Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity, Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Properties and GC-MS Analysis of Keladi Candik (Alocasia longiloba Miq).
ABSTRACT: Alocasia longiloba, locally known as 'Keladi Candik', has been used traditionally to treat wounds, furuncle and joint inflammations. A. longiloba can be a new source of herbal medicine against hyperuricemia by inhibiting the activity of xanthine oxidase enzyme, the enzyme which is responsible for the development of hyperuricemia in human. Existing xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOI drugs) show several side effects on gout patients. Therefore, an alternative herbal medicine from plants, with high therapeutic property and free of side effects, are greatly needed. This study was conducted to evaluate XO inhibitory activity, chemical composition, antioxidant activity and GC-MS profile of A. longiloba. Our results showed that ethanolic petiole extract exhibited the highest XO inhibitory activity (70.40 ± 0.05%) with IC50 value of 42.71 ?g/mL, followed by ethanolic fruit extracts (61.44 ± 1.24%) with the IC50 value of 51.32 ?g/mL. In a parallel study, the phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, terpenoids, glycoside and saponin in petiole and fruit extracts, as well as higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents and strong scavenging activity on DPPH and ABTS antioxidant assay. The GC-MS analysis of fruit and petiole extracts revealed the presence of various compounds belonging to different chemical nature, among them are limonen-6-ol, ?-DGlucopyranoside, paromomycin, aziridine, phenol, Heptatriacotanol, Phen-1,2,3-dimethyl and Betulin found in ethanolic fruit extract, and Phen-1,4-diol,2,3-dimethyl-, 1-Ethynyl-3,trans(1,1-dimethylethyl), Phenol,2,6-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)- and 7-Methyl-Z-tetradecen-1-olacetate found in ethanolic petiole extract. Some compounds were documented as potent anti-inflammatory and arthritis related diseases by other researchers. In this study, the efficiency of solvents to extract bioactives was found to be ethanol > water, methanol > hexane > chloroform. Together, our results suggest the prospective utilization of fruit and petiole of A. longiloba to inhibit the activity of XO enzyme.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hyperurecemia is usually associated with gout and various metabolic arthritis disorders. Limited medications are available to manage such conditions. This study aimed to isolate the triterpenes constituent of the plant and to assess xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory and antihyperuricemic activities of Tribulus arabicus ethanolic extract, its fractions and the isolated compound using in vitro and in vivo approaches. METHODS:The ethanolic extract, fractions; n-hexane, chloroform and n-butanol and the isolated compound (ursolic acid) were evaluated in vitro for their XO inhibitory activity. Those that demonstrated significant activity were further evaluated for their antihyperuricemic activity on potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemia in mice. RESULTS:The ethanolic extract was found to be safe up to 5000 mg/kg. The extract and its n-hexane fraction exhibited significant inhibitory activity on XO, whilst only a modest reduction in the enzymatic activity was noticed with n-butanol and chloroform fractions. Furthermore, administration of the ethanolic extract at low and high doses significantly reduced serum urate levels in mice by 31.1 and 64.6% respectively. The isolated active constituent, ursolic acid, showed potent XO inhibition activity (Half maximal inhibitory concentration, IC50 = 10.3 ?g/mL), and significantly reduced uric acid level in vivo by 79.9%. Virtually, the binding mode of ursolic acid with XO was determined using molecular docking simulations. CONCLUSIONS:The activity of the ethanolic extract of T. arabicus and its n-hexane fraction can be attributed to the isolated compound, ursolic acid. Ursolic acid has good hypouricemic activity and therefore has high potential to be used for the treatment of gout and hyperuricemia-related diseases.
Project description:Background: Cordyceps militaris is a medicinal mushroom and has been extensively used as a folk medicine in East Asia. In this study, the separation of constituents involved in xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of C. militaris was conducted. Methods: The aqueous residue of this fungus was extracted by methanol and then subsequently fractionated by hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water. The ethyl acetate extract possessed the highest XO inhibitory and antioxidant activities was separated to different fractions by column chromatography. Each fraction was then subjected to anti-hyperuricemia, antioxidant and antibacterial assays. Results: The results showed that the CM8 fraction exhibited the strongest XO inhibitory activity (the lowest IC50: 62.82 μg/mL), followed by the CM10 (IC50: 68.04 μg/mL) and the CM7 (IC50: 86.78 μg/mL). The level of XO inhibition was proportional to antioxidant activity. In antibacterial assay, the CM9 and CM11 fractions showed effective antibacterial activity (MIC values: 15⁻25 mg/mL and 10⁻25 mg/mL, respectively). Results from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses indicated that cordycepin was the major constituent in the CM8 and CM10 fractions. Conclusions: This study revealed that C. militaris was beneficial for treatment hyperuricemia although in vivo trials on compounds purified from this medicinal fungus are needed.
Project description:Toona sinensis leaf is used as a seasonal vegetable in Korea. A 70% ethanol extract of these leaves exhibited potent xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 78.4 µM. To investigate the compounds responsible for this effect, bioassay-guided purification led to the isolation of five constituents, identified as quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-?-d-glucopyranose (compound 3), quercetin-3-O-?-l-rhamnopyranoside, and kaempferol-3-O-?-l-rhamnopyranoside. Compound 3 showed the most potent inhibition of XO, with an IC50 of 2.8 µM. This was similar to that of allopurinol (IC50 = 2.3 µM), which is used clinically to treat hyperuricemia. Kinetic analyses found that compound 3 was a reversible noncompetitive XO inhibitor. In vivo, the T. sinensis leaf extract (300 mg/kg), or compound 3 (40 mg/kg), significantly decreased serum uric acid levels in rats with potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemia. Furthermore, ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis identified a high level of compound 3 in the leaf extract. These findings suggest that T. sinensis leaves could be developed to produce nutraceutical preparations.
Project description:This study was performed to investigate the therapeutic effects and possible mechanisms of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) head extract (SHE) on gout. First, the components of sunflower head powder and SHE were analyzed systematically. SHE, especially SHEB (extracted with 20% ethanol and 80% double-distilled water), strongly suppressed the swelling of the ankles in rats with acute gout induced by monosodium urate (MSU) crystals and reduced the levels of uric acid and xanthine oxidase (XO) in mice with hyperuricemia induced by oteracil potassium and yeast extract powder. Hematoxylin and eosin staining indicated that SHEB reduced inflammation cells and increased the joint space in the ankle compared with the control rats with MSU-induced gout. In the rats with acute gout, among 13 detected inflammatory cytokines, SHEB significantly enhanced the serum levels of interleukin-10 and the monocyte chemoattractant protein 1?. In the mice with hyperuricemia, SHEB reduced the levels of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, and nitrogen monoxide in liver tissues. The potential therapeutic effects of SHE on gout are probably due to the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and the suppression of XO activity via the modulation of oxidative stress status.
Project description:Hyperuricemia drives the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Pharmacological inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO), a rate-limiting enzyme for uric acid (UA) production, has been demonstrated to improve hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mice. However, it remains unclear whether inhibition of XO improves nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a more advanced form of NAFLD, in terms of both liver inflammation and fibrosis. Here, we investigated the effects of febuxostat and allopurinol, two XO inhibitors clinically used for gout, on a mouse model of NASH. Furthermore, we conducted a single-arm, open-label intervention study with febuxostat for NAFLD patients with hyperuricemia. Despite a similar hypouricemic effect of the XO inhibitors on blood UA level, febuxostat, but not allopurinol, significantly decreased hepatic XO activity and UA levels in the NASH model mice. These reductions in hepatic XO activity and UA levels were accompanied by attenuation of insulin resistance, lipid peroxidation, and classically activated M1-like macrophage accumulation in the liver. Furthermore, in NAFLD patients with hyperuricemia, treatment with febuxostat for 24 weeks decreased the serum UA level, accompanied by reductions in the serum levels of liver enzymes, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. XO may represent a promising therapeutic target in NAFLD/NASH, especially in patients with hyperuricemia.
Project description:We have investigated effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and fruit extracts on markers of oxidative stress, its toxicity evaluation, and correlation with antioxidant properties using in vitro and in vitro assays. The aqueous extract of leaf was able to increase the GSH and reduce MDA level in a concentration-dependent manner. The ethanolic extract of fruit showed highest phenolic content, strong reducing power and free radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extract of both fruit and leaf was higher in the in vitro assay compared to aqueous extract which showed higher potential in vivo. Safety evaluation studies showed no toxicity of the extracts up to a dose of 100?mg/kg body weight. Our results support the potent antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera which adds one more positive attribute to its known pharmacological importance.
Project description:Hyperuricemia is characterized by elevated uric acid (UA) levels on blood, which can lead to gout, a common pathology. These high UA levels are associated with increased purine ingestion and metabolization and/or its decreased excretion. In this field, xanthine oxidase (XO), by converting hypoxanthine and xanthine to UA, plays an important role in hyperuricemia control. Based on limitations and adverse effects associated with the use of allopurinol and febuxostat, the most known approved drugs with XO inhibitory effect, the search for new molecules with XO activity is growing. However, despite the high number of studies, it was found that the majority of tested products with relevant XO inhibition were left out, and no further pharmacological evaluation was performed. Thus, in the present review, available information published in the past six years concerning isolated molecules with in vitro XO inhibition complemented with cytotoxicity evaluation as well as other relevant studies, including in vivo hypouricemic effect, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile was compiled. Interestingly, the analysis of data collected demonstrated that molecules from natural sources or their mimetics and semisynthetic derivatives constitute the majority of compounds being explored at the moment by means of in vitro and in vivo animal studies. Therefore, several of these molecules can be useful as lead compounds and some of them can even have the potential to be considered in the future clinical candidates for the treatment of hyperuricemia.
Project description:Marantodes pumilum (Primulaceae) has been used in Malaysian folk medicine to help women regain strength after delivery and for "sickness in the bones." It was previously revealed that its extracts inhibited xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in vitro. The leaves and roots of M. pumilum var. alata (MPA), var. pumila (MPP), and var. lanceolata (MPL) were individually extracted in ethanol (80%). The anti-hyperuricemic activity was initially assessed by XO inhibition with a spectrophotometric in vitro assay. The most active extract was further investigated on hyperuricemic rat model induced by potassium oxonate to determine serum uric acid levels and liver XO effect. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was carried out on monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., interleukin (IL)1?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?) secretion using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and ELISA technique, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)secretion using radioimmunoassay. The active extract was then investigated on gout-induced inflammation with MSU crystals to determine pro-inflammatory cytokines and PGE2 secretion levels in the synovial fluid of rat knee joint. Quantitative analysis using validated HPLC was performed on the extracts to determine presence of bioactive flavonoids. The findings revealed that extract of MPP leaves gave the highest inhibitory activity on XO (IC50 130.5 ?g/mL) compared to other extracts tested. However, all extracts possessed significantly lower activity compared to allopurinol (IC50 0.13 ?g/mL). Oral administration of MPP leaf extract (200 mg/kg) significantly reduced serum uric acid level in hyperuricemic rats in time-dependent manner to the baseline level and it was as effective as allopurinol (5 mg/kg). The extract also inhibited liver XO activity (25%) compared to allopurinol (45%). In vitro anti-inflammatory assay showed that extract of MPP roots inhibited MSU crystals-induced secretion of IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-8, TNF-?, and PGE2 with IC50 values of 36, 25, 38, 18, and 46 ?g/mL, respectively. Oral administration of the MPP root extract (200 mg/kg) significantly decreased IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and PGE2 levels in rat's synovial fluid as effective as indomethacin. There were no significant body weight changes of all experimental animals. MPP extracts showed presence of myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol. Myricetin was detected with values of 0.2 and 0.6 mg/g for root and leaf extracts, respectively. The anti-hyperuricemic of MPP leaf and anti-inflammatory of MPP root indicated that MPP may be promising for complementary therapy of gout.
Project description:Miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) belongs to the Sapotaceae family. It can change flavors on taste buds, transforming acidic tastes to sweet. We evaluated various miracle fruit extracts, including water, butanol, ethyl acetate (EA), and hexane fractions, to determine its antioxidant effects. These extracts isolated from miracle fruit exerted potential for reduction of uric acid and inhibited xanthine oxidase activity in vitro and in monosodiumurate (MSU)-treated RAW264.7 macrophages. Moreover, we also found that the butanol extracts of miracle fruit attenuated oxonic acid potassium salt-induced hyperuricaemia in ICR mice by lowering serum uric acid levels and activating hepatic xanthine oxidase. These effects were equal to those of allopurinol, suggesting that the butanol extract of miracle fruit could be developed as a novel anti-hyperuricaemia agent or health food.
Project description:Hyperuricemia is recognized as an important risk factor for gout. High dietary intake of purine-rich foods such as meats and sea foods increases uric acid (UA) levels in the blood. Taxifolin present in Siberian larch and strawberries has been reported to possess health promoting activities including anti-oxidant effect. In this study, we examined anti-hyperuricemic effect of taxifolin in both cultured hepatocytes and hyperuricemic model mice. In cultured AML12 hepatocytes, taxifolin significantly suppressed UA production dose- and time-dependently. In mice with hyperuricemia induced by concurrent administration of guanosine-5'-monophosphate and inosine-5'-monophosphate, oral administration of taxifolin suppressed the increases in plasma and liver UA levels. In addition, it also suppressed hepatic xanthine oxidase (XO) activity. Thus, anti-hyperuricemic effect of taxifolin could be explained, at least partly, by suppressing UA production via inhibition of XO activity in the liver. These results suggest that taxifolin possesses a potent hypouricemic effect and it could be a potential candidate for an anti-hyperuricemic phytochemical.