Mediation of the relationship between proteinuria and serum phosphate: Insight from the KNOW-CKD study.
ABSTRACT: Proteinuria and hyperphosphatemia are risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although the interaction between proteinuria and the serum phosphate level is well established, the mechanistic link between the two, particularly the extent to which this interaction is mediated by phosphate-regulating factors, remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the association between proteinuria and the serum phosphate level, as well as potential mediators, including circulating fibroblast growth factor (FGF23)/klotho, the 24-h urinary phosphate excretion rate to glomerular filtration rate ratio (EP/GFR), and the 24-h tubular phosphate reabsorption rate to GFR ratio (TRP/GFR). The analyses were performed with data from 1793 patients in whom 24-h urine protein and phosphate, serum phosphate, FGF23, and klotho levels were measured simultaneously, obtained from the KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD). Multivariable linear regression and mediation analyses were performed. Total, direct, and indirect effects were also estimated. Patients with high serum phosphate levels were found to be more likely to exhibit greater proteinuria, higher FGF23 levels, and lower klotho levels. The 24-h EP/GFR increased and the 24-h TRP/GFR decreased with increasing proteinuria and CKD progression. Simple mediation analyses showed that 15.4% and 67.9% of the relationship between proteinuria and the serum phosphate level were mediated by the FGF23/klotho ratio and 24-h EP/GFR, respectively. Together, these two factors accounted for 73.1% of the relationship between serum markers. These findings suggest that proteinuria increases the 24-h EP/GFR via the FGF23/klotho axis as a compensatory mechanism for the increased phosphate burden well before the reduction in renal function is first seen.
Project description:Chronic kidney disease-associated mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is common in pediatric kidney disease patients and a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD). Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and Klotho are novel key players in CKD-MBD, and has been suggested to be involved in the development of CVD.This prospective cohort study included 74 pediatric patients; 31 with CKD (age range 0.8-18.8 years, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) range 9-68 mL/min/1.73 m2) and 43 transplanted patients (CKD-T; age range 3.3-17.7 years, GFR range 10-99 mL/min/1.73 m2) examined annually for 3 years. We assessed longitudinal patterns and predictors of FGF23 and soluble Klotho, as well as associations to cardiac remodeling and function using echocardiographic pulse wave Doppler (PWD) and color-coded tissue Doppler imaging (cc-TDI).The prevalence of high FGF23 levels (?95th percentile) was 60% in CKD and 42% in CKD-T patients, despite a low prevalence of hyperphosphatemia and normal Klotho levels. Low GFR at baseline was a predictor for high mean log FGF23 during follow-up in CKD and CKD-T patients (? = -0.2, p < 0.001). A high log FGF23 z-score longitudinally was borderline significantly associated with elevated left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in CKD patients (? = 1.8, p = 0.06). In addition, high log FGF23 (? = -0.43, p = 0.01) and low log Klotho (? = 0.44, p = 0.006) over time were associated with a worse left ventricular diastolic function (cc-TDI e'/a') in CKD-T patients.In pediatric CKD and CKD-T patients, the FGF23 level increase and Klotho level decrease with progressing renal failure, despite well-controlled phosphate levels. Following adjustments, both high FGF23 and low Klotho levels were strongly associated with a worse left ventricular diastolic function longitudinally. The potential role of FGF23 and Klotho in cardiac morbidity in pediatric CKD requires further investigation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In chronic kidney disease (CKD), serum concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) increase progressively as glomerular filtration rate declines, while renal expression of the FGF23 coreceptor Klotho decreases. Elevated circulating FGF23 levels are strongly associated with mortality and with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), which is a major cause of cardiovascular death in CKD patients. The cardiac FGF23/FGF receptor (FGFR) system and its role in the development of LVH in humans have not been addressed previously. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective case-control study in 24 deceased patients with childhood-onset end-stage renal disease (dialysis: n = 17; transplanted: n = 7), and 24 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Myocardial autopsy samples of the left ventricle were evaluated for expression of endogenous FGF23, FGFR isoforms, Klotho, calcineurin and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence microscopy, qRT-PCR and western blotting. RESULTS:The majority of patients presented with LVH (67%). Human cardiomyocytes express full-length FGF23, and cardiac FGF23 is excessively high in patients with CKD. Enhanced myocardial expression of FGF23 in concert with Klotho deficiency strongly correlates with the presence of LVH. Cardiac FGF23 levels associate with time-averaged serum phosphate levels, up-regulation of FGFR4 and activation of the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway, an established mediator of cardiac remodelling and LVH. These changes are detected in patients on dialysis but not in those with a functioning kidney transplant. CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate a strong association between LVH and enhanced expression levels of FGF23, FGFR4 and calcineurin, activation of NFAT and reduced levels of soluble Klotho in the myocardium of patients with CKD. These alterations are not observed in kidney transplant patients.
Project description:Proteinuria and hyperphosphatemia are cardiovascular risk factors independent of GFR. We hypothesized that proteinuria induces relative phosphate retention via increased proximal tubule phosphate reabsorption. To test the clinical relevance of this hypothesis, we studied phosphate handling in nephrotic children and patients with CKD. Plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) concentration, plasma phosphate concentration, and tubular reabsorption of phosphate increased during the proteinuric phase compared with the remission phase in nephrotic children. Cross-sectional analysis of a cohort of 1738 patients with CKD showed that albuminuria?300 mg/24 hours is predictive of higher phosphate levels, independent of GFR and other confounding factors. Albuminuric patients also displayed higher plasma FGF-23 and parathyroid hormone levels. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying these observations, we induced glomerular proteinuria in two animal models. Rats with puromycin-aminonucleoside-induced nephrotic proteinuria displayed higher renal protein expression of the sodium-phosphate co-transporter NaPi-IIa, lower renal Klotho protein expression, and decreased phosphorylation of FGF receptor substrate 2?, a major FGF-23 receptor substrate. These findings were confirmed in transgenic mice that develop nephrotic-range proteinuria resulting from podocyte depletion. In vitro, albumin did not directly alter phosphate uptake in cultured proximal tubule OK cells. In conclusion, we show that proteinuria increases plasma phosphate concentration independent of GFR. This effect relies on increased proximal tubule NaPi-IIa expression secondary to decreased FGF-23 biologic activity. Proteinuria induces elevation of both plasma phosphate and FGF-23 concentrations, potentially contributing to cardiovascular disease.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic hormone that in end-stage renal disease is markedly increased in serum; however, the mechanisms responsible for this increase are unclear. Here, we tested whether phosphate retention in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is responsible for the elevation of FGF23 in serum using Col4?3 knockout mice, a murine model of Alport disease exhibiting CKD. We found a significant elevation in serum FGF23 in progressively azotemic 8- and 12-week-old CKD mice along with an increased fractional excretion of phosphorus. Both moderate and severe phosphate restriction reduced fractional excretion of phosphorus by 8 weeks, yet serum FGF23 levels remained strikingly elevated. By 12 weeks, FGF23 levels were further increased with moderate phosphate restriction, while severe phosphate restriction led to severe bone mineralization defects and decreased FGF23 production in bone. CKD mice on a control diet had low serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) levels and 3-fold higher renal Cyp24?1 gene expression compared to wild-type mice. Severe phosphate restriction increased 1,25(OH)(2)D levels in CKD mice by 8 weeks and lowered renal Cyp24?1 gene expression despite persistently elevated serum FGF23. Renal klotho gene expression declined in CKD mice on a control diet, but improved with severe phosphate restriction. Thus, dietary phosphate restriction reduces the fractional excretion of phosphorus independent of serum FGF23 levels in mice with CKD.
Project description:Renal ?-Klotho (?-KL) plays a fundamental role as a co-receptor for fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a phosphaturic hormone and regulator of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 (1,25VitD3). Disruption of FGF23-?-KL signaling is thought to be an early hallmark of chronic kidney disease (CKD) involving reduced renal ?-KL expression and a reciprocal rise in serum FGF23. It remains unclear, however, whether the rise in FGF23 is related to the loss of renal ?-KL. We evaluated ?-KL expression in renal biopsy samples and measured levels of several parameters of mineral metabolism, as well as soluble ?-KL (sKL), in serum and urinary samples from CKD patients (n?=?236). We found that although renal ?-KL levels were significantly reduced and serum FGF23 levels were significantly elevated in early and intermediate CKD, serum phosphate levels remained within the normal range. Multiple regression analysis showed that the increases in FGF23 were significantly associated with reduced renal function and elevated serum phosphate, but were not associated with loss of renal ?-KL. Moreover, despite falling renal ?-KL levels, the increase in FGF23 enhanced urinary fractional excretion of phosphate and reduced serum 1,25VitD3 levels in early and intermediate CKD, though not in advanced CKD. Serum sKL levels also fell significantly over the course of CKD, and renal ?-KL was a significant independent determinant of sKL. These results demonstrate that FGF23 levels rise to compensate for renal failure-related phosphate retention in early and intermediate CKD. This enables FGF23-?-KL signaling and a neutral phosphate balance to be maintained despite the reduction in ?-KL. In advanced CKD, however, renal ?-KL declines further. This disrupts FGF23 signaling, and serum phosphate levels significantly increase, stimulating greater FGF23 secretion. Our results also suggest the serum sKL concentration may be a useful marker of renal ?-KL expression levels.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations increase early in the course of CKD in children. High FGF23 levels associate with progression of CKD in adults. Whether FGF23 predicts CKD progression in children is unknown. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:We tested the hypothesis that high plasma FGF23 is an independent risk factor for CKD progression in 419 children, aged 1-16 years, enrolled in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) cohort study. We measured plasma FGF23 concentrations at baseline and determined GFR annually using plasma disappearance of iohexol or the CKiD study estimating equation. We analyzed the association of baseline FGF23 with risk of progression to the composite end point, defined as start of dialysis or kidney transplantation or 50% decline from baseline GFR, adjusted for demographics, baseline GFR, proteinuria, other CKD-specific factors, and other mineral metabolites. RESULTS:At enrollment, median age was 11 years [interquartile range (IQR), 8-15], GFR was 44 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (IQR, 33-57), and FGF23 was 132 RU/ml (IQR, 88-200). During a median follow-up of 5.5 years (IQR, 3.5-6.6), 32.5% of children reached the progression end point. Higher FGF23 concentrations were independently associated with higher risk of the composite outcome (fully adjusted hazard ratio, 2.52 in the highest versus lowest FGF23 tertile; 95% confidence interval, 1.44 to 4.39, P=0.002; fully adjusted hazard ratio, 1.33 per doubling of FGF23; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.56, P=0.001). The time to progression was 40% shorter for participants in the highest compared with the lowest FGF23 tertile. In contrast, serum phosphorus, vitamin D metabolites, and parathyroid hormone did not consistently associate with progression in adjusted analyses. CONCLUSIONS:High plasma FGF23 is an independent risk factor for CKD progression in children.
Project description:Elevated circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) predicts progression of CKD, but it is unknown whether circulating FGF23 independently predicts incident CKD. This study aimed to determine whether circulating FGF23 predicts incident CKD in community-dwelling women.This study examined the relationship of intact serum FGF23, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25[OH](2)D), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphate with prevalent and incident CKD in 701 disabled women, ?65 years of age, from the Women's Health and Aging Study I in Baltimore, Maryland, from 1993 to 1997. Incident CKD was defined as a low estimated GFR (eGFR) <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) only, low eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and a ?25% decline in eGFR from baseline, and an increase in serum creatinine (?0.4 mg/dl) at follow-up.At baseline, 381 women (54.3%) had stage 3 CKD. Of 307 women without CKD at baseline, 63 (20.5%) developed stage 3 CKD over 24 months of follow-up. After excluding prevalent cases of CKD, FGF23 (per 1 SD increase) was associated with incident stage 3 CKD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.06, 2.16; P=0.02), low and declining eGFR (HR, 3.69; 95% CI, 1.68, 8.11; P=0.001), and increase in serum creatinine (HR, 5.35; 95% CI, 1.27, 22.54; P=0.02) in respective multivariable Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for baseline eGFR, age, race, phosphate, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), parathyroid hormone, and other potential confounders.Elevated FGF23 is an independent risk factor for incident CKD in older, disabled, community-dwelling women.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic hormone mainly produced by bone that acts in the kidney through FGF receptors and Klotho. Here we investigated whether the kidney was an additional source of FGF23 during renal disease using a model of type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Renal expression of FGF23 and Klotho was assessed in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and control lean rats at 2, 4, 6, 8 months of age. To evaluate whether the renoprotective effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor in this model was associated with changes in FGF23 and Klotho, ZDF rats received ramipril from 4, when proteinuric, to 8 months of age. FGF23 mRNA was not detectable in the kidney of lean rats, nor of ZDF rats at 2 months of age. FGF23 became measurable in the kidney of diabetic rats at 4 months and significantly increased thereafter. FGF23 protein localized in proximal and distal tubules. Renal Klotho mRNA and protein decreased during time in ZDF rats. As renal disease progressed, serum phosphate levels increased in parallel with decline of fractional phosphorus excretion. Ramipril limited proteinuria and renal injury, attenuated renal FGF23 upregulation and ameliorated Klotho expression. Ramipril normalized serum phosphate levels and tended to increase fractional phosphorus excretion. These data indicate that during progressive renal disease the kidney is a site of FGF23 production which is limited by ACE inhibition. Interfering pharmacologically with the delicate balance of FGF23 and phosphorus in diabetes may have implications in clinics.
Project description:In chronic kidney disease (CKD), elevated serum levels of the phosphate regulating hormone fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 have emerged as powerful risk factors for cardiovascular disease and death. Mechanistically, FGF23 can bind and activate fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 4 independently of α-klotho, the canonical co-receptor for FGF23 in the kidney, which stimulates left ventricular hypertrophy and hepatic production of inflammatory cytokines. FGF23 has also been shown to independently predict progression of renal disease, however, whether FGF23 and FGFR4 also contribute to CKD remains unknown. Here, we generated a mouse model with dual deletions of FGFR4 and α-klotho, and we induced CKD in mice with either global deletion or constitutive activation of FGFR4. We demonstrate that FGF23 is not capable of inducing phosphaturia via FGFR4 and that FGFR4 does not promote or mitigate renal injury in animal models of CKD. Taken together our results suggest FGFR4 inhibition as a safe alternative strategy to target cardiovascular disease and chronic inflammation in patients with CKD without interrupting the necessary phosphaturic effects of FGF23.
Project description:Renal Klotho controls mineral metabolism by directly modulating tubular reabsorption of phosphate and calcium and by acting as a co-receptor for the phosphaturic and vitamin D-regulating hormone fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23). Klotho null mice have a markedly abnormal phenotype. We sought to determine effects of renal-specific and partial deletion of Klotho to facilitate investigation of its roles in health and disease. We generated a mouse model with partial deletion of Klotho in distal tubular segments (Ksp-KL(-/-)). In contrast to Klotho null mice, Ksp-KL(-/-) mice were fertile, had a normal gross phenotype, and did not have vascular or tubular calcification on renal histology. However, Ksp-KL(-/-) mice were hyperphosphatemic with elevated FGF23 levels and abundant expression of the sodium-phosphate cotransporter Npt2a at the brush border membrane. Serum calcium and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) levels were normal but parathyroid hormone levels were decreased. TRPV5 protein was reduced with a parallel mild increase in urinary calcium excretion. Renal expression of vitamin D regulatory enzymes and vitamin D receptor was higher in Ksp-KL(-/-) mice than controls, suggesting increased turnover of vitamin D metabolites and a functional increase in vitamin D signaling. There was a threshold effect of residual renal Klotho expression on FGF23: deletion of >70% of Klotho resulted in FGF23 levels 30-250 times higher than in wild-type mice. A subgroup of Ksp-KL(-/-) mice with normal phosphate levels had elevated FGF23, suggesting a Klotho-derived renal-bone feedback loop. Taken together, renal FGF23-Klotho signaling, which is disrupted in CKD, is essential for homeostatic control of mineral metabolism.