Performance comparison of EasyFix G26 and HYDRASYS 2 SCAN for the detection of serum monoclonal proteins.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) is a widely used laboratory technique to diagnose patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and other disorders related to serum protein. In patients with MM, abnormal monoclonal protein can be detected by SPE and further characterized using immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE). There are several semi-automated agarose gel-based systems available commercially for SPE and IFE. In this study, we sought to evaluate the analytical performance of fully automated EasyFix G26 (EFG26) and semi-automated HYDRASYS 2 SCAN (H2SCAN) for both SPE and IFE. METHODS:Both instruments were operated according to manufacturer's instructions. Samples used include a commercially available normal control serum (NCS) and patients' specimens. The following were evaluated: precision and comparison studies for SPE, and reproducibility and comparison studies for IFE. Statistical analyses were performed using Microsoft Excel. RESULTS:For SPE repeatability study, our results showed that EFG26 has higher coefficient of variation (%CV) compared with H2SCAN for both samples except for monoclonal component with %CV of 0.97% and 1.18%, respectively. Similar results were obtained for SPE reproducibility study except for alpha-1 (4.16%) and beta (3.13%) fractions for NCS, and beta fractions (5.36%) for monoclonal sample. Subsequently, reproducibility for IFE was 100% for both instruments. Values for correlation coefficients between both instruments ranged from 0.91 to 0.98 for the five classic bands. CONCLUSION:Both instruments demonstrated good analytical performance characterized by high precision, reproducibility and correlation.
Project description:Serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) and immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) are standard tools for multiple myeloma (MM) routine diagnostics. M-protein is a biomarker for MM that can be quantified with SPE and characterized with IFE. We have investigated combining SPE/IFE with targeted mass spectrometry (MS) to detect and quantify the M-protein. SPE-MS assay offers the possibility to detect M-protein with higher sensitivity than SPE/IFE, which could lead to better analysis of minimal residual disease in clinical laboratories. In addition, analysis of archived SPE gels could be used for retrospective MM studies. We have investigated two different approaches of measuring M-protein and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (t-mAbs) from SPE/IFE gels. After extracting proteotypic peptides from the gel, they can be quantified using stable isotope labeled (SIL) peptides and measured by Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Alternatively, extracted peptides can be labeled with tandem mass tags (TMT). Both approaches are not hampered by the presence of t-mAbs. Using SIL peptides, limit of detection of the M-protein is approximately 100-fold better than with routine SPE/IFE. Using TMT labeling, M-protein can be measured and compared in different samples from the same patient. We have successfully measured M-protein proteotypic peptides extracted from the SPE/IFE gels utilizing SIL peptides and TMT.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To quantify nerve conduction study (NCS) reproducibility utilizing an automated NCS system (NC-stat, NeuroMetrix, Inc.). METHOD: Healthy volunteers without neuropathic symptoms participated in the study. Their median, ulnar, peroneal, and tibial nerves were tested twice (7 days apart) by the same technician with an NC-stat instrument. Pre-fabricated electrode arrays specific to each nerve were used. Both motor responses (compound motor action potential [CMAP] and F-waves - all nerves) and sensory responses (sensory nerve action potentials [SNAP] - median and ulnar nerves only) were recorded following supramaximal stimuli. Automated algorithms determined all NCS parameters: distal motor latency (DML), mean F-wave latency (FWL), distal sensory latency (DSL), CMAP amplitude, and SNAP amplitude. Latency was adjusted for skin temperature deviation from reference. Pearson correlation coefficient (CC), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variance (CoV), and relative intertrial variation (RIV) were calculated. RESULTS: Fifteen subjects participated in either upper or lower extremity studies with nine participating in both. With the exception of CMAP amplitude, all parameters had CoV less than 0.06. Upper extremity amplitude parameters had CCs greater than 0.85. CCs for latencies were greater than 0.80 except for the median nerve FWL (CC = 0.69). For lower extremity nerves, ICCs were highest for mean FWL (>0.90), followed by DML (>0.82) and then CMAP (peroneal 0.33, tibial 0.73). The 10th to 90th RIV percentiles were bounded by +/-7% for F-wave latencies; +/- 9% for all DSLs; and +/- 11% for DML (except peroneal at 15%). CONCLUSIONS: The reproducibility of NCS parameters obtained with an automated NCS instrument compared favorably with traditional electromyography laboratories. F-wave latencies had the highest repeatability, followed by DML, DSL, SNAP and CMAP amplitude. Given their high reproducibility, automated NCS instrument may encourage wider utilization of NCS in clinical and research applications.
Project description:High-dimensional mass cytometry data potentially enable a comprehensive characterization of immune cells. In order to positively affect clinical trials and translational clinical research, this advanced technology needs to demonstrate a high reproducibility of results across multiple sites for both peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and whole blood preparations. A dry 30-marker broad immunophenotyping panel and customized automated analysis software were recently engineered and are commercially available as the Fluidigm® Maxpar® Direct™ Immune Profiling Assay™. In this study, seven sites received whole blood and six sites received PBMC samples from single donors over a 2-week interval. Each site labeled replicate samples and acquired data on Helios™ instruments using an assay-specific acquisition template. All acquired sample files were then automatically analyzed by Maxpar Pathsetter™ software. A cleanup step eliminated debris, dead cells, aggregates, and normalization beads. The second step automatically enumerated 37 immune cell populations and performed label intensity assessments on all 30 markers. The inter-site reproducibility of the 37 quantified cell populations had consistent population frequencies, with an average %CV of 14.4% for whole blood and 17.7% for PBMC. The dry reagent coupled with automated data analysis is not only convenient but also provides a high degree of reproducibility within and among multiple test sites resulting in a comprehensive yet practical solution for deep immune phenotyping.
Project description:This is an open access article. Unrestricted non-commercial use is permitted provided the original work is properly cited.The reproducibility of mass spectrometry (MS) data collected using surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (SELDI-TOF) has been questioned. This investigation was designed to test the reproducibility of SELDI data collected over time by multiple users and instruments. Five laboratories prepared arrays once every week for six weeks. Spectra were collected on separate instruments in the individual laboratories. Additionally, all of the arrays produced each week were rescanned on a single instrument in one laboratory. Lab-to-lab and array-to-array variability in alignment parameters were larger than the variability attributable to running samples during different weeks. The coefficient of variance (CV) in spectrum intensity ranged from 25% at baseline, to 80% in the matrix noise region, to about 50% during the exponential drop from the maximum matrix noise. Before normalization, the median CV of the peak heights was 72% and reduced to about 20% after normalization. Additionally, for the spectra from a common instrument, the CV ranged from 5% at baseline, to 50% in the matrix noise region, to 20% during the drop from the maximum matrix noise. Normalization reduced the variability in peak heights to about 18%. With proper processing methods, SELDI instruments produce spectra containing large numbers of reproducibly located peaks, with consistent heights.
Project description:One of the main challenges in high-throughput serum profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is the development of proteome fractionation approaches that allow the acquisition of reproducible profiles with a maximum number of spectral features and minimum interferences from biological matrices. This study evaluates a new class of solid-phase extraction (SPE) pipette tips embedded with different chromatographic media for fractionation of model protein digests and serum samples. The materials embedded include strong anion exchange (SAX), weak cation exchange (WCX), C18, C8, C4, immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and zirconium dioxide particles. Simple and rapid serum proteome profiling protocols based on these SPE micro tips are described and tested using a variety of MALDI matrices. We show that different types of particle-embedded SPE micro tips provide complementary information in terms of the spectral features detected for beta-casein digests and control human serum samples. The effect of different sample pretreatments, such as serum dilution and ultrafiltration using molecular weight cut-off membranes, and the reproducibility observed for replicate experiments, are also evaluated. The results demonstrate the usefulness of these simple SPE tips combined with offline MALDI-TOF MS for obtaining information-rich serum profiles, resulting in a robust, versatile and reproducible open-source platform for serum biomarker discovery.
Project description:Herein, the efficient serotonin (5-HT) sensing studies have been conducted using the (ZnO NRs)1?x(CNs)x nanocomposites (NCs) having appropriate structural and electrochemical properties. Initially, the different compositions of ZnO nanorods (NRs), with varying content of carbon nanostructures (CNs=MWCNTs and RGO), are prepared using simple in-situ wet chemical method and thereafter these NCs have been characterized for physico-chemical properties in correlation to the 5-HT sensing activity. XRD Rietveld refinement studies reveal the hexagonal Wurtzite ZnO NRs oriented in (101) direction with space group ‘P63mc’ and both orientation as well as phase of ZnO NRs are also retained in the NCs due to the small content of CNs. The interconnectivity between the ZnO NRs with CNs through different functional moieties is also studied using FTIR analysis; while phases of the constituents are confirmed through Raman analysis. FESEM images of the bare/NCs show hexagonal shaped rods with higher aspect ratio (4.87) to that of others. BET analysis and EIS measurements reveal the higher surface area (97.895 m2/g), lower charge transfer resistance (16.2 k?) for the ZCNT 0.1 NCs to that of other NCs or bare material. Thereafter, the prepared NCs are deposited on the screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) using chitosan as cross-linked agent for 5-HT sensing studies; conducted through cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) measurements. Among the various composites, ZCNT0.1 NCs based electrodes exhibit higher sensing activity towards 5-HT in accordance to its higher surface area, lower particle size and lower charge transfer resistance. SWV measurements provide a wide linear response range (7.5–300 ?M); lower limit of detection (0.66 ?M), excellent limit of quantification (2.19 ?M) and good reproducibility to ZCNT 0.1 NCs as compared to others for 5-HT sensing studies.
Project description:Characterization of endogenous metabolites and xenobiotics is essential to deconvoluting the genetic and environmental causes of disease. However, surveillance of chemical exposure and disease-related changes in large cohorts requires an analytical platform that offers rapid measurement, high sensitivity, efficient separation, broad dynamic range, and application to an expansive chemical space. Here, we present a novel platform for small molecule analyses that addresses these requirements by combining solid-phase extraction with ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry (SPE-IMS-MS). This platform is capable of performing both targeted and global measurements of endogenous metabolites and xenobiotics in human biofluids with high reproducibility (CV 6 3%), sensitivity (LODs in the pM range in biofluids) and throughput (10-s sample-to-sample duty cycle). We report application of this platform to the analysis of human urine from patients with and without type 1 diabetes, where we observed statistically significant variations in the concentration of disaccharides and previously unreported chemical isomers. This SPE-IMS-MS platform overcomes many of the current challenges of large-scale metabolomic and exposomic analyses and offers a viable option for population and patient cohort screening in an effort to gain insights into disease processes and human environmental chemical exposure.
Project description:A critical question facing the field of metabolomics is whether data obtained from different centers can be effectively compared and combined. An important aspect of this is the interlaboratory precision (reproducibility) of the analytical protocols used. We analyzed human samples in six laboratories using different instrumentation but a common protocol (the AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit) for the measurement of 189 metabolites via liquid chromatography (LC) or flow injection analysis (FIA) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In spiked quality control (QC) samples 82% of metabolite measurements had an interlaboratory precision of <20%, while 83% of averaged individual laboratory measurements were accurate to within 20%. For 20 typical biological samples (serum and plasma from healthy individuals) the median interlaboratory coefficient of variation (CV) was 7.6%, with 85% of metabolites exhibiting a median interlaboratory CV of <20%. Precision was largely independent of the type of sample (serum or plasma) or the anticoagulant used but was reduced in a sample from a patient with dyslipidaemia. The median interlaboratory accuracy and precision of the assay for standard reference plasma (NIST SRM 1950) were 107% and 6.7%, respectively. Likely sources of irreproducibility were the near limit of detection (LOD) typical abundance of some metabolites and the degree of manual review and optimization of peak integration in the LC-MS/MS data after acquisition. Normalization to a reference material was crucial for the semi-quantitative FIA measurements. This is the first interlaboratory assessment of a widely used, targeted metabolomics assay illustrating the reproducibility of the protocol and how data generated on different instruments could be directly integrated in large-scale epidemiological studies.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Reliable measurements of the protein content of biological fluids like serum or plasma can provide valuable input for the development of personalized medicine tests. Standard MALDI analysis typically only shows high abundance proteins, which limits its utility for test development. It also exhibits reproducibility issues with respect to quantitative measurements. In this paper we show how the sensitivity of MALDI profiling of intact proteins in unfractionated human serum can be substantially increased by exposing a sample to many more laser shots than are commonly used. Analytical reproducibility is also improved. METHODS:To assess what is theoretically achievable we utilized spectra from the same samples obtained over many years and combined them to generate MALDI spectral averages of up to 100,000,000 shots for a single sample, and up to 8,000,000 shots for a set of 40 different serum samples. Spectral attributes, such as number of peaks and spectral noise of such averaged spectra were investigated together with analytical reproducibility as a function of the number of shots. We confirmed that results were similar on MALDI instruments from different manufacturers. RESULTS:We observed an expected decrease of noise, roughly proportional to the square root of the number of shots, over the whole investigated range of the number of shots (5 orders of magnitude), resulting in an increase in the number of reliably detected peaks. The reproducibility of the amplitude of these peaks, measured by CV and concordance analysis also improves with very similar dependence on shot number, reaching median CVs below 2% for shot numbers > 4 million. Measures of analytical information content and association with biological processes increase with increasing number of shots. CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrate that substantially increasing the number of laser shots in a MALDI-TOF analysis leads to more informative and reliable data on the protein content of unfractionated serum. This approach has already been used in the development of clinical tests in oncology.
Project description:Platelet markers [soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and soluble p selectin (sPselectin)] are associated with platelet activation and cardiovascular events. We sought to investigate the reproducibility of these markers over time and the effect of low-dose aspirin on sCD40L and sPselectin in plasma and serum. Following an overnight fast, 40 healthy volunteers had weekly phlebotomy and were administered aspirin 81 mg/day between weeks 3 and 4. Reproducibility over time was assessed by coefficient of variation (CV) and inter-class correlation coefficient. Correlation between markers was assessed using Pearson r statistic. Difference between levels pre- and post-aspirin was measured with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Data are presented as median (interquartile range). sCD40L and sPselectin measurements were reproducible over time in plasma and serum (CV < 10 %). Measurement of sCD40L and sPselectin in plasma correlated with levels in serum before aspirin and after aspirin. There was no significant correlation between sCD40L and sPselectin. After 1-week of aspirin 81 mg/day, there was a reduction in sCD40L and sPselectin in serum and plasma, respectively. Soluble CD40L and sPselectin are independent markers that are reproducible over time in both plasma and sera and are reduced by 1-week of low-dose aspirin.