Telehealth in Urology: A Systematic Review of the Literature. How Much Can Telemedicine Be Useful During and After the COVID-19 Pandemic?
ABSTRACT: CONTEXT:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused increased interest in the application of telehealth to provide care without exposing patients and physicians to the risk of contagion. The urological literature on the topic is sparse. OBJECTIVE:To perform a systematic review of the literature and evaluate all the available studies on urological applications of telehealth. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION:After registration on PROSPERO, we searched PubMed and Scopus databases to collect any kind of studies evaluating any telehealth interventions in any urological conditions. The National Toxicology Program/Office of Health Assessment and Translation Risk of Bias Rating Tool for Human and Animal Studies was used to estimate the risk of bias. A narrative synthesis was performed. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS:We identified 45 studies (11 concerning prostate cancer [PCa], three hematuria management, six urinary stones, 14 urinary incontinence [UI], five urinary tract infections [UTIs], and six other conditions), including 12 randomized controlled trials. The available literature indicates that telemedicine has been implemented successfully in several common clinical scenarios, including the decision-making process following a diagnosis of nonmetastatic PCa, follow-up care of patients with localized PCa after curative treatments, initial diagnosis of hematuria, management diagnosis and follow-up care of uncomplicated urinary stones and uncomplicated UTIs, and initial evaluation, behavioral therapies, and pelvic floor muscle training in UI patients, as well as follow-up care after surgical treatments of stress urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse. The methodological quality of most of the reports was good. CONCLUSIONS:Telehealth has been implemented successfully in selected patients with PCa, UI, pelvic organ prolapse, uncomplicated urinary stones, and UTIs. Many urological conditions are suitable for telehealth, but more studies are needed on other highly prevalent urological malignant and benign conditions. Likely, the COVID-19 pandemic will give a significant boost to the use of telemedicine. More robust data on long-term efficacy, safety, and health economics are necessary. PATIENT SUMMARY:The diffusion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections has recently increased the interest in telehealth, which is the adoption of telecommunication to deliver any health care activity. The available literature indicates that telemedicine has been adopted successfully in selected patients with several common clinical urological conditions, including prostate cancer, uncomplicated urinary stones, uncomplicated urinary infections, urinary incontinence, or pelvic organ prolapse. Likely, the COVID-19 pandemic will give a significant boost to the use of telemedicine, but more robust data on long-term efficacy, safety, and costs are necessary.
Project description:AIMS:Bowel symptoms, pelvic organ prolapse, and sexual dysfunction are common, but their frequency among women with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) has not been well described. Our aims were to describe pelvic floor symptoms among women with and without urinary incontinence (UI) and among subtypes of UI. METHODS:Women with LUTS seeking care at six U.S. tertiary care centers enrolled in prospective cohort study were studied. At baseline, participants completed the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI-20), Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ-IR), and PROMIS GI Diarrhea, Constipation, and Fecal Incontinence Scales. RESULTS:Mean age among the 510 women was 56.4?±?14.4 years. Women who reported UI (n?=?420) had more diarrhea and constipation symptoms (mean scores 49.5 vs 46.2 [P?=?0.01] and 51.9 vs 48.4 [P?<?0.01], respectively) at baseline. Among sexually active women, mean PISQ-IR subscale scores were lower among those with UI (condition specific: 89.8 vs 96.7, P?<?0.01; condition impact: 79.8 vs 92.5, P?<?0.01). Women with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) (n?=?240) reported more prolapse symptoms, fecal incontinence, and worse sexual function compared to those with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). CONCLUSIONS:Women presenting with LUTS with UI reported significantly worse constipation, diarrhea, fecal incontinence, and sexual function compared to women without UI. In women with UI, sexual function and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) symptoms were worse in those with MUI compared to SUI and UUI.
Project description:To estimate whether prolapse severity is a major contributor to urinary incontinence severity, as measured by validated incontinence questionnaires.We analyzed data from two large female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) surgical cohorts: the Stress Incontinence Surgical Treatment Efficacy Trial (SISTEr) study (N=655) and the subsequent Trial of Mid-Urethral Slings (TOMUS) study (N=597). All participants completed a standardized baseline assessment including validated measures of symptom severity, quality of life, objective measures of urine loss (Urogenital Distress Inventory [UDI], Medical, Epidemiologic, and Social Aspects of Aging questionnaire, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire, and pad test), as well as the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification assessment. Groups were compared using the chi; test (categorical measures) or the one-way analysis of variance (continuous measures). Statistical significance was defined as P<.05.The SISTEr and TOMUS samples were similar for many variables including age (52 and 53 years, respectively), nulliparity (9% and 12%), prior urinary incontinence (UI) surgery (14% and 13%), and prior hysterectomy (31% and 28%), but other differences necessitated separate analysis of the two cohorts. There was not a statistically significant difference in UDI scores according to prolapse stage in either study population. Patients with prior surgery for pelvic organ prolapse and SUI had more incontinence symptoms and were more bothered by their UI regardless of prolapse stage.Prolapse stage is not strongly or consistently associated with incontinence severity in women who select surgical treatment of SUI. Prior pelvic organ prolapse and UI surgery is associated with worse UI severity and bother.ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00064662 and NCT00325039.II.
Project description:We analyzed the incidence and the clinical and laboratory characteristics of Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infections (UTIs) during a 10-year period (2009-2018) and compared them with those of Staphylococcus saprophyticus UTIs. A total of 38 and 162 episodes of S. lugdunensis and S. saprophyticus UTIs were observed. The number of S. saprophyticus UTIs was stable throughout the 10 years, whereas there was an obvious surge in the apparent number of S. lugdunensis UTIs since 2014, coinciding with the commencement of a routine use of MALDI-TOF MS. Univariate analysis showed that male sex (p < 0.001), advanced age (p < 0.001), hospital-acquired infections, (p < 0.001), upper UTI (p < 0.005), polymicrobial infections (p < 0.05), hypertension (p < 0.001), solid-organ malignancies (p < 0.001), renal stones (p < 0.001), urinary stricture (p < 0.05), vesicoureteral reflux (p < 0.001), and presence of a urinary catheter (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with S. lugdunensis UTI. Multivariable analysis revealed that S. lugdunensis UTI was associated with male sex (OR = 6.08, p < 0.05), solid-organ malignancies (OR = 12.27, p < 0.01), and urological system abnormalities (OR = 7.44, p < 0.05). There were significant differences in the patient population affected and predisposing factors between S. lugdunensis and S. saprophyticus UTIs.
Project description:Objectives To determine the lifetime risk of undergoing pelvic floor surgery in a cohort of UK parous women and the re-operation rates for pelvic floor surgery, time intervals for repeat surgery and independent risk factors for undergoing primary and repeat pelvic floor surgery. Study design A register linkage study. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was lifetime risk of parous women in the UK undergoing pelvic floor surgery for pelvic organ prolapse (POP), urinary incontinence (UI), and rectal prolapse or faecal incontinence (RP-FI). Secondary outcomes were re-operation rates and time interval of repeat surgery for POP/UI, and independent risk factors for undergoing primary and repeat pelvic floor surgery. Results 34?631 women identified from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Database were linked with the Scottish Morbidity Records databases of NHS Scotland to assess relevant outcomes. The lifetime risk for women by age 80 years of undergoing any form of pelvic floor surgery was 12.2%. 2130 (6.2%) women had at least one pelvic floor surgery, of whom 407 (19%) had repeat operations. The median time intervals (IQR) between index and repeat UI and POP surgery were 2.80 (0.94-8.07) years and 3 (1.00-8.25) years, respectively. There is a reduced lifetime risk of pelvic floor surgery in women who had all deliveries by caesarean section (p<0.001) and those aged <20 years at first delivery (p=0.021). Women who sustained at least one perineal laceration (in the absence of a classified perineal tear) during delivery or who had at least one instrumental delivery with forceps use were at increased risk (p<0.001 and p=0.015, respectively). Conclusions Our study shows that in the UK more than one in 10 parous women will require at least one surgical procedure for pelvic floor disorders over their lifetime. The study also identifies independent risk and protective factors for pelvic floor surgery in parous women.
Project description:We present a case of Alkaptonuria (AKU) presented with severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to extensive prostatic calculi deposited in the para prostatic diverticulum. Prostatic calculi are seen in chronic prostatitis, chronic pelvic pain syndrome and benign prostate hyperplasia; however, in patients with AKU, prostatic calculi and/or calcifications are more extensive. A para prostatic diverticulum is a rare entity in males; however, it should be considered in patients with AKU based on this case report.A patient with AKU presented with extensive prostatic calculi that were deposited in para prostatic diverticulum, urethra and urinary bladder. The stones were successfully managed endoscopically.Paraprostatic diverticula or urethral diverticula are rare entities. They may be congenital or acquired due to recurrent Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) or distal urethral obstruction. The distal obstruction of the urethra secondary to stones was the most likely etiology of the paraprostatic diverticulum in our case. The possible mechanisms behind stone formation in our case were chronic stasis and urinary infection within a urethral diverticulum proximal to the urethral obstruction.This case sums a rare case of AKU and paraprostatic diverticular stones; in addition, it highlights the role endoscopic management of prostatolithiasis in AKU patient.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Maternal expulsive efforts are thought to damage the pelvic floor. We aimed to compare pelvic floor function and anatomy between women who delivered vaginally (VB) versus those with caesarean delivery (CD) prior to the second stage of labour. DESIGN:Prospective cohort. SETTING:University Hospital Midwifery practice. POPULATION:Nulliparas. METHODS:Pregnant nulliparas were recruited during pregnancy and women who underwent CD prior to the 2nd stage of labour at birth were recruited immediately postpartum. Both groups were followed prospectively to 6 months postpartum. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:POPQ, perineal ultrasound (U/S) and Paper Towel Test (PTT), an objective measure of stress incontinence; Incontinence Severity Index (ISI), Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ-7), Wexner Fecal Incontinence Scale (W) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). RESULTS:336/448 (75%) VB and 138/224 (62%) CD followed up. The VB group was younger (23.9 ± 4.9 versus 26.6 ± 6.1 years, P < 0.001) and less overweight/obese (38 versus 56%, P < 0.001); baseline functional measures were similar (all P > 0.05). At follow-up, urinary incontinence (UI) (55 versus 46% ISI > 0, P = 0.10), fecal incontinence (FI) (8 versus 13% FI on W, P = 0.12), sexual activity rates (88 versus 92%, P = 0.18) and PFIQ-seven scores were similar. Positive PTT tests (17 versus 6%, P = 0.002) and ? Stage 2 prolapse (22 versus 15%, P = 0.03) were higher with VB; differences were limited to points Aa and Ba. U/S findings were not different between groups. Stepwise multivariate analyses controlling for age, body mass index, and non-Hispanic White race for prolapse of points Aa and Ba did not alter conclusions (all P < 0.004). CONCLUSIONS:VB resulted in prolapse changes and objective UI but not in increased self-report pelvic floor dysfunction at 6 months postpartum compared with women who delivered by CD prior to the second stage of labour. The second stage of labour had a modest effect on postpartum pelvic floor function.
Project description:More than 225 000 surgeries are performed annually in the United States for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Abdominal sacrocolpopexy is considered the most durable POP surgery, but little is known about safety and long-term effectiveness.To describe anatomic and symptomatic outcomes up to 7 years after abdominal sacrocolpopexy, and to determine whether these are affected by concomitant anti-incontinence surgery (Burch urethropexy).Long-term follow-up of the randomized, masked 2-year Colpopexy and Urinary Reduction Efforts (CARE) trial of women with stress continence who underwent abdominal sacrocolpopexy between 2002 and 2005 for symptomatic POP and also received either concomitant Burch urethropexy or no urethropexy. Ninety-two percent (215/233) of eligible 2-year CARE trial completers were enrolled in the extended CARE study; and 181 (84%) and 126 (59%) completed 5 and 7 years of follow-up, respectively. The median follow-up was 7 years.Symptomatic POP failure requiring retreatment or self-reported bulge; or anatomic POP failure requiring retreatment or Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification evaluation demonstrating descent of the vaginal apex below the upper third of the vagina, or anterior or posterior vaginal wall prolapse beyond the hymen. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) with more than 1 symptom or interval treatment; or overall UI score of 3 or greater on the Incontinence Severity Index.By year 7, the estimated probabilities of treatment failure (POP, SUI, UI) from parametric survival modeling for the urethropexy group and the no urethropexy group, respectively, were 0.27 and 0.22 for anatomic POP (treatment difference of 0.050; 95% CI, -0.161 to 0.271), 0.29 and 0.24 for symptomatic POP (treatment difference of 0.049; 95% CI, -0.060 to 0.162), 0.48 and 0.34 for composite POP (treatment difference of 0.134; 95% CI, -0.096 to 0.322), 0.62 and 0.77 for SUI (treatment difference of -0.153; 95% CI, -0.268 to 0.030), and 0.75 and 0.81 for overall UI (treatment difference of -0.064; 95% CI, -0.161 to 0.032). Mesh erosion probability at 7 years (estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method) was 10.5% (95% CI, 6.8% to 16.1%).During 7 years of follow-up, abdominal sacrocolpopexy failure rates increased in both groups. Urethropexy prevented SUI longer than no urethropexy. Abdominal sacrocolpopexy effectiveness should be balanced with long-term risks of mesh or suture erosion.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00099372.
Project description:The objective of this study was to characterize symptom prevalence, awareness of pelvic floor disorders (PFDs) in family/friends, and understanding of factors contributing to the development of PFDs in women aged 19 to 30 years.This study is a cross-sectional study via online questionnaire survey of female students aged 19 to 30 years enrolled at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Results of "adolescent women" aged 19 to 24 years were compared with "young women" aged 25 to 30 years.A total of 1092 questionnaires were completed with the mean age being 23.5 ± 3.1 years. The overall rate of urinary incontinence (UI) was 10.3% without a difference between adolescent and young women (P = 0.61). There were no differences in rates of urgency UI (P = 0.061), stress UI (P = 0.29), or pelvic organ prolapse (POP) symptoms (P = 0.56) between groups. There was no difference between groups in awareness of family members with UI, fecal incontinence (FI), or POP symptoms (P ? 0.24). However, logistic regression showed that the young women were more likely to have received education regarding UI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-3.6), FI (aOR, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.2-4.8), POP (aOR, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.1-4.2), and have greater understanding regarding causes of UI (aOR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.7-4.8), FI (aOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3), and POP (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3-2.9).Women aged 25 to 30 years had more awareness and understanding of PFDs compared with adolescent women. These data may have implications for primary prevention strategies of PFDs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pelvic floor disorders including urinary incontinence (UI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) are common conditions; however, most women with these symptoms do not seek care. Failure to seek care may be related to misconceptions about these conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the baseline knowledge of UI and POP among adult women presenting to primary care clinics, as well as factors associated with knowledge levels. METHODS:A survey with questions from previously validated UI and POP knowledge questionnaires (PIKQ-UI and PIKQ-POP, respectively) was self-administered to a cross-sectional group of adult female patients presenting to three primary care clinics: geriatric, community-based, and hospital-based. Participants' demographics and medical histories were compared using ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis for continuous variables and Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. In order to compare various covariates with knowledge non-proficiency on PIKQ-UI and PIKQ-POP scales, unadjusted and adjusted ORs with 95% CIs were calculated using bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression, respectively. RESULTS:Of 346 participants, knowledge non-proficiency was similar and consistent across clinic sites and reached 72.0% for UI and 53.6% for POP. On multivariate analysis, lower educational attainment, being unaware of UI or POP as medical conditions, and having no history of care-seeking for these conditions were significantly associated with knowledge non-proficiency on UI, POP, or both. CONCLUSIONS:Knowledge non-proficiency for UI and POP is common among women presenting for primary care. For UI, healthcare providers should assess patients' actual understanding of the disease, especially among those with lower educational attainment, to eliminate any possible misconceptions. For POP, the focus should be on increasing awareness of this disease, as many women may have not previously heard of this condition. Simple strategies may increase knowledge in these areas and change care-seeking behaviors. STUDY REGISTRATION:None.
Project description:Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are infectious diseases that commonly occur in communities. Although several international guidelines for the management of UTIs have been available, clinical characteristics, etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns may differ from country to country. This work represents an update of the 2011 Korean guideline for UTIs. The current guideline was developed by the update and adaptation method. This clinical practice guideline provides recommendations for the diagnosis and management of UTIs, including asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute uncomplicated cystitis, acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis, complicated pyelonephritis related to urinary tract obstruction, and acute bacterial prostatitis. This guideline targets community-acquired UTIs occurring among adult patients. Healthcare-associated UTIs, catheter-associated UTIs, and infections in immunocompromised patients were not included in this guideline.