Efficacy of electrical stimulation on epidural anesthesia for cesarean section: a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Loss of resistance (LOR) technique is a widely used method to identify the epidural space. However, cases of inadequate epidural anesthesia in cesarean section were frequently reported. Also, the success rate of epidural anesthesia with LOR technique varied depending on the proficiency of the practitioner. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of electrical stimulation to identify epidural spaces in cesarean section for novices or clinicians with recent gap in experience. METHODS:Pregnant women scheduled for elective cesarean section were randomly allocated to two groups. Groups were classified based on the methods used for identifying the epidural space: the LOR group (group L) and the LOR with epidural electrical stimulation group (group E). Clinicians with less than 10 epidural cesarean section experiences in the recent year performed epidural anesthesia for cesarean section. In the group E, a RegionalStim® conductive catheter was inserted through the Tuohy needle, and the guidewire passing through the catheter was connected to a peripheral nerve stimulator. The intensity of the stimulation was gradually increased from 0.25?mA to 1.5?mA until paresthesia was elicited and radiated. We assessed the success of epidural anesthesia (complete success, partial success or failure). Other clinical parameters including maternal satisfaction, time required for epidural anesthesia, neonatal Apgar scores, pain scores and adverse events were compared between the two groups. RESULTS:Except for 6 patients who withdrew consent, 54 patients were enrolled in this study (28 for the group L and 26 for the group E). The demographic data showed no difference between the two groups. There was no adverse event resulted from electrical stimulation. The group E showed higher rate of complete success, sensitivity in finding epidural space and maternal satisfaction compared to the group L (21/26 vs. 15/28, p?=?0.034, 0.96 vs. 0.68, p?=?0.012 and 4.04 vs. 3.39, p?=?0.02, respectively). The other clinical parameters showed no differences between the two groups. CONCLUSION:In addition to the conventional LOR technique, identifying epidural spaces using electrical stimulation led to better outcomes without additional risks for novices as well as clinicians with recent gap in experience. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This study was retrospectively registered in the ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT03443466) on February 23, 2018.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Many factors can influence the secretion of breast milk. Cesarean section is a risk factor for late onset of breastfeeding. MATERIAL AND METHODS:In our study, we compared the lactation process by mothers who underwent elective cesarean section under general anesthesia, spinal anesthesia, epidural anesthesia, and normal birth; 84 patients between 18-40 years of age with a risk of ASA I-II were included. Randomly patients were divided into four groups: group G (general anesthesia, n:21), group S (spinal anesthesia, n:21), group E (epidural anesthesia, n:21), and group V (vaginal birth, without anesthesia, n:21). Oxytocin and prolactin values of all patients before and after operation or birth were recorded. In addition the initiation time of lactation after delivery or cesarean section were recorded. RESULTS:In all groups, there were no significant differences among hormone levels in the prepartum period (p=0.350). Prolactin levels in group G (p=0.011) and oxytocin levels in group V (p=0.012) in the postpartum period were significantly higher than in the other groups. The start of lactation was significantly delayed in group G (p=0.003). CONCLUSION:We consider that the onset time of lactation is delayed in patients undergoing cesarean section with general anesthesia when compared with patients who undergo cesarean section with spinal and epidural anesthesia and with patients who undergo normal vaginal birth. Because of the delay of awakening and recovery of cognitive functions in general anesthesia, communication between the mother and the newborn is delayed and so is the lactation.
Project description:Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a genetic disorder of connective tissue, characterized by variable clinical features and multisystem complications. The anesthetic management during delivery is debated. Regional anesthesia has been used with success during cesarean delivery, but in some MFS patients there is a probability of erratic and inadequate spread of intrathecal local anesthetics as a result of dural ectasia. In these cases, epidural anesthesia may be a particularly useful technique during cesarean delivery because it allows an adequate spread and action of local anesthetic with a controlled onset of anesthesia, analgesia, and sympathetic block and a low risk of perioperative complications. We report the perioperative management of a patient with MFS and dural ectasia who successfully underwent cesarean section using epidural technique anesthesia. The previous pregnancy of this woman ended with cesarean section with a failed spinal anesthesia that was converted to general anesthesia due to unknown dural ectasia at that time.
Project description:Background:If conversion of labor epidural analgesia to cesarean delivery anesthesia fails, the anesthesiologist can be confronted with a challenging clinical dilemma. Optimal management of a failed epidural top up continues to be debated in the absence of best practice guidelines. Method:All members of the Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association in the United Kingdom were emailed an online survey in May 2017. It obtained information on factors influencing the decision to utilize an existing labor epidural for cesarean section and, if epidural top up resulted in no objective sensory block, bilateral T10 sensory block, or unilateral T6 sensory block, factors influencing the management and selection of anesthetic technique. Differences in management options between respondents were compared using the chi-squared test. Results:We received 710 survey questionnaires with an overall response rate of 41%. Most respondents (89%) would consider topping up an existing labor epidural for a category-one cesarean section. In evaluating whether or not to top up an existing labor epidural, the factors influencing decision-making were how effective the epidural had been for labor pain (99%), category of cesarean section (73%), and dermatomal level of blockade (61%). In the setting of a failed epidural top up, the most influential factors determining further anesthetic management were the category of cesarean section (92%), dermatomal level of blockade (78%), and the assessment of maternal airway. Spinal anesthesia was commonly preferred if an epidural top up resulted in no objective sensory block (74%), bilateral T10 sensory block (57%), or unilateral T6 sensory block (45%). If the sensory block level was higher or unilateral, then a lower dose of intrathecal local anesthetic was selected and alternative options such as combined-spinal epidural and general anesthesia were increasingly favored. Discussion:Our survey revealed variations in the clinical management of a failed epidural top up for cesarean delivery, suggesting guidelines to aid decision-making are needed.
Project description:Purpose:Quadratus lumborum block (QLB) is shown to be effective on analgesia following cesarean section. This study aimed to compare the effects of three practical QLB approaches and classic epidural analgesia (EA) for cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Patients and methods:Parturients undergoing elective cesarean section were randomized as group 1 (QLB type 2), group 2 (QLB type 3), group 3 (QLB type 2+3) and group 4 (EA). The block was performed at the end of the operation, and the epidural group was given a single epidural bolus. All subjects were provided with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia under identical settings. In addition, the postoperative pain severity was assessed by the VAS, which together with the morphine consumption at specific time intervals, was recorded within 48 hrs after surgery. Data were collected from December 2017 to June 2018. Results:A total of 94 parturients had completed the study. At almost all postoperative time points, the VAS scores at rest and with movement in QLB type 2+3 group were lower than those in QLB type 2 or 3 group. The mean additional morphine consumption in QLB type 2+3 group (2.7 mg) was lower than that in QLB type 2 or 3 group (6.1 mg and 5.7 mg, respectively) within 48 h after surgery (P<0.001). Besides, the total morphine consumption in EA group (1.3 mg) was lower than that in any other QLB group (P<0.001). Conclusions:The analgesic effect of QLB is highly dependent on the injection position of local anesthetic. Besides, the ultrasound-guided QLB type 2+3 can provide superior analgesic effect following cesarean section to that of QLB type 2 or 3 block. However, it remains to be further validated about whether the combination of QLB type 2 and 3 is the best approach.
Project description:Background: Use of an in situ epidural catheter has been suggested to be efficient to provide anesthesia for postpartum tubal ligation (PPTL). Reported epidural reactivation success rates vary from 74% to 92%. Predictors for reactivation failure include poor patient satisfaction with labor analgesia, increased delivery-to-reactivation time and the need for top-ups during labor. Some have suggested that this high failure rate precludes leaving the catheter in situ after delivery for subsequent reactivation attempts. In this study, we sought to evaluate the success rate of neuraxial techniques for PPTL and to determine if predictors of failure can be identified. Methods: After obtaining IRB approval, a retrospective chart review of patients undergoing PPTL after vaginal delivery from July 2010 to July 2016 was conducted using CPT codes, yielding 93 records for analysis. Demographic, obstetric and anesthetic data (labor analgesia administration, length of epidural catheter in epidural space, top-up requirements, time of catheter reactivation, final anesthetic technique and corresponding doses for spinal and epidural anesthesia) were obtained. Results: A total of 70 patients received labor neuraxial analgesia. Reactivation was attempted in 33 with a success rate of 66.7%. Patient height, epidural volume of local anesthetic and administered fentanyl dose were lower in the group that failed reactivation. Overall, spinal anesthesia was performed in 60 patients, with a success rate of 80%. Conclusions: Our observed rate of successful postpartum epidural reactivation for tubal ligation was lower than the range reported in the literature. Our success rates for both spinal anesthesia and epidural reactivation for PPTL were lower than the generally accepted rates of successful epidural and spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. This gap may reflect a lower level of motivation on behalf of both the patients and anesthesia providers to tolerate "imperfect" neuraxial anesthesia once fetal considerations are removed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Residency training includes positive and negative aspects. Well-trained doctors must be educated, but the process may bring additional risks to patients. Anesthesiologists' performance when conducting neuraxial anesthesia is related to their experience. We hypothesized that a modified neuraxial anesthesia method would improve both residency training and patient safety. METHODS:We recruited 518 patients who were scheduled for a cesarean section and used spinal anesthesia (n?=?256), epidural anesthesia (n?=?154), and combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (SEA; n?=?108). We observed and evaluated the anesthesia performance of five second-year resident anesthesiologists in elective cesarean sections using the conventional and modified methods. The number of attempts, implant error rate, and the incidence of complications were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS:Better success puncture attempts occurred in all three groups when the modified method was applied. For the groups with an implant assessment, the complication rate and implant error rate were lower when using the modified method. We employed generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis to correct for possible confounding factors. When using the conventional method, the resident anesthesiologists required more attempts, made more implant errors, and caused more complications in patients. CONCLUSIONS:We found that a modified method for neuraxial anesthesia could improve residency performance and patient safety. The modified method may be a suitable training process for resident anesthesiologists when practicing neuraxial anesthesia. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of National Taiwan University (IRB:200812040R) Clinicaltrials register: NCT03389672 .
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Multiple sclerosis (MS) often occurs in young women and the effect of obstetric anesthesia/analgesia on the disease is poorly understood. No previous study has investigated the course of the disease in women in labor in the Czech Republic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence or absence of relapses in the 6-month postpartum period in MS parturients with and without obstetric anesthesia/analgesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We retrospectively studied all deliveries (n = 58,455) at the University Hospital Brno from 2004 to 2013 and identified those of the women with an ICD-10 code G35 (MS) recorded anytime in their medical history (n = 428). We included only deliveries of women with confirmed diagnosis at the time of labor (n = 70). Statistical analysis was performed using the Fischer Exact Test. RESULTS:There were 70 deliveries of 65 women, including 45 vaginal deliveries and 25 Cesarean deliveries (16 under general anesthesia, 8 with epidural anesthesia and 1 with spinal anesthesia). Epidural obstetric analgesia was performed in 11 deliveries. There was no statistically significant difference in relapses between the vaginal delivery group (n = 15; 33%) and Cesarean section group (n = 10; 40%), p = 0.611. CONCLUSION:Neither delivery mode (vaginal vs Caesarean) nor type of obstetric anesthesia/analgesia was found to have any impact on the course of MS at 6 months postpartum in women with this condition.
Project description:Involuntary movement during and after neuraxial anesthesia, such as spinal and epidural anesthesia, is rarely observed. In this report, we describe a case of myoclonus-like involuntary movement of the upper extremities in a patient undergoing a planned repeat cesarean section under spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine that completely subsided after administration of 2 mg of midazolam. The myoclonus-like movement did not recur or cause any apparent neurological side effects.
Project description:Background:The present study aimed to describe the evolution of hemodynamic parameters over time of patients with invasive placentation during their third trimester who were delivered via cesarean section and subsequently underwent obstetric hysterectomy under epidural anesthesia. Methods:A prospective, descriptive, longitudinal, 11-month cohort study of 43 patients aged between 18 and 37 years who presented with invasive placentation. Minimal invasive monitoring was placed before the administration of epidural anesthesia for hemodynamic parameter tracking during the cesarean section. After delivery, the patients underwent an obstetric hysterectomy. Blood loss, hemodynamic parameters, and coagulation were managed via goal-directed therapy. Parameters were compared via repeated measures ANOVA and effect size estimation (Cohen's d). Results:The mean age of the patients was 29.2?±?3.4 years and was moderately overweight. They had minor cardiac index variance (P=NS, no significance), vascular systemic resistance index (NS), heart rate (P=NS), and median arterial pressure (P=NS). Differences were observed in the stroke volume index (P=0.015) due to moderately higher values (d?=?0.3, P=0.016) in the middle of the surgery. Patients had lower cardiac index (d?=?-0.36, NS) and cardiac workload requirements (d?=?-0.29, P=0.034) toward the completion of surgery. Conclusion:Patients who are in their third trimester and who subsequently underwent obstetric hysterectomy under epidural anesthesia had modest surgical hemodynamic variance and reduced cardiac workload requirements toward the end of the surgery.
Project description:The identification of epidural space with loss of resistance (LOR) is commonly performed. But it lacks specificity. Epidural pressure waveform analysis (EPWA) provides a simple confirmative adjunct for LOR. If the needle is located within the epidural space, measurement of the pressure at its tips shows a pulsatile waveform. Previous studies demonstrated satisfactory sensitivity and specificity of EPWA. However, success or failure of epidural injection was confirmed by the pinprick test, which is limited for patients in the setting of the pain clinic. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, as well as positive and negative predictive values of EPWA for cervical epidural steroid injection (CESI) confirmed by fluoroscopy.One hundred and five CESIs of 75 patients suffering from neck and radicular arm pain of over 3 months duration were enrolled. The physician injected 5 mL of normal saline after a feeling of satisfactory LOR. Saline filled extension tubing, connected to a pressure transducer, was attached to the needle. A 3 mL bolus of contrast medium was injected to confirm the success of CESI.The incorrect identification of epidural space with LOR (false LOR) was 29.5%. Of these 31 failed CESIs, 2 showed epidural waveform and 29 did not. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of EPWA was 94.5%, 93.5%, 97.2%, and 87.7%, respectively.EPWA shows satisfactory reliability and is a simple adjunct to decrease false LOR for CESI. Further confirmative studies are required before its routine use in clinical practice.