Hypochloremia Is a Noninvasive Predictor of Mortality in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
ABSTRACT: Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal disease. In resource-limited countries PAH outcomes are worse because therapy costs are prohibitive. To improve global outcomes, noninvasive and widely available biomarkers that identify high-risk patients should be defined. Serum chloride is widely available and predicts mortality in left heart failure, but its prognostic utility in PAH requires further investigation. Methods and Results In this study 475 consecutive PAH patients evaluated at the University of Minnesota and Vanderbilt University PAH clinics were examined. Clinical characteristics were compared by tertiles of serum chloride. Both the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to assess survival and predictors of mortality, respectively. Categorical net reclassification improvement and relative integrated discrimination improvement compared prediction models. PAH patients in the lowest serum chloride tertile (?101 mmol/L: hypochloremia) had the lowest 6-minute walk distance and highest right atrial pressure despite exhibiting no differences in pulmonary vascular disease severity. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival was reduced in hypochloremic patients when compared with the middle- and highest-tertile patients (86%/64%/44%, 95%/78%/59%, and, 91%/79%/66%). After adjustment for age, sex, diuretic use, serum sodium, bicarbonate, and creatinine, the hypochloremic patients had increased mortality when compared with the middle-tertile and highest-tertile patients. The Minnesota noninvasive model (functional class, 6-minute walk distance, and hypochloremia) was as effective as the French noninvasive model (functional class, 6-minute walk distance, and elevated brain natriuretic peptide or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide) for predicting mortality. Conclusions Hypochloremia (?101 mmol/L) identifies high-risk PAH patients independent of serum sodium, renal function, and diuretic use.
Project description:Recent epidemiological studies have implicated chloride, rather than sodium, as the driver of poor survival previously attributed to hyponatremia in heart failure. Accumulating basic science evidence has identified chloride as a critical factor in renal salt sensing. Our goal was to probe the physiology bridging this basic and epidemiological literature.Two heart failure cohorts were included: (1) observational: patients receiving loop diuretics at the Yale Transitional Care Center (N=162) and (2) interventional pilot: stable outpatients receiving ?80 mg furosemide equivalents were studied before and after 3 days of 115 mmol/d supplemental lysine chloride (N=10). At the Yale Transitional Care Center, 31.5% of patients had hypochloremia (chloride ?96 mmol/L). Plasma renin concentration correlated with serum chloride (r=-0.46; P<0.001) with no incremental contribution from serum sodium (P=0.49). Hypochloremic versus nonhypochloremic patients exhibited renal wasting of chloride (P=0.04) and of chloride relative to sodium (P=0.01), despite better renal free water excretion (urine osmolality 343±101 mOsm/kg versus 475±136; P<0.001). Hypochloremia was associated with poor diuretic response (odds ratio, 7.3; 95% confidence interval, 3.3-16.1; P<0.001). In the interventional pilot, lysine chloride supplementation was associated with an increase in serum chloride levels of 2.2±2.3 mmol/L, and the majority of participants experienced findings such as hemoconcentration, weight loss, reduction in amino terminal, pro B-type natriuretic peptide, increased plasma renin activity, and increased blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio.Hypochloremia is associated with neurohormonal activation and diuretic resistance with chloride depletion as a candidate mechanism. Sodium-free chloride supplementation was associated with increases in serum chloride and changes in several cardiorenal parameters.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02031354.
Project description:Dyschloremia is common in critically ill patients, although its impact has not been well studied. We investigated the epidemiology of dyschloremia and its associations with the incidence of acute kidney injury and other intensive care unit outcomes.This is a single-center, retrospective cohort study at Mayo Clinic Hospital-Rochester. All adult patients admitted to intensive care units from January 1st, 2006, through December 30th, 2012 were included. Patients with known acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease stage 5 before intensive care unit admission were excluded. We evaluated the association of dyschloremia with ICU outcomes, after adjustments for the effect of age, gender, Charlson comorbidity index and severity of illness score.A total of 6,025 patients were enrolled in the final analysis following the implementation of eligibility criteria. From the cohort, 1,970 patients (33%) developed acute kidney injury. Of the total patients enrolled, 4,174 had a baseline serum chloride. In this group, 1,530 (37%) had hypochloremia, and 257 (6%) were hyperchloremic. The incidence of acute kidney injury was higher in hypochloremic and hyperchloremic patients compared to those with a normal serum chloride level (43% vs.30% and 34% vs. 30%, respectively; P < .001). Baseline serum chloride was lower in the acute kidney injury group vs. the non-acute kidney injury group [100 mmol/L (96-104) vs. 102 mmol/L (98-105), P < .0001]. In a multivariable logistic regression model, baseline serum chloride of ?94 mmol/L found to be independently associated with the risk of acute kidney injury (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.6; P = .01).Dyschloremia is common in critically ill patients, and severe hypochloremia is independently associated with an increased risk of development of acute kidney injury.
Project description:Only a few observational studies investigated the association between hypochloremia and mortality in critically ill patients, and these studies included small number of septic patients. Also, no study has evaluated the effect of an increase in chloride (Cl-) concentration in hypochloremia on the mortality. A total of 843 Korean septic patients were divided into three groups based on their baseline Cl- level, and Cox analyses were performed to evaluate the 28-day mortality. Moreover, the change in Cl- level (?Cl) from baseline to 24, 48, or 72?hour was determined, and Cox analyses were also conducted to evaluate the relationship of ?Cl with mortality. 301 (35.7%) patients were hypochloremic (Cl-?<?97 mEq/L), and 38 (4.5%) patients were hyperchloremic (Cl-?>?110 mEq/L). During the follow-up period, 119 (14.1%) patients died. Hypochloremia was significantly associated with an increased mortality after adjusting for several variables, but an 1 mEq/L increase of ?Cl within 24?hour in patients with hypochloremia was significantly related to a decreased mortality. Caution might be required in severe septic patients with hypochloremia considering their increased mortality rate. However, an increased Cl- concentration might decrease the mortality rate of such patients.
Project description:Disorders of chloride and mixed acid-base disturbances are common in veterinary emergency medicine. Rapid identification of these alterations and the presence of unmeasured anions aid prompt patient assessment and management. This study aimed to determine in dogs and cats if site-specific reference values for [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio and [Na+] - [Cl-] difference accurately identify corrected chloride abnormalities and to evaluate the predictive ability of the [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio for the identification of unmeasured anions. A database containing 33,117 canine, and 7,604 feline blood gas and electrolyte profiles was generated. Institution reference intervals were used to calculate site-specific reference values for the [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio and the [Na+] - [Cl-] difference. Contingency tables were used to assess the ability of these values to correctly identify corrected chloride disorders. Unmeasured anions were estimated by calculating strong ion gap (SIG). Continuous variables were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Correlations between continuous variables were assessed using Spearman's rho (rs). In dogs, site-specific reference values for the [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio correctly identified 94.6% of profiles as hyper-, normo-, or hypochloremic. For dogs with normal sodium concentrations, site-specific reference values for the [Na+] - [Cl-] difference correctly identified 97.0% of profiles. In dogs with metabolic acidosis (base deficit > 4.0), [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio and SIG were moderately but significantly negatively correlated (rs -0.592, P < 0.0001). SIG was significantly greater in dogs with metabolic acidosis and hypochloremia compared to those without hypochloremia (P < 0.0001). In cats, site-specific reference values for the [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio correctly identified 93.3% of profiles as hyper-, normo-, or hypochloremic, while site-specific reference values for [Na+] - [Cl-] difference correctly identified 95.1% of profiles. In cats with metabolic acidosis [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio and SIG were moderately significantly negatively correlated (rs -0.730, P < 0.0001). SIG was significantly greater in cats with metabolic acidosis and hypochloremia compared to those without hypochloremia (P < 0.0001). Site-specific values for [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio and [Na+] - [Cl-] difference accurately identify corrected chloride disorders in both dogs and cats and may aid identification of the presence of unmeasured anions.
Project description:Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease that causes exercise limitation, heart failure, and death. We aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of aspirin and simvastatin in PAH.We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 2×2 factorial clinical trial of aspirin and simvastatin in patients with PAH receiving background therapy at 4 centers. A total of 92 patients with PAH were to be randomized to aspirin 81 mg or matching placebo and simvastatin 40 mg or matching placebo. The primary outcome was 6-minute walk distance at 6 months. Sixty-five subjects had been randomized when the trial was terminated by the Data Safety and Monitoring Board after an interim analysis showed futility in reaching the primary end point for simvastatin. After adjustment for baseline 6-minute walk distance, there was no significant difference in the 6-minute walk distance at 6 months between aspirin (n=32) and placebo (n=33; placebo-corrected difference ?0.5 m, 95% confidence interval ?28.4 to 27.4 m; P=0.97) or between simvastatin (n=32) and placebo (n=33; placebo-corrected difference ?27.6 m, 95% confidence interval ?59.6 to 4.3 m; P=0.09). There tended to be more major bleeding episodes with aspirin than with placebo (4 events versus 1 event, respectively; P=0.17).Neither aspirin nor simvastatin had a significant effect on the 6-minute walk distance, although patients randomized to simvastatin tended to have a lower 6-minute walk distance at 6 months. These results do not support the routine treatment of patients with PAH with these medications.
Project description:Scleroderma-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (SSc-PAH) is a rare disease characterized by a very dismal response to therapy and poor survival. We assessed the effects of up-front combination PAH therapy in patients with SSc-PAH.In this prospective, multicenter, open-label trial, 24 treatment-naive patients with SSc-PAH received ambrisentan 10 mg and tadalafil 40 mg daily for 36 weeks. Functional, hemodynamic, and imaging (cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography) assessments at baseline and 36 weeks included changes in right ventricular (RV) mass and pulmonary vascular resistance as co-primary endpoints and stroke volume/pulmonary pulse pressure ratio, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, 6-minute walk distance, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide as secondary endpoints.At 36 weeks, we found that treatment had resulted in significant reductions in median (interquartile range [IQR]) RV mass (28.0 g [IQR, 20.6-32.9] vs. 32.5 g [IQR, 23.2-41.4]; P < 0.05) and median pulmonary vascular resistance (3.1 Wood units [IQR, 2.0-5.7] vs. 6.9 Wood units [IQR, 4.0-12.9]; P < 0.0001) and in improvements in median stroke volume/pulmonary pulse pressure ratio (2.6 ml/mm Hg [IQR, 1.8-3.5] vs. 1.4 ml/mm Hg [IQR 8.9-2.4]; P < 0.0001) and mean ( ± SD) tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (2.2 ± 0.12 cm vs. 1.65 ± 0.11 cm; P < 0.0001), 6-minute walk distance (395 ± 99 m vs. 343 ± 131 m; P = 0.001), and serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (647 ± 1,127 pg/ml vs. 1,578 ± 2,647 pg/ml; P < 0.05).Up-front combination therapy with ambrisentan and tadalafil significantly improved hemodynamics, RV structure and function, and functional status in treatment-naive patients with SSc-PAH and may represent a very effective therapy for this patient population. In addition, we identified novel hemodynamic and imaging biomarkers that could have potential value in future clinical trials. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01042158).
Project description:RATIONALE:Evidence is increasing of a link between interferon (IFN) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Conditions with chronically elevated endogenous IFNs such as systemic sclerosis are strongly associated with PAH. Furthermore, therapeutic use of type I IFN is associated with PAH. This was recognized at the 2013 World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension where the urgent need for research into this was highlighted. OBJECTIVE:To explore the role of type I IFN in PAH. METHODS AND RESULTS:Cells were cultured using standard approaches. Cytokines were measured by ELISA. Gene and protein expression were measured using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. The role of type I IFN in PAH in vivo was determined using type I IFN receptor knockout (IFNAR1(-/-)) mice. Human lung cells responded to types I and II but not III IFN correlating with relevant receptor expression. Type I, II, and III IFN levels were elevated in serum of patients with systemic sclerosis associated PAH. Serum interferon ? inducible protein 10 (IP10; CXCL10) and endothelin 1 were raised and strongly correlated together. IP10 correlated positively with pulmonary hemodynamics and serum brain natriuretic peptide and negatively with 6-minute walk test and cardiac index. Endothelial cells grown out of the blood of PAH patients were more sensitive to the effects of type I IFN than cells from healthy donors. PAH lung demonstrated increased IFNAR1 protein levels. IFNAR1(-/-) mice were protected from the effects of hypoxia on the right heart, vascular remodeling, and raised serum endothelin 1 levels. CONCLUSIONS:These data indicate that type I IFN, via an action of IFNAR1, mediates PAH.
Project description:Serotonin (5-HT) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We hypothesized that plasma 5-HT would be elevated in PAH related to associated conditions. We performed a prospective cohort study of 21 patients with PAH undergoing initial right heart catheterization and 6 healthy controls. Platelet-free plasma 5-HT levels were similar in patients with idiopathic PAH, PAH related to associated conditions, and healthy controls. Higher 5-HT levels correlated with increased six-minute walk distance (r=0.55, p=0.04). These data suggest that plasma 5-HT levels are normal in PAH. Plasma 5-HT may therefore not be a useful biomarker in this condition.
Project description:Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a medically incurable disease resulting in death from right ventricular (RV) failure. Both pulmonary vascular and RV remodeling are linked to dynamic changes in the microvasculature. Therefore, we hypothesized that circulating angiostatic factors could be linked to outcomes and represent novel biomarkers of disease severity in PAH.We sought to determine the relationship of a potent angiostatic factor, endostatin (ES), with disease severity and mortality in PAH. Furthermore, we assessed genetic predictors of ES expression and/or function and their association with outcomes in PAH.We measured levels of serum ES in two independent cohorts of patients with PAH. Contemporaneous clinical data included New York Heart Association functional class, 6-minute-walk distance, invasive hemodynamics, and laboratory chemistries.Serum ES correlated with poor functional status, decreased exercise tolerance, and invasive hemodynamics variables. Furthermore, serum ES was a strong predictor of mortality. A loss-of-function, missense variant in the gene encoding ES, Col18a1, was linked to lower circulating protein and was independently associated with reduced mortality.Our data link increased expression of ES to disease severity in PAH and demonstrate a significant relationship with adverse outcomes. Circulating ES levels can be genetically influenced, implicating ES as a genetically determined modifier of disease severity impacting on survival. These observations support serum ES as a potential biomarker in PAH with the capacity to predict poor outcomes. More importantly, this study implicates Col18a1/ES as a potential new therapeutic target in PAH.
Project description:Rationale: Oral treprostinil improves exercise capacity in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the effect on clinical outcomes was unknown.Objectives: To evaluate the effect of oral treprostinil compared with placebo on time to first adjudicated clinical worsening event in participants with PAH who recently began approved oral monotherapy.Methods: In this event-driven, double-blind study, we randomly allocated 690 participants (1:1 ratio) with PAH to receive placebo or oral treprostinil extended-release tablets three times daily. Eligible participants were using approved oral monotherapy for over 30 days before randomization and had a 6-minute-walk distance 150 m or greater. The primary endpoint was the time to first adjudicated clinical worsening event: death; hospitalization due to worsening PAH; initiation of inhaled or parenteral prostacyclin therapy; disease progression; or unsatisfactory long-term clinical response.Measurements and Main Results: Clinical worsening occurred in 26% of the oral treprostinil group compared with 36% of placebo participants (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.97; P?=?0.028). Key measures of disease status, including functional class, Borg dyspnea score, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, all favored oral treprostinil treatment at Week 24 and beyond. A noninvasive risk stratification analysis demonstrated that oral treprostinil-assigned participants had a substantially higher mortality risk at baseline but achieved a lower risk profile from Study Weeks 12-60. The most common adverse events in the oral treprostinil group were headache, diarrhea, flushing, nausea, and vomiting.Conclusions: In participants with PAH, addition of oral treprostinil to approved oral monotherapy reduced the risk of clinical worsening.Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01560624).