An Infant Milk Formula Supplemented with Heat-Treated Probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CECT 8145, Reduces Fat Deposition in C. elegans and Augments Acetate and Lactate in a Fermented Infant Slurry.
ABSTRACT: Pediatric obesity has a growing health and socio-economical impact due to cardiovascular and metabolic complications in adult life. Some recent studies suggest that live or heat-treated probiotics have beneficial effects in preventing fat deposition and obesity in preclinical and clinical sets. Here, we have explored the effects of heat-treated probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CECT 8145 (HT-BPL1), added as a supplement on an infant milk formula (HT-BPL1-IN), on Caenorhabditis elegans fat deposition and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and lactate, using fermented baby fecal slurries. We have found that HT-BPL1-IN significantly reduced fat deposition in C. elegans, at the time it drastically augmented the generation of some SCFAs, particulary acetate and organic acid lactate. Data suggest that heat-treated BPL1 maintains its functional activities when added to an infant powder milk formula.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A central aim for pediatric nutrition is to develop infant formula compositionally closer to human milk. Milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) have shown to have functional components that are found in human milk, suggesting that addition of bovine sources of MFGM (bMFGM) to infant formula may promote beneficial outcomes potentially helping to narrow the gap between infants who receive human breast milk or infant formula. The objective of the current study is to determine how the addition of bMFGM in infant formula and consumption in early infancy affects physical growth and brain development when compared to infants fed with a standard formula and a reference group of infants fed with mother's own milk. METHODS:Single center, double-blind, and parallel randomized controlled trial. Planned participant enrollment includes: infants exclusively receiving breast milk (n?=?200; human milk reference group; HM) and infants whose mothers chose to initiate exclusive infant formula feeding before 4?months of age (n?=?340). The latter were randomized to receive one of two study formulas until 12?months of age: 1) cow's milk based infant formula that had docosahexaenoic (DHA) (17?mg/100?kcal) and arachidonic acid (ARA) (25?mg/100?kcal); 1.9?g protein/100?kcal; 1.2?mg Fe/100?kcal (Standard formula; SF) or 2) a similar infant formula with an added source of bovine MFGM (whey protein-lipid concentrate (Experimental formula; EF). Primary outcomes will be: 1) Physical growth (Body weight, length, and head circumference) at 730?days of age; and 2) Cognitive development (Auditory Event-Related Potential) at 730?days of age. Data will be analyzed for all participants allocated to each study feeding group. DISCUSSION:The results of this study will complement the knowledge regarding addition of bMFGM in infant formula including support of healthy growth and improvement of neurodevelopmental outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT02626143, registered on December 10th 2015.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The postnatal intestinal colonization of human milk-fed and formula-fed infants differs substantially, as does the susceptibility to infectious diseases during infancy. Specific ingredients in human milk, such as prebiotic human milk oligosaccharides and a specifically structured fat composition with high proportion of beta-palmitic acid (beta-PA) promote the growth of intestinal bifidobacteria, which are associated with favorable effects on infants' health. The present study investigates whether addition of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) in combination with higher amounts of beta-PA from cow's milk fat in infant formula positively affects gut microbiota and the incidence of infections in formula-fed infants. METHODS:In a double-blind controlled trial, formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to either receive an experimental formula containing a higher proportion of beta-PA (20-25%) from natural cow's milk fat, and a prebiotic supplement (0.5?g GOS/100?ml), or a standard infant formula with low beta-PA (< 10%), without prebiotics. A breast-fed reference group was also enrolled. After 12?weeks, fecal samples were collected to determine the proportion of fecal bifidobacteria. The number of infections during the first year of life was recorded. RESULTS:After 12?weeks, the proportion of fecal bifidobacteria was significantly higher in infants receiving formula with high beta-PA and GOS compared to control, and was similar to the breast-fed group (medians 8.8%, 2.5%, and 5.0% respectively; p < 0.001). The incidence of gastrointestinal or other infections during the first year of life did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS:The combination of higher amounts of beta-PA plus GOS increased significantly the proportion of fecal bifidobacteria in formula-fed infants, but did not affect the incidence of infections. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The study protocol was registered with Clinical Trials (Protocol Registration and Results System Trial ID: NCT01603719 ) on 05/15/2012 (retrospectively registered).
Project description:Surfactant proteins A (SP-A) and SP-B are critical in the ability of pulmonary surfactant to reduce alveolar surface tension and provide innate immunity. Aspiration of infant milk formula can lead to lung dysfunction, but direct effects of aspirated formula on surfactant protein expression in pulmonary cells have not been described. The hypothesis that infant formula alters surfactant protein homeostasis was tested in vitro by assessing surfactant protein gene expression in cultured pulmonary epithelial cell lines expressing SP-A and SP-B that were transiently exposed (6 hr) to infant formula. Steady-state levels of SP-A protein and mRNA and SP-B mRNA in human bronchiolar (NCI-H441) and mouse alveolar (MLE15) epithelial cells were reduced in a dose-dependent manner 18 hr after exposure to infant formula. SP-A mRNA levels remained reduced 42 hr after exposure, but SP-B mRNA levels increased 10-fold. Neither soy formula nor non-fat dry milk affected steady-state SP-A and SP-B mRNA levels; suggesting a role of a component of infant formula derived from cow milk. These results indicate that infant formula has a direct, dose-dependent effect to reduce surfactant protein gene expression. Ultimately, milk aspiration may potentially result in a reduced capacity of the lung to defend against environmental insults.
Project description:We tested the hypothesis that the lipid composition of infant formula is consistent between manufacturers, countries and target demographic. We developed techniques to profile the lipid and glyceride fraction of milk and formula in a high throughput fashion. Formula from principal brands in the UK (2017-2019; bovine-, caprine-, soya-based), the Netherlands (2018; bovine-based) and South Africa (2018; bovine-based) were profiled along with fresh British animal and soya milk and skimmed milk powder. We found that the lipid and glyceride composition of infant formula differed by region, manufacturer and date of manufacture. The formulations within some brands, aimed at different target age ranges, differed considerably where others were similar across the range. Soya lecithin and milk lipids had characteristic phospholipid profiles. Particular sources of fat, such as coconut oil, were also easy to distinguish. Docosahexaenoic acid is typically found in triglycerides rather than phospholipids in formula. The variety by region, manufacturer, date of manufacture and sub-type for target demographics lead to an array of lipid profiles in formula. This makes it impossible to predict its molecular profile. Without detailed profile of the formula fed to infants, it is difficult to characterise the relationship between infant nutrition and their growth and development.
Project description:Human milk delivers an array of bioactive components that safeguard infant growth and development and maintain healthy gut microbiota. Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is a biologically functional fraction of milk increasingly linked to beneficial outcomes in infants through protection from pathogens, modulation of the immune system and improved neurodevelopment. In the present study, we characterized the fecal microbiome and metabolome of infants fed a bovine MFGM supplemented experimental formula (EF) and compared to infants fed standard formula (SF) and a breast-fed reference group. The impact of MFGM on the fecal microbiome was moderate; however, the fecal metabolome of EF-fed infants showed a significant reduction of several metabolites including lactate, succinate, amino acids and their derivatives from that of infants fed SF. Introduction of weaning food with either human milk or infant formula reduces the distinct characteristics of breast-fed- or formula-fed- like infant fecal microbiome and metabolome profiles. Our findings support the hypothesis that higher levels of protein in infant formula and the lack of human milk oligosaccharides promote a shift toward amino acid fermentation in the gut. MFGM may play a role in shaping gut microbial activity and function.
Project description:Human milk contains prebiotic components, such as human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), which stimulate the growth of specific members of the infant gut microbiota (e.g., <i>Bifidobacteria</i>). Plant-based or synthetic oligosaccharides are often added to infant formulas to simulate the bifidogenic effect of HMOs. Cow milk, the most common source of protein in infant formula, and goat milk, used increasingly in the manufacture of infant formula, contain naturally-occurring prebiotics. This study compared the upper gastrointestinal digestion and subsequent colonic fermentation of human milk vs. goat and cow milk-based infant formulas (goat IF and cow IF, respectively), without additional oligosaccharides using an <i>in vitro</i> model for 3-month-old infants based on the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME®). First, a dialysis approach using 3.5 kDa membranes was demonstrated to simulate small intestinal absorption of carbohydrates in conditions similar to those <i>in vivo</i>. During the <i>in vitro</i> digestion experiment, oligosaccharides were detected in human milk and goat IF but barely detected in the cow IF. Further, all three milk matrices decreased colonic pH by boosting acetate, lactate, and propionate production, which related to increased abundances of acetate/lactate-producing <i>Bifidobacteriaceae</i> for human milk (+25.7%) and especially goat IF (33.8%) and cow IF (37.7%). Only cow IF stimulated butyrate production which correlated with an increase in <i>Lachnospiraceae</i> and <i>Clostridiaceae</i>. Finally, <i>Enterobacteriaceae</i> and <i>Acidaminococcaceae</i> also increased with all three milk matrices, while production of proteolytic metabolites (branched-chain fatty acids) was only detected for the cow IF. Overall, goat and cow milk-based formulas without added oligosaccharides impacted gut microbial activity and composition similarly to human milk. This suggests that even without supplementation of formula with oligosaccharides, whole goat milk, whole cow milk and cow milk ingredients already supply compounds in formulas that exert beneficial bifidogenic effects. Further clinical research is warranted to elucidate the effect of whole goat milk-based formulas on the infant gut microbiome.
Project description:Background:Millions of infants are fed breast milk substitutes, and the type of infant formula can impact weight gain patterns. Objective:We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine the direct impact of 2 types of infant formula (cow milk formula, CMF; extensively protein hydrolyzed formula, EHF) on growth and energy balance. Design:A racially diverse group of formula-fed infants (n = 113) were randomly assigned to either CMF or EHF from the age of 0.75 to 12.5 mo. At each monthly visit, anthropometric measures were obtained to determine growth z scores and weight gain velocity, and to categorize early weight gain patterns as rapid or nonrapid. Also, diet records were collected to determine energy from formula and other sources. Comprehensive assessments of energy balance (intake, expenditure, loss) were made at 0.75, 3.5, and 12.5 mo. Results:Beginning 3 wk after randomization, CMF infants had significantly higher weight, but not length, z scores than did EHF infants, and this persisted after solid foods complemented the formula diet. On average, weight gain velocity from 0.75 to 4.5 mo was within the range of typically growing infants for both groups, yet velocity was 3.9 g/d greater for CMF infants (P = 0.002), who were more likely to be classified as an early rapid weight gainer, than EHF infants (46% compared with 18%; P = 0.007). Early differences in energy intake and fecal loss, yielding greater energy available for deposition among CMF infants, contributed to the differential weight gain patterns. There were no significant differences between the formula treatment groups in total energy expenditure or sleeping energy expenditure. Conclusions:Among healthy infants, the type of formula impacted on early rapid weight gain patterns owing to energy intake and loss mechanisms. Research is needed to identify the macronutrients and other compositional constituents in EHF and breast milk that promote satiation and healthy weight gain during sensitive periods of development. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as: NCT01700205.
Project description:Holistic benefits of human milk to infants, particularly brain development and cognitive behavior, have stipulated that infant formula be tailored in composition like human milk. However, the composition of human milk, especially lipids, and their effects on brain development is complex and not fully elucidated. We evaluated brain lipidome profiles in weanling rats fed human milk or infant formula using non-targeted UHPLC-MS techniques. We also compared the lipid composition of human milk and infant formula using conventional GC-FID and HPLC-ELSD techniques. The sphingomyelin class of lipids was significantly higher in brains of rats fed human milk. Lipid species mainly comprising saturated or mono-unsaturated C18 fatty acids contributed significantly higher percentages to their respective classes in human milk compared to infant formula fed samples. In contrast, PUFAs contributed significantly higher percentages in brains of formula fed samples. Differences between human milk and formula lipids included minor fatty acids such as C8:0 and C12:0, which were higher in formula, and C16:1 and C18:1 n11, which were higher in human milk. Formula also contained higher levels of low- to medium-carbon triacylglycerols, whereas human milk had higher levels of high-carbon triacylglycerols. All phospholipid classes, and ceramides, were higher in formula. We show that brain lipid composition differs in weanling rats fed human milk or infant formula, but dietary lipid compositions do not necessarily manifest in the brain lipidome.
Project description:Our gut microbiota provide a number of important functions, one of which is the metabolism of dietary fiber and other macronutrients that are undigested by the host. The main products of this fermentation process are short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and other intermediate metabolites including lactate and succinate. Production of these metabolites is dependent on diet and gut microbiota composition. There is increasing evidence for the role of SCFAs in host physiology and metabolic processes as well as chronic inflammatory conditions such as allergic disease and obesity. We aimed to investigate differences in fecal SCFAs and intermediate metabolites in 163 infants at 3-5?months of age according to breastfeeding status. Compared to no exposure to human milk at time of fecal sample collection, exclusive breastfeeding was associated with lower absolute concentrations of total SCFAs, acetate, butyrate, propionate, valerate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate, yet higher concentrations of lactate. Further, the relative proportion of acetate was higher with exclusive breastfeeding. Compared to non-breastfed infants, those exclusively breastfed were four times more likely (aOR 4.50, 95% CI 1.58-12.82) to have a higher proportion of acetate relative to other SCFAs in their gut. This association was independent of birth mode, intrapartum antibiotics, infant sex, age, recruitment site, and maternal BMI or socioeconomic status. Our study confirms that breastfeeding strongly influences the composition of fecal microbial metabolites in infancy.
Project description:The aim of this study was to compare the impact of whole milk supplementation on gut microbiota and cardiometabolic biomarkers between lactose malabsorbers (LM) and absorbers (LA). We performed a pair-wise intervention study of 31 LM and 31 LA, 1:1 matched by age, sex, body mass index, and daily dairy intake. Subjects were required to add 250 mL/day whole milk for four weeks in their routine diet. At the beginning and the end of the intervention period, we collected data on gut microbiota and cardiometabolic biomarkers. Whole milk supplementation significantly increased Actinobacteria (P < 0.01), Bifidobacterium (P < 0.01), Anaerostipe (P < 0.01), and Blautia (P = 0.04), and decreased Megamonas (P = 0.04) in LM, but not LA. Microbial richness and diversity were not affected. The fecal levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) remained stable throughout the study. Body fat mass (P < 0.01) and body fat percentage (P < 0.01) reduced in both groups, but the changes did not differ between groups. No significant differences in other cardiometabolic markers were found between LM and LA. When compared with LA, whole milk supplementation could alter the intestinal microbiota composition in LM, without significant changes in fecal SCFAs and cardiometabolic biomarkers.