Development and initial validation of the Psychological Need Frustration Scale for Physical Activity.
ABSTRACT: Background:The frustration of basic psychological needs can be detrimental to people's health. To date, a scale developed specifically for measuring such perceived negative experiences, derived from a need thwarting environment in the physical activity context, is lacking. The present research attempted to develop and validate the Psychological Need Frustration Scale for Physical Activity (PNFS-PA) grounded in self-determination theory via multiple studies. Method:In Study 1, an item pool was created, and its face and content validity were established. In Study 2, the factor structure of the scale was demonstrated using exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM). In Study 3, its factor structure was cross-validated. Also, the nomological validity, reliability and measurement invariance of the scale were established. Result:Taken together, the research suggests the newly developed PNFS-PA is valid and reliable and can be applied to assess psychological needs frustration experiences in the physical activity context.
Project description:Sports research has been focused on the assessment of basic needs satisfaction, considering its absence as a representation of needs frustration. However, recent findings have suggested needs satisfaction and frustration as asymmetrical factors leading to differentiated outcomes. An accurate measurement of needs poses itself as a crucial aspect, facilitating coaches' understanding of athlete's motivational processes. This study aimed to examine the psychometric proprieties of the Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction and Frustration Scale (BPNSFS) in a sample of Portuguese athletes. A multigroup analysis was conducted of gender, sport type, age, and years of sports practice. Additionally, needs satisfaction and needs frustration were tested as predictors of behavioral regulations examining the nomological validity of the BPNSFS. Data from 594 Portuguese athletes (38.6% female; Mage = 15.21; SD = 0.97) that represent two different sports (football and swimming) were analyzed. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling procedures were followed to test the factor structure and nomological validity of the scale, respectively. Analyses indicated that the six-factor model provided an adequate fit (Comparative Fit Index = 0.947, Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.936, Standardized Root Mean Square = 0.039, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.048 (CI 90% = 0.043, 0.054)). Moreover, the multigroup analysis suggested invariance in the observed structure across groups. In addition, findings indicated a strong prediction between needs satisfaction and autonomous forms of motivation, whereas needs frustration predicted significantly controlled forms of motivation. The sport-adapted BPNSFS in a sample of Portuguese athletes seemed to be an adequate measure for the assessment of basic psychological needs satisfaction and frustration. Our findings suggested that this scale may be worth testing in future research in the sport context.
Project description:While teachers' psychological needs have been evaluated in terms of need satisfaction, need thwarting of teachers is under-researched. This study developed a Chinese version of a Psychological Need Thwarting (PNT) scale for teachers and evaluated both its psychometric properties and measurement invariance across groups. Psychometric criteria for the scale were evaluated, with satisfactory levels of internal reliability, test-retest reliability, convergent and divergent validities, and model goodness-of-fit. One item translated from the original PNT scale was removed due to cross-loading. Criterion validity was established, with R2 = 0.54 for the factor of burnout (emotional exhaustion). Measurement invariance was established using confirmatory factor analysis for the factors of gender, grade of instruction, and position. The teachers evaluated demonstrated higher levels of competence thwarting, as compared to autonomy and relatedness thwarting, but overall higher levels of thwarting as compared to previous research. Males reported higher levels of autonomy and competence thwarting as compared to females and secondary school teachers reported higher levels of relatedness thwarting as compared to primary school teachers. The developed scale can serve as a valuable tool in evaluating the thwarting of teachers' psychological needs, an issue which can profoundly impact teachers' and students' mental health and performance.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to validate and adapt to the Spanish context of Physical Education, the Spanish version of the Scale of Basic Psychological Needs in the context of physical exercise, with the incorporation of novelty to the scale. The sample that took part in the study was 2372 people from 16 to 48 years old from the province of Almeria. In order to analyze the psychometric properties of the scale, several analyses have been carried out. The results have offered support both for the eight-factor structure and for the higher-order double model where the eight subscales are joined into two constructs called frustration and satisfaction. The structure of both models was invariant with respect to gender and age. Cronbach's alpha values were above 0.70 in the subscales and scales; and adequate levels of temporal stability. In addition, the subfactors pertaining to the satisfaction of basic psychological needs positively predicted the intrinsic motivation for physical activity, while each of the subfactors of the frustration of psychological needs predicted it negatively. The results of this study provide evidence of the reliability and validity of the BPNS in the Spanish context of physical activity.
Project description:Basic psychological needs are an energizing state that, if satisfied, will produce an increase in confidence and a healthy motivational orientation that leads to wellness. Frustration of these needs is the opposite concept of satisfaction, which refers to the negative sensation experimented by an individual when he or she perceives that their psychological needs are being actively limited by the actions of the significant other. To date, we have not found instruments validated in Spanish that measure both the satisfaction and the frustration of basic psychological needs in the physical education (PE) context. Therefore, the aims of this study are adapting the Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale (BPNSFS) to the PE context in Mexico; and examine its psychometric properties, structure, and factorial invariance by gender in a sample of fifth- and sixth-grade elementary school students. This study included a total of 1,470 fifth- and sixth-grade students from elementary schools in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The results support the reliability, validity, structure, and strict invariance of the sixth Mexican version of the BPNSFS in physical education (BPNSFS-PE). The BPNSFS-PE can be used to measure the satisfaction and/or frustration of the basic psychological needs of students in PE class and to perform comparisons between groups of boys and girls.
Project description:PURPOSE:This study aimed to determine how the general course experiences of dental students in Chile and the satisfaction or frustration of their basic psychological needs influenced their passion for studying, and how passion influenced students' study strategies. METHODS:A correlational cross-sectional study was conducted at 3 Chilean dental schools between April and June 2018, in which 935 undergraduate students participated. Students responded to Spanish-language versions of 4 psychological scale tools: the Course Experience Questionnaire, the Basic Psychological Needs Satisfac¬tion and Frustration Scale, the Passion Scale, and the Revised Study Process Questionnaire. Data were analysed with bivariate correlations and structural equation modelling, controlling for age, gender, year of study, and type of university. RESULTS:Students' general course experiences (i.e., good teaching, clear goals and standards, appropriate assessment, and appropriate workload) positively predicted basic need satisfaction and negatively predicted need frustration. Need satisfaction positively predicted passion in students, with stronger scores for harmonious passion. Basic need frustration positively predicted obsessive passion and negatively predicted harmonious passion. Harmonious passion positively predicted deep study strategies and negatively predicted surface study strategies, while obsessive passion positively predicted both deep and surface study strategies. CONCLUSION:Dental students' optimal course experiences positively influenced the satisfaction of their basic psychological needs, which favoured harmonious over obsessive passion. In turn, harmonious over obsessive passion positively influenced deep study strategies. Therefore, efforts should be made to provide course experiences that support students' basic needs and harmonious passion for studying, both in classroom and chair-side teaching.
Project description:The aim of this study was to develop a questionnaire to conveniently assess the diurnal preferences of physical activity (PA) in Japanese university students. A total of 219 subjects completed our novel Morningness-eveningness Exercise Preference Questionnaire (MEEPQ). The MEEPQ consisted of 30 items (15 items for the morning and the same 15 items for the evening) rated on a 5-point Likert scale concerning their preference for participating in PA in the morning and evening. The morning score (MS) and evening score (ES) were determined by summing each of the respective 15 items. The internal consistency and construct validity were assessed, and a factor analysis was conducted. To examine the external validity of the MEEPQ, participants wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days to measure their PA levels objectively. Finally, the test-retest reliability was evaluated at a one-month interval. The MEEPQ showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.896) and construct validity (morning KMO = 0.913, evening KMO = 0.875). A factor analysis showed a three-factor structure involving Physical Wellness (MEEPQ-W), Psychological Well-Being (MEEPQ-P) and Exercise Barrier (MEEPQ-B). The percent of variance was largest for MEEPQ-W in the morning (45.2%) and MEEPQ-P in the evening (40.8%). Test-retest showed that MEEPQ scores had fair repeatability. Significant and positive associations between scores and objectively measured PA levels were found in the MS and 6-9 AM PA and in the ES and 6-9 PM and 9 PM- 0 AM PA (all p<0.05). In summary, the novel MEEPQ showed relatively good agreement and thus can be used for Japanese university student samples. In the MEEPQ, three factors (the physical wellness, psychological well-being and exercise barrier) contributed to a morning or evening PA preference. The summed scores were significantly associated with the objectively measured PA levels in both the morning and evening. Therefore the MEEPQ appears to be a suitable tool for assessing diurnal PA preferences.
Project description:Objective:To provide psychometric evaluation of the PROMIS® Pediatric Psychological and Physical Stress Experiences measures. Methods:Across two studies, Psychological and Physical Stress Experiences items were administered to 2,875 children aged 8-17 years and 2,212 parents of children aged 5-17 years. Analyses included descriptive statistics, reliability, factor analysis, differential item functioning (DIF), and assessment of construct validity. Items were calibrated using item response theory to estimate item parameters representative of the United States. Recommended eight- and four-item short forms were constructed for child- and parent-report versions of the Psychological and Physical Stress Experiences item banks. Results:Final item banks were unidimensional and items were locally independent and free from impactful DIF. Psychological Stress banks include 19 child-report and 12 parent-proxy items. Physical Stress banks include 26 child-report and 26 parent-proxy items. All instruments have strong internal consistency and retest-reliability, and provide precise estimates of varying stress levels. The instruments' construct validity was evidenced by known-group comparisons and convergence with legacy measures. Conclusions:The Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pediatric Psychological and Physical Stress item banks and short forms provide efficient, precise, and valid assessments of children's stress experiences.
Project description:Knowledge about potential protective factors against mental health problems is highly needed. Regular physical activity (PA) in an outdoor environment, like mountain exercising, might reduce psychological distress. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of mental health problems in mountain exercisers and to detect factors associated with psychological distress. In a cross-sectional design, we collected self-reported data of 1,536 Austrian mountain exercisers. The prevalence of mental health problems and psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale), the level of PA International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and affective valence during PA (Feeling Scale) were obtained. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to assess factors influencing psychological distress. The prevalence of mental health problems in Austrian mountain exercisers was 14%. Health-enhancing PA level and higher affective valence during PA were significantly associated with lower psychological distress. Minimal PA level was not significantly associated with lower psychological distress compared to inactive PA level. Marital status, education, alpine association membership, and body mass index did not show a significant influence on psychological distress. The prevalence of mental health problems seems to be lower in Austrian mountain exercisers compared to the European population. A health-enhancing PA level and affective valence increasing forms of PA were shown to be associated with lower psychological distress. Results might lead to interventional studies focusing on the potential of outdoor PA, e.g., mountain exercise, as an adjunct treatment in people at risk or with mental health problems.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study translated the International Positive and Negative Affect Schedule Short Form (I-PANAS-SF) into Chinese and examined its factor structure and measurement invariance in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. METHODS:A sample of 4136 Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong was invited to complete a set of questionnaires. The factor structure of the I-PANA-SF was examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equational modeling (ESEM). Internal consistency reliability was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficients, and nomological validity was assessed using bivariate correlations between positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) subscales with effort, worry and lack of concentration. Finally, measurement invariance across genders and grades was examined to evaluate the invariance of the I-PANAS-SF. RESULTS:Factor structure analysis suggested that the ESEM model outperformed the CFA model. The results of ESEM analysis indicated that one item ("alert") was problematic and a 9-item two-factor measurement model with that item removed was a better fit for the data. The Cronbach's alpha values were above 0.70 (0.81 and 0.83), revealing excellent internal consistency reliability. The PA subscale was positively associated with effort and negatively associated with worry and lack of concentration. The NA subscale was negatively associated effort and positively associated with lack of concentration and worry, indicating nomological validity. Finally, measurement invariance analysis revealed strict invariance across genders and grades. CONCLUSIONS:The results of the study provide preliminary support for validity and reliability of the 9-item Chinese version of the I-PANAS-SF and suggest that it is suitable for use among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.
Project description:Tests of social cognitive theories provide informative data on the factors that relate to health behavior, and the processes and mechanisms involved. In the present article, we contend that tests of social cognitive theories should adhere to the principles of nomological validity, defined as the degree to which predictions in a formal theoretical network are confirmed. We highlight the importance of nomological validity tests to ensure theory predictions can be disconfirmed through observation. We argue that researchers should be explicit on the conditions that lead to theory disconfirmation, and identify any auxiliary assumptions on which theory effects may be conditional. We contend that few researchers formally test the nomological validity of theories, or outline conditions that lead to model rejection and the auxiliary assumptions that may explain findings that run counter to hypotheses, raising potential for 'falsification evasion.' We present a brief analysis of studies (k = 122) testing four key social cognitive theories in health behavior to illustrate deficiencies in reporting theory tests and evaluations of nomological validity. Our analysis revealed that few articles report explicit statements suggesting that their findings support or reject the hypotheses of the theories tested, even when findings point to rejection. We illustrate the importance of explicit a priori specification of fundamental theory hypotheses and associated auxiliary assumptions, and identification of the conditions which would lead to rejection of theory predictions. We also demonstrate the value of confirmatory analytic techniques, meta-analytic structural equation modeling, and Bayesian analyses in providing robust converging evidence for nomological validity. We provide a set of guidelines for researchers on how to adopt and apply the nomological validity approach to testing health behavior models.