A novel risk score system of immune genes associated with prognosis in endometrial cancer.
ABSTRACT: Background:Endometrial cancer was the commonest gynecological malignancy in developed countries. Despite striking advances in multimodality management, however, for patients in advanced stage, targeted therapy still remained a challenge. Our study aimed to investigate new biomarkers for endometrial cancer and establish a novel risk score system of immune genes in endometrial cancer. Methods:The clinicopathological characteristics and gene expression data were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of immune genes between tumors and normal tissues were identified. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of immune genes and transcriptional factors was integrated and visualized in Cytoscape. Univariate and multivariate analysis were employed for key genes to establish a new risk score system. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and survival analysis were performed to investigate the prognostic value of the model. Association between clinical characteristics and the model was analyzed by logistic regression. For validation, we identified 34 patients with endometrial cancer from Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC). We detected 14-genes mRNA expression and calculated the risk scores of each patients and we performed survival analysis between the high-risk group and the low-risk group. Results:23 normal tissues and 552 tumor tissues were obtained from TCGA database. 410 immune-related DEGs was identified by difference analysis and correlation analysis. KEGG and GO analysis revealed these DEGs were enriched in cell adhesion, chemotaxis, MAPK pathways and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, which might regulate tumor progression and migration. All genes were screened for risk model construction and 14 hub immune-related genes (HTR3E, CBLC, TNF, PSMC4, TRAV30, PDIA3, FGF8, PDGFRA, ESRRA, SBDS, CRHR1, LTA, NR2F1, TNFRSF18) were prognostic in endometrial cancer. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.787 and the high-risk group estimated by the model possessed worse outcome (P?
Project description:Endometrial cancer is the most common malignancies in developed countries. The present study aimed to identify the role of secretoglobin family 2A member 1 (SCGB2A1) expression in uteri corpus endometrial carcinoma (UCEC) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, and determine the SCGB2A1-associated downstream signaling pathways. The clinicopathological characteristics and gene expression data were downloaded from TCGA database. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox multivariate model were used for survival analysis. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between the clinicopathological features and SCGB2A1 expression. For validation, data of SCGB2A1 mRNA expression and protein expression were obtained and then survival analysis was performed for 47 patients with endometrial cancer from the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC). In TCGA dataset, SCGB2A1 expression was significantly higher in tumor tissues (n=528) compared with normal tissues (n=23, P<0.001). The decrease in SCGB2A1 expression in UCEC was significantly associated with age at diagnosis, high tumor grade, residual tumor, positive peritoneal cytology, pelvic lymph node metastasis, para-aortic lymph node metastasis and advanced clinical stage with P<0.05. In the multivariate analysis, SCGB2A1 expression was identified as an independent prognostic factor. In the FUSCC validation set, low SCGB2A1 expression was also associated with worse survival compared with high expression in endometrial cancer (P<0.001). Gene Set Enrichment Analysis revealed that SCGB2A1 may be involved in tumor proliferation and cell cycle regulation. In conclusion, SCGB2A1 may have an important role in the prognosis of UCEC, and has value as a new target for novel therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Endometrial cancer is one of the most prevalent tumors of the female reproductive system causing serious health effects to women worldwide. Although numerous studies, including analysis of gene expression profile and cellular microenvironment have been reported in this field, pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear. In this study, we performed a system bioinformatics analysis of endometrial cancer using the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets (GSE17025, GSE63678, and GSE115810) to identify the core genes. In addition, exosomes derived from endometrial cancer cells were also isolated and identified. First, we analyzed the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between endometrial cancer tissues and normal tissues in clinic samples. We found that HAND2-AS1, PEG3, OGN, SFRP4, and OSR2 were co-expressed across all 3 datasets. Pathways analysis showed that several pathways associated with endometrial cancer, including "p53 signaling pathway", "Glutathione metabolism", "Cell cycle", and etc. Next, we selected DEGs with highly significant fold change and co-expressed across the 3 datasets and validated them in the TCGA database using Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA). Finally, we performed a survival analysis and identified four genes (TOP2A, ASPM, EFEMP1, and FOXL2) that play key roles in endometrial cancer. We found up-regulation of TOP2A and ASPM in endometrial cancer tissues or cells, while EFEMP1 and FOXL2 were down-regulated. Furthermore, we isolated exosomes from the culturing supernatants of endometrial cancer cells (Ishikawa and HEC-1-A) and found that miR-133a, which regulates expression of FOXL2, were present in exosomes and that they could be delivered to normal endometrial cells. The common DEGs, pathways, and exosomal miRNAs identified in this study might play an important role in progression as well as diagnosis of endometrial cancer. In conclusion, our results provide insights into the pathogenesis and risk assessment of endometrial cancer. Even so, further studies are required to elucidate on the precise mechanism of action of these genes in endometrial cancer.
Project description:Background:Lung cancer has the highest morbidity and mortality worldwide, and lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) is the most common pathological subtype. Accumulating evidence suggests the tumor microenvironment (TME) is correlated with the tumor progress and the patient's outcome. As the major components of TME, the tumor-infiltrated immune cells and stromal cells have attracted more and more attention. In this study, differentially expressed immune and stromal signature genes were used to construct a TME-related prognostic model for predicting the outcomes of LADC patients. Methods:The expression profiles of LADC samples with clinical information were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to the TME of LADC were identified using TCGA dataset by Wilcoxon rank sum test. The prognostic effects of TME-related DEGs were analyzed using univariate Cox regression. Then, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression was performed to reduce the overfit and the number of genes for further analysis. Next, the prognostic model was constructed by step multivariate Cox regression and risk score of each sample was calculated. Then, survival and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to validate the model using TCGA and GEO datasets, respectively. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis of gene signature was performed using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). Finally, the overall immune status, tumor purity and the expression profiles of HLA genes of high- and low-risk samples was further analyzed to reveal the potential mechanisms of prognostic effects of the model. Results:A total of 93 TME-related DEGs were identified, of which 23 DEGs were up-regulated and 70 DEGs were down-regulated. The univariate cox analysis indicated that 23 DEGs has the prognostic effects, the hazard ratio ranged from 0.65 to 1.25 (p < 0.05). Then, seven genes were screened out from the 23 DEGs by LASSO regression method and were further analyzed by step multivariate Cox regression. Finally, a three-gene (ADAM12, Bruton Tyrosine Kinase (BTK), ERG) signature was constructed, and ADAM12, BTK can be used as independent prognostic factors. The three-gene signature well stratified the LADC patients in both training (TCGA) and testing (GEO) datasets as high-risk and low-risk groups, the 3-year area under curve (AUC) of ROC curves of three GEO sets were 0.718 (GSE3141), 0.646 (GSE30219) and 0.643 (GSE50081). The GSEA analysis indicated that highly expressed ADAM12, BTK, ERG mainly correlated with the activation of pathways involving in focal adhesion, immune regulation. The immune analysis indicated that the low-risk group has more immune activities and higher expression of HLA genes than that of the high-risk group. In sum, we identified and constructed a three TME-related DEGs signature, which could be used to predict the prognosis of LADC patients.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The purpose of this study was to explore the composition of tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIIC) and prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating mast cells (TIMC) in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).<h4>Methods</h4>The gene expression profiles of ACC were downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GSE90713, GSE12368). The abundance of TIICs in ACC samples was calculated by CIBERSORT algorithm and immunohistochemistry was used to identify mast cells of 39 tumor samples from Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed by LIMMA package using R software. Survival analysis was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression models.<h4>Results</h4>The abundance of mast cells (<i>p</i> = .008) was positively correlated with ACC patients' outcome in TCGA cohort and was also positively correlated with both overall survival (<i>p</i> < .05) and progression-free survival (<i>p</i> < .05) in FUSCC cohort. Different TIMC infiltrations showed significant changes in signaling pathways including DNA replication, nuclear chromosome segregation, and meiotic cell cycle process of ACC. In addition, elevated expression of eight hub genes (KIF18A, CDCA8, SKA1, CEP55, BUB1, CDK1, SGOL1, SGOL2) related to the abundance of TIMC in ACC was significantly correlated with the poor prognosis of the patients.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In conclusion, higher TIMC infiltration was positively correlated with ACC patients' outcome in both TCGA and FUSCC cohort. Lower TIMC infiltration and elevated expression of hub genes (<i>KIF18A, CDCA8, SKA1, CEP55, BUB1, CDK1, SGOL1, SGOL2</i>) are markedly correlated with aggressive progression and poor prognosis, which might shed lights on novel targets for treatment strategies.
Project description:We sought to validate the BDII/Han rat model as a model for diet-induced obesity in endometrial cancer (EC) and determine if transcriptomic changes induced by a high fat diet (HFD) in an EC rat model can be used to identify novel biomarkers in human EC. Nineteen BDII/Han rats were included. Group A (n = 7) were given ad lib access to a normal calorie, normal chow diet (NCD) while Group B (n = 12) were given ad lib access to a calorie rich HFD for 15 months. RNAseq was performed on endometrial tumours from both groups. The top-ranking differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were examined in the human EC using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to assess if the BDII/Han rat model is an appropriate model for human obesity-induced carcinogenesis. Weight gain in HFD rats was double the weight gain of NCD rats (50 g vs. 25 g). The incidence of cancer was similar in both groups (4/7-57% vs. 4/12-33%; p = 0.37). All tumours were equivalent to a Stage 1A, Grade 2 human endometrioid carcinoma. A total of 368 DEGs were identified between the tumours in the HFD group compared to the NCD group. We identified two upstream regulators of the DEGs, mir-33 and Brd4, and a pathway analysis identified downstream enrichment of the colorectal cancer metastasis and ovarian cancer metastasis pathways. Top-ranking DEGs included Tex14, A2M, Hmgcs2, Adamts5, Pdk4, Crabp2, Capn12, Npw, Idi1 and Gpt. A2M expression was decreased in HFD tumours. Consistent with these findings, we found a significant negative correlation between A2M mRNA expression levels and BMI in the TCGA cohort (Spearman's Rho = -0.263, p < 0.001). A2M expression was associated with improved overall survival (HR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.23-0.9, p = 0.024). Crabp2 expression was increased in HFD tumours. In human EC, CRABP2 expression was associated with reduced overall survival (HR = 3.554, 95% CI 1.875-6.753, p < 0.001). Diet-induced obesity can alter EC transcriptomic profiles. The BDII/Han rat model is a suitable model of diet-induced obesity in endometrial cancer and can be used to identify clinically relevant biomarkers in human EC.
Project description:In order to accurately predict oncological outcomes of colorectal cancer (CRC), we established a risk signature with tumor infiltrating neutrophils and T immune cells for prognosis. A total of 276 CRC patients from FUSCC, and 434 patients from TCGA cohort were enrolled in the study. A risk signature model in combination with CEACAM8+ neutrophils, CD3+, CD8+ T lymphocytes, and FOXP3+ regulatory T cells was established, and the relationships with patient clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis were evaluated. In TCGA cohort, high CEACAM8 expression was observed as an independent factor of poor disease-free survival (DFS), as well as inversely correlated with CD8 (<i>P</i> = 0.0035) and FOXP3 expression (<i>P</i> = 0.05). In the FUSCC cohort for validation, the association between CEACAM8+ neutrophils and DFS had been confirmed in CRC tissue (<i>P</i> = 0.026). Furthermore, a risk stratification was derived from integration of CEACAM8+ neutrophils and T immune cells. In both OS and DFS, the high-risk group all demonstrated worse prognosis than low-risk group, with statistical significance (all <i>P</i> < 0.001). In addition, the high-risk group was correlated with post-operative relapses with accurate prediction. Furthermore, the high-risk group identified a subgroup of CRC patients who appeared not to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. At last, predictive nomograms were constructed with recognized independent prognosticators, showing this risk signature increasing the predictive accuracy and efficiency for OS and DFS. In conclusion, incorporation of neutrophil into T lymphocytes could provide more accurate prognostic information in CRC, and this risk stratification predicted for survival benefit from post-operative chemotherapy.
Project description:In the present study, we aimed to investigate immune-related signatures and immune infiltration in melanoma. The transcriptome profiling and clinical data of melanoma were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas database, and their matched normal samples were obtained from the Genotype-Tissue Expression database. After merging the genome expression data using Perl, the limma package was used for data normalization. We screened the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and obtained immune signatures associated with melanoma by an immune-related signature list from the InnateDB database. Univariate Cox regression analysis was used to identify potential prognostic immune genes, and LASSO analysis was used to identify the hub genes. Next, based on the results of multivariate Cox regression analysis, we constructed a risk model for melanoma. We investigated the correlation between risk score and clinical characteristics and overall survival (OS) of patients. Based on the TIMER database, the association between selected immune signatures and immune cell distribution was evaluated. Next, the Wilcoxon rank-sum test was performed using CIBERSORT, which confirmed the differential distribution of immune-infiltrating cells between different risk groups. We obtained a list of 91 differentially expressed immune-related signatures. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that these immune-related DEGs participated in several areas of immune-related crosstalk, including cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, JAK-STAT signaling pathway, chemokine signaling pathway, and Th17 cell differentiation pathway. A risk model was established based on multivariate Cox analysis results, and Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed. The Kruskal-Wallis test suggested that a high risk score indicated a poorer OS and correlated with higher American Joint Committee on Cancer-TNM (AJCC-TNM) stages and advanced pathological stages (<i>P</i> < 0.01). Furthermore, the association between hub immune signatures and immune cell distribution was evaluated in specific tumor samples. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to estimate immune infiltration density in the two groups, and results showed that the high-risk group exhibited a lower infiltration density, and the dominant immune cells included M0 macrophages (<i>P</i> = 0.023) and activated mast cells (<i>P</i> = 0.005).
Project description:Objective:A survival risk assessment model associated with a lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) microenvironment was established and evaluated to identify effective independent prognostic factors for LUAD. Methods:The public data were downloaded from the TCGA database, and ESTIMATE prediction software was used to score immune cells and stromal cells for tumor purity prediction. The samples were divided into the high-score group and the low-score group by the median value of the immune score (or stromal score). The Wilcoxon test was used for differential analysis. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was performed using "clusterProfiler" of R package. Meanwhile, univariate and multivariate regression analysis was performed on DEGs to construct a multivariate Cox risk regression model with variable gene expression levels as independent prognostic factors affecting a tumor microenvironment (TME) and tumor immunity. Results:This study found that LUAD patients with high immune cell (stromal cell) infiltration had better prognosis and were in earlier staging. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that most DEGs were related to the proliferation and activation of immune cells or stromal cells. A survival prediction model composed of 6 TME-related genes (CLEC17A, TAGAP, ABCC8, BCAN, FLT3, and CCR2) was established, and finally, the 6 feature genes closely related to the prognosis of LUAD were proved. The AUC value of the ROC curve in this model was 0.7, indicating that the model was reliable. Conclusion:Six genes related to the LUAD microenvironment have a predictive prognostic value in LUAD.
Project description:Background: Survival rates for Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients who experienced early relapse have usually been relatively low. Our study aims at developing an autophagy signature that could help to detect early relapse cases in CRC. Methods: Propensity score matching analysis was carried out between patients from the early relapse group and the long-term survival group from GSE39582. For both groups, respectively, global autophagy expression changes were then analyzed to identify the differentially expressed prognostic autophagy related genes by conducting Linear Models for Microarray data method analysis. Then, the multi-gene signature was validated in TCGA and Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC) cohorts. Time-dependent ROC were used to test the efficiency of this signature feature in predicting the prognosis of CRC patients. Results: 5 autophagy genes were finally identified to build an early relapse classifier. With specific risk score formula, patients were classified into low- or high-risk group. Time-dependent ROC analyses proved its prognostic accuracy, with AUC 0.841 and 0.803 at 1 and 3 years, respectively. Then, we validated its prognostic value in two external validation series (GSE17538 and GSE33113) and proved that the result is indeed significant irrespective of datasets in two external independent validation cohorts (TCGA and FUSCC cohorts). A nomogram was constructed to guide individualized treatment of patients with CRC. Conclusions: The identification of robust autophagy-related features can effectively classify CRC patients into groups with low and high risk of early relapse. This signature may be used to help select high-risk CRC patients who require more aggressive treatment interventions.
Project description:Background:Colon cancer is one of the deadliest tumors worldwide. Stromal cells and immune cells play important roles in cancer biology and microenvironment across different types of cancer. This study aimed to identify the prognostic value of stromal/immune cell-associated genes for colon cancer in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database using bioinformatic technology. Methods:The gene expression data and corresponding clinical information of colon cancer were downloaded from TCGA database. Stromal and immune scores were estimated based on the ESTIMATE algorithm. Sanger software was used to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and prognostic DEGs based on stromal and immune scores. External validation of prognostic biomarkers was conducted in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Gene ontology (GO) analysis, pathway enrichment analysis, and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) were used for functional analysis. STRING and Cytoscape were used to assess the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and screen hub genes. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to validate the expression of hub genes in clinical tissues. Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25) was selected for analyzing its correlations with tumor-immune system in the TISIDB database. Results:Worse overall survivals of colon cancer patients were found in high stromal score group (2963 vs. 1930 days, log-rank test P = 0.038) and high immune score group (2894 vs. 2230 days, log-rank test P = 0.076). 563 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated genes were identified as stromal-immune score-related DEGs. 70 up-regulated DEGs associated with poor outcomes were identified by COX proportional hazard regression model, and 15 hub genes were selected later. Then, we verified aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and SNAP25 as prognostic biomarkers in GEO database. qRT-PCR results revealed that AQP4 and SNAP25 were significantly elevated in colon cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues (P = 0.003, 0.001). GSEA and TISIDB suggested that SNAP25 involved in cancer-related signaling pathway, immunity and metabolism progresses. Conclusion:SNAP25 is a microenvironment-related and immune-related gene that can predict poor outcomes in colon cancer.