar nucleation. Continuous DRX and phase transformation promoted the formability of Ti-44Al-5Nb-1Mo-2V-0.2B alloy.
Project description:This work attempts to process AlCu4MgSi (AW 2017A) alloy continuous ingots by means of the equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) method. The equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) technique has been widely investigated in recent years as the most promising severe plastic deformation (SPD) method. The presented research was focused on the precise determination of the phase composition of the precipitates formed in the AlCu4MgSi alloy and its influence on intensive plastic deformation. In the second stage, the research was focused on explaining the recrystallization process. With the use of the high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) technique, the changes in the dislocation substructure at various recrystallization annealing temperatures were analyzed.