Whole-exome sequencing reveals two de novo variants in the RBM20 gene in two Chinese patients with left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy.
ABSTRACT: Importance:Pathogenic variants in the RBM20 gene are associated with aggressive dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Recently, RBM20 was found to be associated with left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC). Thus far, only five families with LVNC have been reported to carry variants in RBM20. It remains unknown whether the variants in RBM20 associated with DCM can also cause LVNC. Objective:To elucidate the causative RBM20 variant in two unrelated patients with both LVNC and DCM, and to identify the clinical characteristics associated with variants in RBM20. Methods:Trio whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed. Variants were filtered and classified in accordance with the guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG). Results:We identified two distinct de novo variants in RBM20 (one per patient) in these two patients with LVNC. Both variants have been reported in patients with DCM, without the LVNC phenotype. Patient 1 was an 11-year-old girl who had DCM, LVNC, and heart failure; the ratio of noncompacted-to-compacted myocardium was 2.7:1. A de novo heterozygous variant c.1907G>A (p.Arg636His) in exon 9 was identified in this patient. Patient 2 was a 13-year-old boy who had clinical phenotypes identical to those of Patient 1; the ratio of noncompacted-to-compacted myocardium was 3.2:1 in this patient. WES revealed a de novo heterozygous variant c.1909A>G (p.Ser637Gly) in exon 9. Both variants were previously characterized as pathogenic, and our study classified them as pathogenic variants based on the ACMG guidelines. Interpretation:We found that two patients with LVNC had variants in RBM20. Our results extended the clinical spectrum of the two RBM20 variants and illustrated that the same variant in RBM20 can cause DCM, with or without the LVNC phenotype.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous disease and, although increasingly recognized in clinical practice, there is a lack of widely accepted diagnostic criteria. We sought to identify novel genetic causes of LVNC and describe genotype-phenotype correlations. METHODS AND RESULTS:A total of 190 patients from 174 families with left ventricular hypertrabeculation (LVHT) or LVNC were referred for cardiac magnetic resonance and whole-exome sequencing. A total of 425 control individuals were included to identify variants of interest (VOIs). We found an excess of 138 VOIs in 102 (59%) unrelated patients in 54 previously identified LVNC or other known cardiomyopathy genes. VOIs were found in 68 of 90 probands with LVNC and 34 of 84 probands with LVHT (76% and 40%, respectively; P<0.001). We identified 0, 1, and ?2 VOIs in 72, 74, and 28 probands, respectively. We found increasing number of VOIs in a patient strongly correlated with several markers of disease severity, including ratio of noncompacted to compacted myocardium (P<0.001) and left ventricular ejection fraction (P=0.01). The presence of sarcomeric gene mutations was associated with increased occurrence of late gadolinium enhancement (P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS:LVHT and LVNC likely represent a continuum of genotypic disease with differences in severity and variable phenotype explained, in part, by the number of VOIs and whether mutations are present in sarcomeric or nonsarcomeric genes. Presence of VOIs is common in patients with LVHT. Our findings expand the current clinical and genetic diagnostic approaches for patients with LVHT and LVNC.
Project description:Left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction is the most frequent initial presentation of patient with LV noncompaction (NC). Our objectives were to evaluate myocardial contraction properties in patients with LVNC and the relationship of non-compacted segments with the degree of global and regional systolic deformation.We included 50 LVNC with an echocardiography and speckle imaging calculation of peak longitudinal strain (PLS). Each of the 16 LV myocardial segments was defined as NC (ratio NC/compacted layer > 2), borderline (NC/C 0-2) and compacted (NC/C = 0). Basal, median and apical strain values were calculated as the average of segmental strain values. For comparison a group of 50 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) underwent the same measurements.There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups for any conventional LV systolic parameters. A characteristic deformation pattern was observed in LVNC with higher strain values in the LV apical segments (- 12.8 ± 5.9 vs - 10.7 ± 5.7) and an apical-basal ratio (1.52 ± 0.73 vs 1.12 ± 0.42; p < 0.001). There was no correlation between LV function and the degree of NC. Among 726 segments, compacta thickness was thinner in NC vs C segments (6.4 ± 1.4 vs 7.7 ± 1.8 mm; p < 0.05). There was no difference in WMS but regional strain values were significantly higher in NC compared to C segments (- 13.1 ± 6.1 vs - 10.2 ± 6.3; p < 0.05).Compared to DCM, LVNC presented with relatively preserved apical deformation as compared to basal segments. Lower regional deformation values in compacted segments confirm the concept that LVNC is a phenotypic marker of an underlying diffuse cardiomyopathy involving both C and NC myocardium.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major cause of nonischemic heart failure and death in young adults. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has become part of the diagnostic workup in idiopathic and familial DCM. More than 50 DCM genes have been identified, revealing great molecular heterogeneity and variable diagnostic yield. Interpretation of variant pathogenicity is challenging particularly in underrepresented populations, as pathogenic variant databases include studies mainly from European/Caucasian populations. To date, no studies on genomic diagnosis of DCM have been conducted in Mexico. METHODS:We recruited 55 unrelated DCM patients, 22 familial (F-DCM), and 33 idiopathic (I-DCM), and performed site-directed NGS seeking causal mutations. Diagnostic yield was defined as the proportion of individuals with at least one pathogenic (P) or likely pathogenic (LP) variant in DCM genes. RESULTS:Overall diagnostic yield was 47.3%, and higher in F-DCM (63.6%) than in I-DCM (36.4%, p = 0.047). Overall, NGS disclosed 41 variants of clinical interest (61.0% novel), 27 were classified as P/LP and 14 of unknown clinical significance. Of P/LP variants, 10 were A-band region TTN truncating variants, five were found in DSP (18.5%), five in MYH7 (18.5%), two in LMNA (7.4%), and one in RBM20, ABCC9, FKTN, ACTA1, and TNNT2. NGS findings suggested autosomal recessive inheritance in three families, two with DSP loss of function mutations in affected individuals. The increasing number of mutation reports in DCM, increasing knowledge on the functional consequences of mutations, mutational hotspots and functional domains of DCM-related proteins, the recent refinement ACMG/ClinGen Guidelines, and co-segregation analysis in DCM families helped increase the diagnostic yield. CONCLUSION:This is the first NGS study performed in a group of Mexican DCM patients, contributing to understand the mutational spectrum and complexity of DCM molecular diagnosis.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To characterize the genetic architecture of left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) and investigate the extent to which it may represent a distinct pathology or a secondary phenotype associated with other cardiac diseases.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed rare variant association analysis with 840 LVNC cases and 125,748 gnomAD population controls, and compared results to similar analyses on dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).<h4>Results</h4>We observed substantial genetic overlap indicating that LVNC often represents a phenotypic variation of DCM or HCM. In contrast, truncating variants in MYH7, ACTN2, and PRDM16 were uniquely associated with LVNC and may reflect a distinct LVNC etiology. In particular, MYH7 truncating variants (MYH7tv), generally considered nonpathogenic for cardiomyopathies, were 20-fold enriched in LVNC cases over controls. MYH7tv heterozygotes identified in the UK Biobank and healthy volunteer cohorts also displayed significantly greater noncompaction compared with matched controls. RYR2 exon deletions and HCN4 transmembrane variants were also enriched in LVNC, supporting prior reports of association with arrhythmogenic LVNC phenotypes.<h4>Conclusion</h4>LVNC is characterized by substantial genetic overlap with DCM/HCM but is also associated with distinct noncompaction and arrhythmia etiologies. These results will enable enhanced application of LVNC genetic testing and help to distinguish pathological from physiological noncompaction.
Project description:Recent advances in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology and directed differentiation of iPSCs into cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) make it possible to model genetic heart disease in vitro. We apply CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology to introduce three RBM20 mutations in iPSCs and differentiate them into iPSC-CMs to establish an in vitro model of RBM20 mutant dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). In iPSC-CMs harboring a known causal RBM20 variant, the splicing of RBM20 target genes, calcium handling, and contractility are impaired consistent with the disease manifestation in patients. A variant (Pro633Leu) identified by exome sequencing of patient genomes displays the same disease phenotypes, thus establishing this variant as disease causing. We find that all-trans retinoic acid upregulates RBM20 expression and reverts the splicing, calcium handling, and contractility defects in iPSC-CMs with different causal RBM20 mutations. These results suggest that pharmacological upregulation of RBM20 expression is a promising therapeutic strategy for DCM patients with a heterozygous mutation in RBM20.
Project description:A major cause of heart failure is cardiomyopathies, with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) as the most common form. Over 40 genes are linked to DCM, among them <i>TTN</i> and <i>RBM20</i>. Next Generation Sequencing in clinical DCM cohorts revealed truncating variants in <i>TTN</i> (<i>TTN</i>tv), accounting for up to 25% of familial DCM cases. Mutations in the cardiac splicing factor RNA binding motif protein 20 (<i>RBM20</i>) are also known to be associated with severe cardiomyopathies. <i>TTN</i> is one of the major <i>RBM20</i> splicing targets. Most of the pathogenic <i>RBM20</i> mutations are localized in the highly conserved arginine serine rich domain (RS), leading to a cytoplasmic mislocalization of mutant <i>RBM20</i>. Here, we present a patient with an early onset DCM carrying a combination of (likely) pathogenic <i>TTN</i> and <i>RBM20</i> mutations. We show that the splicing of <i>RBM20</i> target genes is affected in the mutation carrier. Furthermore, we reveal <i>RBM20</i> haploinsufficiency presumably caused by the frameshift mutation in <i>RBM20</i>.
Project description:Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a heritable, genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by progressive heart failure. DCM typically remains clinically silent until adulthood, yet symptomatic disease can develop in childhood. We sought to identify the genetic basis of pediatric DCM in 15 sporadic and three affected-siblings cases, comprised of 21 affected children (mean age, five years) whose parents had normal echocardiograms (mean age, 39 years). Twelve underwent cardiac transplantation and five died with severe heart failure. Parent-offspring whole exome sequencing (WES) data were filtered for rare, deleterious, de novo and recessive variants. In prior work, we reported de novo mutations in TNNT2 and RRAGC and compound heterozygous mutations in ALMS1 and TAF1A among four cases in our cohort. Here, de novo mutations in established DCM genes-RBM20, LMNA, TNNT2, and PRDM16-were identified among five additional cases. The RBM20 mutation was previously reported in familial DCM. An identical unreported LMNA mutation was identified in two unrelated cases, both harboring gene-specific defects in cardiomyocyte nuclear morphology. Collectively, WES had a 50% diagnostic yield in our cohort, providing an explanation for pediatric heart failure and enabling informed family planning. Research is ongoing to discover novel DCM genes among the remaining families.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a hereditary cardiomyopathy that is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, LVNC was classified into several phenotypes including congenital heart disease (CHD). However, although LVNC and CHD are frequently observed, the role and clinical significance of genetics in these cardiomyopathies has not been fully evaluated. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the impact on the perioperative outcomes of children with concomitant LVNC and CHD using next-generation sequencing (NGS). METHODS:From May 2000 to August 2018, 53 Japanese probands with LVNC (25 males and 28 females) were enrolled and we screened 182 cardiomyopathy-associated genes in these patients using NGS. RESULTS:The age at diagnosis of the enrolled patients ranged from 0 to 14 years (median: 0.3 months). A total of 23 patients (43.4%) were diagnosed with heart failure, 14 with heart murmur (26.4%), and 6 with cyanosis (11.3%). During the observation period, 31 patients (58.5%) experienced heart failure and 13 (24.5%) developed arrhythmias such as ventricular tachycardia, supraventricular tachycardia, and atrioventricular block. Moreover, 29 patients (54.7%) had ventricular septal defects (VSDs), 17 (32.1%) had atrial septal defects, 10 had patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), and 7 (13.2%) had Ebstein's anomaly and double outlet right ventricle. Among the included patients, 30 underwent surgery, 19 underwent biventricular repair, and 2 underwent pulmonary artery banding, bilateral pulmonary artery banding, and PDA ligation. Overall, 30 genetic variants were identified in 28 patients with LVNC and CHD. Eight variants were detected in MYH7 and two in TPM1. Echocardiography showed lower ejection fractions and more thickened trabeculations in the left ventricle in patients with LVNC and CHD than in age-matched patients with VSDs. During follow-up, 4 patients died and the condition of 8 worsened postoperatively. The multivariable proportional hazards model showed that heart failure, LV ejection fraction of < 24%, LV end-diastolic diameter z-score of > 8.56, and noncompacted-to-compacted ratio of the left ventricular apex of > 8.33 at the last visit were risk factors for survival. CONCLUSIONS:LVNC and CHD are frequently associated with genetic abnormalities. Knowledge of the association between CHD and LVNC is important for the awareness of clinical implications during the preoperative and postoperative periods to identify the populations who are at an increased risk of additional morbidity.
Project description:PURPOSE:Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is characterized by a 2-layered myocardium composed of a noncompacted (NC) and a compacted (C) layer. The echocardiographic NC:C ratio is difficult to assess in many patients. The aim of the study was to assess the value of cardiac computed tomography (CCT) for the diagnosis of LVNC. METHODS:In this prospective controlled study, segmental analysis of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and prospective ECG-triggered CCT was performed in 17 patients with LVNC and 19 healthy controls. In TTE maximal NC and C thickness was measured at enddiastole and endsystole in the segment with most prominent trabeculation in short axis views. In CCT, maximal segmental NC and C thickness was measured during diastole, and NC:C ratio was determined. Spearman's correlation coefficient and receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated. RESULTS:The median [IQR] radiation dose was 1.3[1.2-1.5]mSv. The CCT thickness of the C layer was significantly lower in patients with LVNC as compared to controls in the inferolateral, midventricular, lateral-, inferior-, and septal-apical segments. The CCT NC:C ratio differed significantly between LVNC and controls in the inferior-midventricular and all the apical segments. NC:C ratio correlated significantly between TTE and CCT at enddiastole (? = 0.8) and endsystole (? = 0.9). Using a CCT NC:C ratio ?1.8, all LVNC patients could be identified. CONCLUSION:LVNC can be diagnosed with ECG-triggered low-dose CCT and discriminated from normal individuals using a NC:C ratio of ?1.8 in diastole. There is a very good correlation of NC:C ratio in TTE and CCT.
Project description:The genetic basis of most of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cases remains unknown. A recent study indicated that mutations in a highly localized five amino acid hotspot in exon 9 of RBM20, a gene encoding a ribonucleic acid-binding protein, caused aggressive DCM. We undertook this study to confi rm and extend the nature of RBM20 mutations in another DCM cohort. Clinical cardiovascular data, family histories, and blood samples were collected from patients with idiopathic DCM. DNA from 312 DCM probands was sequenced for nucleotide alterations in exons 6 through 9 of RBM20, and additional family members as possible. We found six unique RBM20 rare variants in six unrelated probands (1.9%). Four mutations, two of which were novel (R634W and R636C) and two previously identified (R634Q and R636H), were identified in a five amino acid hotspot in exon 6. Two other novel variants (V535I in exon 6 and R716Q in exon 9) were outside of this hotspot. Age of onset and severity of heart failure were variable, as were arrhythmias and conduction system defects, but many subjects suffered severe heart failure resulting in early death or cardiac transplantation. This article concludes that DCM in patients with RBM20 mutations is associated with advanced disease.