Clinical and molecular characteristics of gliosarcoma and modern prognostic significance relative to conventional glioblastoma.
ABSTRACT: Gliosarcoma is a rare histopathologic variant of glioblastoma traditionally associated with a poor prognosis. While gliosarcoma may represent a distinct clinical entity given its unique histologic composition and molecular features, its relative prognostic significance remains uncertain. While treatment of gliosarcoma generally encompasses the same standardized approach used in glioblastoma, supporting evidence is limited given its rarity. Here, we characterized 32 cases of gliosarcoma and retrospectively evaluated survival relative to 451 glioblastoma patients diagnosed during the same era within the same institution. Overall, we identified 22 primary gliosarcomas, representing 4.7% of WHO Grade IV primary glioblastomas, and 10 secondary gliosarcomas. With median age of 62, patients were predominately Caucasian (87.5%) and male (65.6%). Tumors with available molecular profiling were primarily MGMT-unmethylated (87.5%), IDH-1-preserved (100%) and EGFR wild-type (100%). Interestingly, while no significant median survival difference between primary gliosarcoma and glioblastoma was observed across the entire cohort (11.0 vs. 14.8 months, p?=?0.269), median survival was worse for gliosarcoma specifically among patients who received modern temozolomide-based (TMZ) chemoradiotherapy (11.0 vs. 17.3 months, p?=?0.006). Matched-pair analysis also trended toward worse median survival among gliosarcomas (11.0 vs. 19.6 months, log-rank p?=?0.177, Breslow p?=?0.010). While adjuvant radiotherapy (HR 0.206, p?=?0.035) and TMZ-based chemotherapy (HR 0.531, p?=?0.000) appeared protective, gliosarcoma emerged as a significantly poor prognostic factor on multivariate analysis (HR 3.27, p?=?0.012). Collectively, our results suggest that gliosarcoma may still portend worse prognosis even with modern trimodality therapy.
Project description:Introduction: Gliosarcomas are clinically aggressive tumors, histologically distinct from glioblastoma. Data regarding the impact of extent of resection and post-operative adjuvant therapy on gliosarcoma outcomes are limited. Methods: Patients with histologically confirmed gliosarcoma diagnosed between 1999 and 2019 were identified. Clinical, molecular, and radiographic data were assembled based on historical records. Comparisons of categorical variables used Pearson's Chi-square and Fisher's exact test while continuous values were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Survival comparisons were assessed using Kaplan-Meier statistics and Cox regressions. Results: Seventy-one gliosarcoma patients were identified. Secondary gliosarcoma was not associated with worse survival when compared to recurrent primary gliosarcoma (median survival 9.8 [3.8 to 21.0] months vs. 7.6 [1.0 to 35.7], p = 0.7493). On multivariable analysis, receipt of temozolomide (HR = 0.02, 95% CI 0.001-0.21) and achievement of gross total resection (GTR; HR = 0.13, 95% CI 0.02-0.77) were independently prognostic for improved progression-free survival (PFS) while only receipt of temozolomide was independently associated with extended overall survival (OS) (HR = 0.03, 95% CI 0.001-0.89). In patients receiving surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and concomitant temozolomide, achievement of GTR was significantly associated with improved PFS (median 32.97 [7.1-79.6] months vs. 5.45 [1.8-26.3], p = 0.0092) and OS (median 56.73 months [7.8-104.5] vs. 14.83 [3.8 to 29.1], p = 0.0252). Conclusion: Multimodal therapy is associated with improved survival in gliosarcoma. Even in patients receiving aggressive post-operative multimodal management, total surgical removal of macroscopic disease remains important for optimal outcomes.
Project description:The clinical implications of plasmatic cell-free and tumor DNA (cfDNA and ctDNA) are challenging in glioblastoma. This prospective study included 52 consecutive newly diagnosed glioblastoma (n?=?49) or gliosarcoma (n?=?3) patients treated with concomitant temozolomide and radiotherapy (RT-TMZ), followed by a TMZ maintenance phase. Plasma samples were collected at baseline, before RT-TMZ (pre-RT-TMZ) and at the end of adjuvant TMZ, or at the time of progression in cases of progressive disease (PD). The cfDNA concentration was measured with a fluorometric method, and ctDNA was detected using targeted droplet digital PCR. The main objectives were to analyze the associations between cfDNA and ctDNA measurements during the course of treatment with PD and survival. There was a significant decrease in median cfDNA concentration from baseline to pre-RT-TMZ-19.4 versus 9.7 ng/mL (p?<?0.0001)-in the entire cohort. In patients with PD, a significant increase in cfDNA concentration from pre-RT-TMZ to time of PD was observed, from 9.7 versus 13.1 ng/mL (p?=?0.037), respectively, while no difference was observed for nonprogressive patients. Neither the cfDNA concentration at baseline nor its kinetics correlated with survival. ctDNA was detected in 2 patients (3.8%) and only in gliosarcoma subtypes.Trial registration ClinicalTrial, NCT02617745. Registered 1 December 2015, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02617745?term=glioplak&draw=2&rank=1 .
Project description:Gliosarcoma is a very rare brain tumor reported to be a variant of glioblastoma (GBM), IDH-wildtype. While differences in molecular and histological features between gliosarcoma and GBM were reported, detailed information on the genetic background of this tumor is lacking. We intend to fill in this knowledge gap by the complex analysis of somatic mutations, indels, copy number variations, translocations and gene expression patterns in gliosarcomas. Using next generation sequencing, we determined somatic mutations, copy number variations (CNVs) and translocations in 10 gliosarcomas. Six tumors have been further subjected to RNA sequencing analysis and gene expression patterns have been compared to those of GBMs. We demonstrate that gliosarcoma bears somatic alterations in gene coding for PI3K/Akt (PTEN, PI3K) and RAS/MAPK (NF1, BRAF) signaling pathways that are crucial for tumor growth. Interestingly, the frequency of PTEN alterations in gliosarcomas was much higher than in GBMs. Aberrations of PTEN were the most frequent and occurred in 70% of samples. We identified genes differentially expressed in gliosarcoma compared to GBM (including collagen signature) and confirmed a difference in the protein level by immunohistochemistry. We found several novel translocations (including translocations in the RABGEF1 gene) creating potentially unfavorable combinations. Collected results on genetic alterations and transcriptomic profiles offer new insights into gliosarcoma pathobiology, highlight differences in gliosarcoma and GBM genetic backgrounds and point out to distinct molecular cues for targeted treatment.
Project description:Gliosarcoma is a rare variant of glioblastoma (GBM) that exhibits frequent mutations in TP53 and can develop in a secondary fashion after chemoradiation of a primary GBM. Whether temozolomide (TMZ)-induced mutagenesis of the TP53 DNA-binding domain (DBD) can drive the pathogenesis of gliosarcoma is unclear.We identified a case of a primary GBM that rapidly progressed into secondary gliosarcoma shortly after chemoradiation was initiated. Bulk tumor was collected and gliomasphere cultures derived from both the pre- and post-treatment tumors. We performed targeted DNA sequencing and transcriptome analyses of the specimens to understand their phylogenetic relationship and identify differentially expressed gene pathways. Gliomaspheres from the primary GBM were treated with TMZ and then analyzed to compare patterns of mutagenesis in vivo and ex vivo.The pre- and post-treatment tumors shared EGFR, CDKN2A, and PTEN mutations, but only the secondary gliosarcoma exhibited TP53 DBD missense mutations. Two mutations, R110C, and R175H, were identified, each in distinct clones. Both were base transitions characteristic of TMZ mutagenesis. Gene expression analysis identified increased JAK-STAT signaling in the gliosarcoma, together with reduced expression of microRNAs known to regulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Ex vivo treatment of the GBM spheres with TMZ generated numerous variants in cancer driver genes, including TP53 and CDH1, which were mutated in the post-treatment tumor.TMZ-induced TP53 gain-of-function mutations can have a driving role in secondary gliosarcoma pathogenesis. Analysis of variants identified in ex vivo TMZ-treated gliomaspheres may have utility in predicting GBM evolutionary trajectories in vivo during standard chemoradiation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tumor treating fields (TTFields) is a non-invasive, antimitotic therapy. In the EF-14 phase 3 trial in newly diagnosed glioblastoma, TTFields plus temozolomide (TTFields/TMZ) improved progression free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) versus TMZ alone. Previous data indicate a ??75% daily compliance improves outcomes. We analyzed compliance data from TTFields/TMZ patients in the EF-14 study to correlate TTFields compliance with PFS and OS and identify potential lower boundary for compliance with improved clinical outcomes. METHODS:Compliance was assessed by usage data from the NovoTTF-100A device and calculated as percentage per month of TTFields delivery. TTFields/TMZ patients were segregated into subgroups by percent monthly compliance. A Cox proportional hazard model controlled for sex, extent of resection, MGMT methylation status, age, region, and performance status was used to investigate the effect of compliance on PFS and OS. RESULTS:A threshold value of 50% compliance with TTFields/TMZ improved PFS (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.47-1.05) and OS (HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.45-0.99) versus TMZ alone with improved outcome as compliance increased. At compliance?>?90%, median survival was 24.9 months (28.7 months from diagnosis) and 5-year survival rate was 29.3%. Compliance was independent of gender, extent of resection, MGMT methylation status, age, region and performance status (HR 0.78; p?=?0.031; OS at compliance ??75% vs.?<?75%). CONCLUSION:A compliance threshold of 50% with TTFields/TMZ correlated with significantly improved OS and PFS versus TMZ alone. Patients with compliance >?90% showed extended median and 5-year survival rates. Increased compliance with TTFields therapy is independently prognostic for improved survival in glioblastoma.
Project description:The effect of temozolomide (TMZ) and radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has been well documented in randomized controlled trials. Here we present our findings on the effect of TMZ added to RT at a population level. The Cancer Registry of Norway was searched for patients with a GBM diagnosis from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2007. Subsequently, the prescriptions registered to these patients were obtained from the Norwegian Prescription Database. The data were analyzed according to era (pre-TMZ introduction or post-TMZ introduction) and according to treatment received. Furthermore, a matching procedure was utilized to reduce the bias between the RT + TMZ and RT alone treatments so that the effect of TMZ could be better scrutinized. We identified 1157 GBM patients. The median overall survival (OS), in months, was 8.3 (95% confidence interval: 7.6-9.0) and 10.1 (95% confidence interval: 9.1-11.0) in the pre-TMZ and TMZ eras, respectively (P < .001). By treatment, we found median OS for the control, RT alone, and RT + TMZ groups to be 2.5, 9.0, and 16.2 months, respectively (P < .001). Two-year survival was 0%, 4%, and 25%, respectively. The effect of age on TMZ effect was insignificant. In the matched group analysis, TMZ provided a 7.6-month OS benefit. Our population data reproduce the beneficial effect of TMZ from randomized controlled trials with a median OS of 16.2 months and 25% 2-year survival.
Project description:Survival outcomes for patients with glioblastoma remain poor, particularly for patients with unmethylated O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter. This phase II, randomized, open-label, multicenter trial investigated the efficacy and safety of 2 dose regimens of the selective integrin inhibitor cilengitide combined with standard chemoradiotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma and an unmethylated MGMT promoter.Overall, 265 patients were randomized (1:1:1) to standard cilengitide (2000 mg 2×/wk; n = 88), intensive cilengitide (2000 mg 5×/wk during wk 1-6, thereafter 2×/wk; n = 88), or a control arm (chemoradiotherapy alone; n = 89). Cilengitide was administered intravenously in combination with daily temozolomide (TMZ) and concomitant radiotherapy (RT; wk 1-6), followed by TMZ maintenance therapy (TMZ/RT?TMZ). The primary endpoint was overall survival; secondary endpoints included progression-free survival, pharmacokinetics, and safety and tolerability.Median overall survival was 16.3 months in the standard cilengitide arm (hazard ratio [HR], 0.686; 95% CI: 0.484, 0.972; P = .032) and 14.5 months in the intensive cilengitide arm (HR, 0.858; 95% CI: 0.612, 1.204; P = .3771) versus 13.4 months in the control arm. Median progression-free survival assessed per independent review committee was 5.6 months (HR, 0.822; 95% CI: 0.595, 1.134) and 5.9 months (HR, 0.794; 95% CI: 0.575, 1.096) in the standard and intensive cilengitide arms, respectively, versus 4.1 months in the control arm. Cilengitide was well tolerated.Standard and intensive cilengitide dose regimens were well tolerated in combination with TMZ/RT?TMZ. Inconsistent overall survival and progression-free survival outcomes and a limited sample size did not allow firm conclusions regarding clinical efficacy in this exploratory phase II study.
Project description:PURPOSE:Standard treatment for glioblastoma (GBM) includes surgery, radiation therapy (RT), and temozolomide (TMZ), yielding a median overall survival (OS) of approximately 14 months. Preclinical models suggest that pharmacologic ascorbate (P-AscH-) enhances RT/TMZ antitumor effect in GBM. We evaluated the safety of adding P-AscH- to standard RT/TMZ therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS:This first-in-human trial was divided into an RT phase (concurrent RT/TMZ/P-AscH-) and an adjuvant (ADJ) phase (post RT/TMZ/P-AscH- phase). Eight P-AscH- dose cohorts were evaluated in the RT phase until targeted plasma ascorbate levels were achieved (?20 mmol/L). In the ADJ phase, P-AscH- doses were escalated in each subject at each cycle until plasma concentrations were ?20 mmol/L. P-AscH- was infused 3 times weekly during the RT phase and 2 times weekly during the ADJ phase continuing for six cycles or until disease progression. Adverse events were quantified by CTCAE (v4.03). RESULTS:Eleven subjects were evaluable. No dose-limiting toxicities occurred. Observed toxicities were consistent with historical controls. Adverse events related to study drug were dry mouth and chills. Targeted ascorbate plasma levels of 20 mmol/L were achieved in the 87.5 g cohort; diminishing returns were realized in higher dose cohorts. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 9.4 months and median OS was 18 months. In subjects with undetectable MGMT promoter methylation (n = 8), median PFS was 10 months and median OS was 23 months. CONCLUSIONS:P-AscH-/RT/TMZ is safe with promising clinical outcomes warranting further investigation.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a malignant brain tumor with a dismal prognosis, shows a high level of chemo- and radioresistance and, therefore, attempts to sensitize glioma cells are highly desired. Here, we addressed the question of whether artesunate (ART), a drug currently used in the treatment of malaria, enhances the killing response of glioblastoma cells to temozolomide (TMZ), which is the first-line therapeutic for GBM. We measured apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and senescence, and the extent of DNA damage in glioblastoma cells. Further, we determined the tumor growth in nude mice. We show that ART enhances the killing effect of TMZ in glioblastoma cell lines and in glioblastoma stem-like cells. The DNA double-strand break level induced by TMZ was not clearly enhanced in the combined treatment regime. Also, we did not observe an attenuation of TMZ-induced autophagy, which is considered a survival mechanism. However, we observed a significant effect of ART on homologous recombination (HR) with downregulation of RAD51 protein expression and HR activity. Further, we found that ART is able to inhibit senescence induced by TMZ. Since HR and senescence are pro-survival mechanisms, its inhibition by ART appears to be a key node in enhancing the TMZ-induced killing response. Enhancement of the antitumor effect of TMZ by co-administration of ART was also observed in a mouse tumor model. In conclusion, the amelioration of TMZ-induced cell death upon ART co-treatment provides a rational basis for a combination regime of TMZ and ART in glioblastoma therapy.