Association Between Atopic Eczema and Cancer in England and Denmark.
ABSTRACT: Importance:Associations between atopic eczema and cancer are unclear, with competing theories that increased immune surveillance decreases cancer risk and that immune stimulation increases cancer risk. Establishing baseline cancer risk in people with atopic eczema is important before exploring the association between new biologic drugs for atopic eczema and cancer risk. Objective:To investigate whether atopic eczema is associated with cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants:Matched cohort studies were conducted from January 2, 1998, to March 31, 2016, in England and from January 1, 1982, to June 30, 2016, in Denmark. We conducted our analyses between July 2018 and July 2019. The setting was English primary care and nationwide Danish data. Participants with atopic eczema (adults only in England and any age in Denmark) were matched on age, sex, and calendar period (as well as primary care practice in England only) to those without atopic eczema. Exposure:Atopic eczema. Main Outcomes and Measures:Overall cancer risk and risk of specific cancers were compared in people with and without atopic eczema. Results:In England, matched cohorts included 471?970 individuals with atopic eczema (median [IQR] age, 41.1 [24.9-60.7] years; 276 510 [58.6%] female) and 2?239?775 individuals without atopic eczema (median [IQR] age, 39.8 [25.9-58.4] years; 1 301 074 [58.1%] female). In Denmark, matched cohorts included 44?945 individuals with atopic eczema (median [IQR] age, 13.7 [1.7-21.1] years; 22 826 [50.8%] female) and 445?673 individuals without atopic eczema (median [IQR] age, 13.5 [1.7-20.8] years; 226 323 [50.8%] female). Little evidence was found of associations between atopic eczema and overall cancer (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.04; 99% CI, 1.02-1.06 in England and 1.05; 99% CI, 0.95-1.16 in Denmark) or for most specific cancers. However, noncutaneous lymphoma risk was increased in people with atopic eczema in England (adjusted HR, 1.19; 99% CI, 1.07-1.34 for non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL] and 1.48; 99% CI, 1.07-2.04 for Hodgkin lymphoma). Lymphoma risk was increased in people with greater eczema severity vs those without atopic eczema (NHL adjusted HR, 1.06; 99% CI, 0.90-1.25 for mild eczema; 1.24; 99% CI, 1.04-1.48 for moderate eczema; and 2.08; 99% CI, 1.42-3.04 for severe eczema). Danish point estimates also showed increased lymphoma risk in people with moderate to severe eczema compared with those without atopic eczema (minimally adjusted HR, 1.31; 99% CI, 0.76-2.26 for NHL and 1.35; 99% CI, 0.65-2.82 for Hodgkin lymphoma), but the 99% CIs were wide. Conclusions and Relevance:The findings from 2 large population-based studies performed in different settings do not support associations between atopic eczema and most cancers. However, an association was observed between atopic eczema and lymphoma, particularly NHL, that increased with eczema severity. This finding warrants further study as new immunomodulatory systemic therapeutics are brought to market that may alter cancer risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Limited evidence suggests increased fracture risk in people with atopic eczema. Any link could have substantial effect; atopic eczema is common, and fractures have associated morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE:We sought to examine whether atopic eczema is associated with fracture and whether fracture risk varies with eczema severity. METHODS:We performed a matched cohort study set in primary care (Clinical Practice Research Datalink GOLD 1998-2016) and linked hospital admissions data (Hospital Episode Statistics), including adults (?18 years old) with atopic eczema matched (by age, sex, general practice, and cohort entry date) with up to 5 individuals without eczema. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) from stratified Cox regression comparing risk of major osteoporotic (hip, pelvis, spine, wrist, and proximal humerus) fractures individually and any fracture in those with and without atopic eczema. RESULTS:We identified 526,808 people with atopic eczema and 2,569,030 people without atopic eczema. Those with eczema had increased risk of hip (HR, 1.10; 99% CI, 1.06-1.14), pelvic (HR, 1.10; 99% CI, 1.02-1.19), spinal (HR, 1.18; 99% CI, 1.10-1.27), and wrist (HR, 1.07; 99% CI, 1.03,-1.11) fractures. We found no evidence of increased proximal humeral (HR, 1.06; 99% CI, 0.97-1.15) fracture risk. Fracture risk increased with increasing eczema severity, with the strongest associations in people with severe eczema (compared with those without) for spinal (HR, 2.09; 99% CI, 1.66-2.65), pelvic (HR, 1.66; 99% CI, 1.26-2.20), and hip (HR, 1.50; 99% CI, 1.30-1.74) fractures. Associations persisted after oral glucocorticoid adjustment. CONCLUSIONS:People with atopic eczema have increased fracture risk, particularly major osteoporotic fractures.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Evidence suggests adults with atopic eczema have increased fracture risk. However, it is unclear whether oral corticosteroids explain the association.<h4>Objective</h4>To assess to what extent oral corticosteroids mediate the relationship between atopic eczema and fractures.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a cohort study using English primary care (Clinical Practice Research Datalink) and hospital admissions (Hospital Episode Statistics) records (1998-2016) including adults (18 years old and older) with atopic eczema matched (age, sex, and general practice) with up to 5 adults without atopic eczema. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for specific major osteoporotic fractures (hip, spine, pelvis, or wrist) and for any-site fracture comparing individuals with atopic eczema with those without, adjusting for 6 different definitions of time-updated oral corticosteroid use (ever any prescription, ever high-dose, and recent, cumulative, current, or peak dose).<h4>Results</h4>We identified 526,808 individuals with atopic eczema and 2,569,030 without. We saw evidence of an association between atopic eczema and major osteoporotic fractures (eg, spine HR 1.15, 99% CI 1.08-1.22; hip HR 1.11, 99% CI 1.08-1.15) that remained after additionally adjusting for oral corticosteroids (eg, cumulative corticosteroid dose: spine HR 1.09, 99% CI 1.03-1.16; hip HR 1.09, 99% CI 1.06-1.12). Fracture rates were higher in people with severe atopic eczema than in people without even after adjusting for oral corticosteroids (eg, spine HR [99% CI]: confounder-adjusted 2.31 [1.91-2.81]; additionally adjusted for cumulative dose 1.71 [1.40-2.09]).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings suggest that little of the association between atopic eczema and major osteoporotic fractures is explained by oral corticosteroid use.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Stress is commonly cited as a risk factor for psoriasis and atopic eczema, but such evidence is limited. OBJECTIVES:To investigate the association between partner bereavement (an extreme life stressor) and psoriasis or atopic eczema. METHODS:We conducted cohort studies using data from the U.K. Clinical Practice Research Datalink (1997-2017) and Danish nationwide registries (1997-2016). The exposed cohort was partners who experienced partner bereavement. The comparison cohort was up to 10 nonbereaved partners, matched to each bereaved partner by age, sex, county of residence (Denmark) and general practice (U.K.). Outcomes were the first recorded diagnosis of psoriasis or atopic eczema. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) using a stratified Cox proportional hazards model in both settings, which were then pooled in a meta-analysis. RESULTS:The pooled adjusted HR for the association between bereavement and psoriasis was 1·01 (95% CI 0·98-1·04) across the entire follow-up. Similar results were found in other shorter follow-up periods. Pooled adjusted HRs for the association between bereavement and atopic eczema were 0·97 (95% CI 0·84-1·12) across the entire follow-up, 1·09 (95% CI 0·86-1·38) within 0-30 days, 1·18 (95% CI 1·04-1·35) within 0-90 days, 1·14 (95% CI 1·06-1·22) within 0-365 days and 1·07 (95% CI 1·02-1·12) within 0-1095 days. CONCLUSIONS:We found a modest increase in the risk of atopic eczema within 3 years following bereavement, which peaked in the first 3 months. Acute stress may play a role in triggering onset of new atopic eczema or relapse of atopic eczema previously in remission. We observed no evidence for increased long-term risk of psoriasis and atopic eczema following bereavement.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate whether adults with atopic eczema are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and whether the risk varies by atopic eczema severity and condition activity over time. DESIGN:Population based matched cohort study. SETTING:UK electronic health records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Hospital Episode Statistics, and data from the Office for National Statistics, 1998-2015. PARTICIPANTS:Adults with a diagnosis of atopic eczema, matched (on age, sex, general practice, and calendar time) to up to five patients without atopic eczema. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Cardiovascular outcomes (myocardial infarction, unstable angina, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke, and cardiovascular death). RESULTS:387?439 patients with atopic eczema were matched to 1?528?477 patients without atopic eczema. The median age was 43 at cohort entry and 66% were female. Median follow-up was 5.1 years. Evidence of a 10% to 20% increased hazard for the non-fatal primary outcomes for patients with atopic eczema was found by using Cox regression stratified by matched set. There was a strong dose-response relation with severity of atopic eczema. Patients with severe atopic eczema had a 20% increase in the risk of stroke (hazard ratio 1.22, 99% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.48), 40% to 50% increase in the risk of myocardial infarction, unstable angina, atrial fibrillation, and cardiovascular death, and 70% increase in the risk of heart failure (hazard ratio 1.69, 99% confidence interval 1.38 to 2.06). Patients with the most active atopic eczema (active >50% of follow-up) were also at a greater risk of cardiovascular outcomes. Additional adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors as potential mediators partially attenuated the point estimates, though associations persisted for severe atopic eczema. CONCLUSIONS:Severe and predominantly active atopic eczema are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular outcomes. Targeting cardiovascular disease prevention strategies among these patients should be considered.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Young cancer survivors may be at increased risk of early-onset chronic health conditions. The aim of this population-based study is to estimate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among younger versus older B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) survivors compared with their respective general population cohorts.<h4>Methods</h4>B-NHL survivors diagnosed from 1997 to 2015 in the Utah Cancer Registry were matched with up to five cancer-free individuals on birth year, sex, and birth state, using the statewide Utah Population Database. Electronic medical records and statewide health care facility data were used to identify disease outcomes ≥5 years after cancer diagnosis. Cox Proportional Hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for B-NHL survivors diagnosed at <65 years and ≥65 years old.<h4>Results</h4>Younger B-NHL survivors had higher relative risks than older cancer survivors of chronic rheumatic disease of the heart valves (HR = 4.14, 99% CI = 2.17-7.89; P value<sub>heterogeneity</sub> = 0.004); peri-, endo-, and myocarditis (HR = 2.43, 99% CI = 1.38-4.28; P value<sub>heterogeneity</sub> = 0.016); diseases of the arteries (HR = 1.63, 99% CI = 1.21-2.21; P value<sub>heterogeneity</sub> = 0.044); and hypotension (HR = 2.44, 99% CI = 1.58-3.75; P value<sub>heterogeneity</sub> = 0.048). B-NHL survivors of both age groups had elevated relative risks of heart disease overall and congestive heart failure.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Younger B-NHL survivors had higher risks than older B-NHL survivors of specific cardiovascular diseases compared to their respective general population cohorts.
Project description:A population-based case-control study of lymphomas in England collected height and weight details from 699 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) cases and 914 controls. Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) over 30 kg m(-2) at five years before diagnosis,, was associated with an increased risk of NHL (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1). The excess was most pronounced for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.8). Genetic variants in the leptin (LEP 19G > A, LEP -2548G > A) and leptin receptor genes (LEPR 223Q > R), previously shown to modulate NHL risk, as well as a polymorphism in the energy regulatory gene adiponectin (APM1 276G>T), were investigated. Findings varied with leptin genotype, the risks being decreased with LEP 19AA (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-1.0) and increased with LEP -2548GA (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.7) and -2548AA (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.9), particularly for follicular lymphoma. These genetic findings, which were independent of BMI, were stronger for men than women.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Atopic eczema onset is described primarily in early childhood, and the frequency and characteristics of adult-onset disease remain controversial. OBJECTIVE:We sought to determine the proportion of subjects who report atopic eczema symptoms between birth and midadulthood and to examine demographic, immunologic, and genetic factors associated with period of symptom onset. METHODS:We conducted a longitudinal study using data from 2 nationally representative community-based birth cohorts from the United Kingdom: the British Cohort Studies 1958 and 1970. Subjects were followed from birth through age 42 to 50 years. The primary outcome was the age period of self-reported atopic eczema symptom onset based on repeated measures of self-reported atopic eczema at each survey wave. RESULTS:The annual period prevalence of atopic eczema ranged from 5% to 15% in 2 cohorts of more than 17,000 participants each followed from birth through middle age. There was no clear trend in prevalence by age, and among adults reporting active atopic eczema during a given year, only 38% had symptom onset reported in childhood. When compared with subjects whose eczema started in childhood, those with adult-onset disease were more likely to be women, from Scotland or Northern England, of lower childhood socioeconomic group, smokers in adulthood, and less likely to have a history of asthma. In a subanalysis using data from the 1958 cohort only, genetic mutations previously associated with atopic eczema, including filaggrin-null mutations, and allergen-specific IgE were more common among those with childhood-onset disease. CONCLUSION:Rates of self-reported atopic eczema remain high after childhood, and adult-onset atopic eczema has different risk factor associations than childhood-onset eczema.
Project description:We evaluated the association between common immune system-altering experiences and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk using a case-control study of 162 like-sex twin pairs discordant for NHL, identified from the International Twin Study. Information on medical history and evidence of childhood exposure to microbes was obtained by questionnaire from 1998 to 2002. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Intra-twin-pair agreement between twins on individual exposures was high (76%-97%). A negative association between NHL and seasonal hay fever (odds ratio (OR) = 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10, 0.75) and certain allergies (OR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.68) was observed. The number of atopic diseases was negatively associated with NHL (P for trend = 0.0003). A history of infectious mononucleosis was negatively associated with NHL risk (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.90). NHL risk was associated with more frequent childhood exposure to microbes during early life (P for trend = 0.04). No differences in association by NHL subtype were observed, although statistical power for these comparisons was low. These observations support the hypothesis that immune-related exposures, especially atopy, are associated with decreased NHL risk. Use of the within-twin-pair study design mitigates confounding by genome, family structure, and unmeasured characteristics of early childhood factors.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Infants with atopic eczema have an increased risk of impaired growth, but the origin of this impairment is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine fetal and infant growth in relation to infantile atopic eczema.<h4>Methods</h4>Within the UK Southampton Women's Survey, 1,759 infants with known maternal menstrual data had anthropometric measurements at 11, 19, and 34 weeks' gestation, birth, and ages 6 and 12 months, enabling derivation of growth velocity SD scores. Infantile atopic eczema at ages 6 and/or 12 months was ascertained using modified UK Working Party diagnostic criteria.<h4>Results</h4>Expressed per SD increase, higher femur length and abdominal circumference at 34 weeks' gestation were associated with decreased risks of atopic eczema (eczema OR/SD increase 0.81 [95% CI 0.69-0.96], <i>P</i>=0.017 and 0.78 [95% CI 0.65-0.93], <i>P</i>=0.006, respectively), while every SD increase in head to abdominal circumference ratio (indicating disproportionate growth) was associated with an increase in risk of atopic eczema (1.37 [1.15-1.63], <i>P</i>=0.001). Lower velocities of linear growth from 11 weeks' gestation to birth and birth to age 6 months were associated with atopic eczema (atopic eczema OR/SD increase 0.80 [0.65-0.98], <i>P</i>=0.034 and 0.8 [1 0.66-1.00], <i>P</i>=0.051, respectively). Infants with atopic eczema at age 12 months had a larger head circumference in early gestation and faltering of abdominal growth velocity from 19 to 34 weeks' gestation (atopic eczema OR/SD increase 0.67 [0.51-0.88], <i>P</i>=0.003).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Infants with atopic eczema demonstrate altered patterns of fetal growth, including faltering of linear growth in utero, prior to the clinical onset of atopic eczema. These findings suggest growth falters prior to the start of clinical atopic eczema and its treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Atopic eczema is a common inflammatory skin disease. Various inflammatory conditions have been linked to cardiovascular disease, a major cause of global mortality and morbidity. OBJECTIVE:We sought to systematically review and meta-analyze population-based studies assessing associations between atopic eczema and specific cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS:MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health were searched from inception to December 2017. We obtained pooled estimates using random-effects meta-analyses. We used a multivariate Bayesian meta-regression model to estimate the slope of effect of increasing atopic eczema severity on cardiovascular outcomes. RESULTS:Nineteen relevant studies were included. The effects of atopic eczema reported in cross-sectional studies were heterogeneous, with no evidence for pooled associations with angina, myocardial infarction, heart failure, or stroke. In cohort studies atopic eczema was associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction (n = 4; relative risk [RR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.00-1.25), stroke (n = 4; RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.17), ischemic stroke n = 4; RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.14-1.20), angina (n = 2; RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13-1.24), and heart failure (n = 2; RR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05-1.51). Prediction intervals were wide for myocardial infarction and stroke. The risk of cardiovascular outcomes appeared to increase with increasing severity (mean RR increase between severity categories, 1.15; 95% credibility interval, 1.09-1.21; uncertainty interval, 1.04-1.28). CONCLUSION:Significant associations with cardiovascular outcomes were more common in cohort studies but with considerable between-study heterogeneity. Increasing atopic eczema severity was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular outcomes. Improved awareness among stakeholders regarding this small but significant association is warranted.