Androgen Deprivation Induces Reprogramming of Prostate Cancer Cells to Stem-Like Cells.
ABSTRACT: In the past few years, cell plasticity has emerged as a mode of targeted therapy evasion in prostate adenocarcinoma. When exposed to anticancer therapies, tumor cells may switch into a different histological subtype, such as the neuroendocrine phenotype which is associated with treatment failure and a poor prognosis. In this study, we demonstrated that long-term androgen signal depletion of prostate LNCaP cells induced a neuroendocrine phenotype followed by re-differentiation towards a "stem-like" state. LNCaP cells incubated for 30 days in charcoal-stripped medium or with the androgen receptor antagonist 2-hydroxyflutamide developed neuroendocrine morphology and increased the expression of the neuroendocrine markers ?III-tubulin and neuron specific enolase (NSE). When cells were incubated for 90 days in androgen-depleted medium, they grew as floating spheres and had enhanced expression of the stem cell markers CD133, ALDH1A1, and the transporter ABCB1A. Additionally, the pluripotent transcription factors Nanog and Oct4 and the angiogenic factor VEGF were up-regulated while the expression of E-cadherin was inhibited. Cell viability revealed that those cells were resistant to docetaxel and 2-hidroxyflutamide. Mechanistically, androgen depletion induced the decrease in AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) expression and activation and stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible factor HIF-1?. Overexpression of AMPK in the stem-like cells decreased the expression of stem markers as well as that of HIF-1? and VEGF while it restored the levels of E-cadherin and PGC-1?. Most importantly, docetaxel sensitivity was restored in stem-like AMPK-transfected cells. Our model provides a new regulatory mechanism of prostate cancer plasticity through AMPK that is worth exploring.
Project description:Although adenocarcinomas of the prostate are relatively indolent, some patients with advanced adenocarcinomas show recurrence of treatment-induced neuroendocrine prostate cancer, which is highly aggressive and lethal. Detailed biological features of treatment-induced neuroendocrine prostate cancer have not been characterized owing to limited biopsies/resections and the lack of a cellular model. In this study, we used a unique cellular model (LNCaP/NE1.8) to investigate the potential role of cancer stem cells in treatment-induced neuroendocrine prostate cancer with acquired resistance to hormonal therapy and chemotherapy. We also studied the role of cancer stem cells in enhancing invasion in treatment-induced neuroendocrine prostate cancer cells that recurred after long-term androgen-ablation treatment. Using an in vitro system mimicking clinical androgen-ablation, our results showed that the neuroendocrine-like subclone NE1.8 cells were enriched with cancer stem cells. Compared to parental prostate adenocarcinoma LNCaP cells, NE1.8 cells are more resistant to androgen deprivation therapy and chemotherapeutic agents and show increased cancer cell invasiveness. Results from this study also suggest a potential epigenetic therapeutic strategy using suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, as a chemotherapeutic agent for therapy-resistant treatment-induced neuroendocrine prostate cancer cells to minimize the risk of prostate cancer recurrence and metastasis.
Project description:Based on a molecular classification of prostate cancer using gene expression pathway signatures, we derived a set of 48 genes in critical pathways that significantly predicts clinical outcome in all tested patient cohorts. We tested these genes in a functional genomics screen in a panel of three prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC3, DU145), using RNA interference. The screen revealed several genes whose knockdown caused strong growth inhibition in all cell lines. Additionally, we tested the gene set in the presence of docetaxel to see whether any gene exhibited additive or synergistic effects with the drug. We observed a strong synergistic effect between DLGAP5 knockdown and docetaxel in the androgen-sensitive line LNCaP, but not in the two other androgen-independent lines. We then tested whether this effect was connected to androgen pathways and found that knockdown of the androgen receptor by si-RNA attenuated the synergy significantly. Similarly, androgen desensitized LNCaP-AI cells had a higher IC50 to docetaxel and did not exhibit the synergistic interaction. Short-term exposure to enzalutamide did not significantly alter the behaviour of parental LNCaP cells. An immunofluorescence analysis in LNCaP cells suggests that under the double insult of DLGAP5 knockdown and docetaxel, cells predominantly arrest in metaphase. In contrast, the knockdown of the androgen receptor by siRNA appears to assist cells to progress through metaphase in to anaphase, even in the presence of docetaxel. Our data suggest that DLGAP5 has a unique function in stabilizing spindle formation and surviving microtubule assault from docetaxel, in an androgen-regulated cell cycle system.
Project description:Androgen receptor (AR) stimulators, such as androgen and Tip60, play a pivotal role in prostatic carcinogenesis as androgen receptor signaling is critical for the growth and transformation of the prostate gland. Moreover, androgen and Tip60 promotes HIF-1? activation, involved in metabolic reprogramming by increasing glycolysis, a hallmark in cancer initiation and development. In this study we evaluated the effect of androgen and Tip60 stimulus in AR pathway activation and HIF-1? stabilization, in terms of proliferation and cell metabolism in androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells. The protective role of the bioactive compounds sulforaphane and capsaicin against the effect of these stimuli leading to pro-carcinogenic features was also addressed. Sulforaphane and capsaicin decreased nuclear AR, prostate specific antigen and Bcl-XL levels, and cell proliferation induced by androgen and Tip60 in LNCaP cells. These bioactive compounds prevented the increase in glycolysis, hexokinase and pyruvate kinase activity, and reduced HIF-1? stabilization induced by androgen and Tip60 in LNCaP cells. The protective role of sulforaphane and capsaicin on prostate cancer may rely on mechanisms involving the inhibition of Tip60, AR and HIF-1? effects.
Project description:Prostate cancer subtypes are poorly defined and functional validation of drivers of ETS rearrangement-negative prostate cancer has not been conducted. Here, we identified an ETS(-) subtype of aggressive prostate cancer (ERG(-)MAP3K7(del)CHD1(del)) and used a novel developmental model and a cell line xenograft model to show that cosuppression of MAP3K7 and CHD1 expression promotes aggressive disease. Analyses of publicly available prostate cancer datasets revealed that MAP3K7 and CHD1 were significantly codeleted in 10% to 20% of localized tumors and combined loss correlated with poor disease-free survival. To evaluate the functional impact of dual MAP3K7-CHD1 loss, we suppressed Map3k7 and/or Chd1 expression in mouse prostate epithelial progenitor/stem cells (PrP/SC) and performed tissue recombination experiments in vivo. Dual shMap3k7-shChd1 PrP/SC recombinants displayed massive glandular atypia with regions of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma apparent. Combined Map3k7-Chd1 suppression greatly disrupted normal prostatic lineage differentiation; dual recombinants displayed significant androgen receptor loss, increased neuroendocrine differentiation, and increased neural differentiation. Clinical samples with dual MAP3K7-CHD1 loss also displayed neuroendocrine and neural characteristics. In addition, dual Map3k7-Chd1 suppression promoted E-cadherin loss and mucin production in recombinants. MAP3K7 and CHD1 protein loss also correlated with Gleason grade and E-cadherin loss in clinical samples. To further validate the phenotype observed in the PrP/SC model, we suppressed MAP3K7 and/or CHD1 expression in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Dual shMAP3K7-shCHD1 LNCaP xenografts displayed increased tumor growth and decreased survival compared with shControl, shMAP3K7, and shCHD1 xenografts. Collectively, these data identify coordinate loss of MAP3K7 and CHD1 as a unique driver of aggressive prostate cancer development.
Project description:Prostate cancer can transform from androgen-responsive to an androgen-independent phenotype. The mechanism responsible for the transformation remains unclear. We studied the effects of an epigenetic modulator, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), on the androgen-responsive LNCaP cells. After treatment with PEITC, floating spheres were formed with characteristics of prostate cancer stem cells (PCSC). These spheres were capable of self-renewal in media with and without androgen. They have been maintained in both types of media as long term cultures. Upon androgen deprivation, the adherent spheres differentiated to neuroendocrine cells (NEC) with decreased proliferation, expression of androgen receptor, and PSA. NEC reverse differentiated to spheres when androgen was replenished. The sphere cells expressed surface marker CD44 and had enhanced histone H3K4 acetylation, DNMT1 down-regulation and GSTP1 activation. We hypothesize that PEITC-mediated alteration in epigenomics of LNCaP cells may give rise to sphere cells, whereas reversible androgenomic alterations govern the shuttling between sphere PCSC and progeny NEC. Our findings identify unrecognized properties of prostate cancer sphere cells with multi-potential plasticity. This system will facilitate development of novel therapeutic agents and allow further exploration into epigenomics and androgenomics governing the transformation to hormone refractory prostate cancer.
Project description:miR-17-92a cluster miRNAs are transcribed from a polycistronic transcription unit C13orf25 that generates six mature miRNAs, miR-17, miR-18a, miR-19a, miR-19b, miR-20a and miR-92a that are overexpressed in lung and colon cancers. Here we show that the expression of miR-17-92a miRNAs are reduced in cancerous prostate tissues compared to uninvolved areas and also in aggressive prostate cancer cells. Restoration of expression of all members of miR-17-92a cluster showed, decreased expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclin D1 and SSH1; and LIMK1 and FGD4 of RhoGTPase signaling pathway. Expression of miR-17-92a miRNAs caused decreased cell proliferation, reduced activation of AKT and MAP kinases, delayed tumorigenicity and reduced tumor growth in animals. Expression of miR-17-92a miRNAs inhibited EMT via reduced cell migration and expression of mesenchymal markers while elevating expression and surface localization of the epithelial marker E-Cadherin. Expression of miR-17-92a miRNAs improved sensitivity of androgen dependent LNCaP 104-S prostate cancer cells to anti-androgen drug Casodex, AKT inhibitor MK-2206 2HCl, and docetaxel. The androgen refractory PC-3 cells also showed increased sensitivity to docetaxel, MK-2206 2HCl and Aurora kinase inhibitor VX680 upon ectopic expression of miR-17-92a cluster miRNAs. Our data demonstrate a tumor suppressor effect of miR-17-92a cluster miRNAs in prostate cancer cells and restoration of expression of these miRNAs has a therapeutic benefit for both androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer cells.
Project description:Background:Current chemotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer is established on taxane-based compounds like docetaxel. However, eventually, the development of toxic side effects and resistance limits the therapeutic benefit being the major concern in the treatment of prostate cancer. Combination therapies in many cases, enhance drug efficacy and delay the appearance of undesired effects, representing an important option for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer. In this study, we tested the efficacy of the combination of docetaxel and capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of hot chili peppers, on prostate cancer cells proliferation. Methods:Prostate cancer LNCaP and PC3 cell lines were used in this study. Levels of total and phosphorylated forms of Akt, mTOR, S6, LKB1, AMPK and ACC were determined by Western blot. AMPK, LKB1 and Akt knock down was performed by siRNA. PTEN was overexpressed by transient transfection with plasmids. Xenograft prostate tumors were induced in nude mice and treatments (docetaxel and capsaicin) were administered intraperitoneally. Statistical analyses were performed with GraphPad software. Combination index was calculated with Compusyn software. Results:Docetaxel and capsaicin synergistically inhibited the growth of LNCaP and PC3 cells, with a combination index lower than 1 for most of the combinations tested. Co-treatment with docetaxel and capsaicin notably decreased Akt and its downstream targets mTOR and S6 phosphorylation. Overexpression of PTEN phosphatase abrogated the synergistic antiproliferative effect of docetaxel and capsaicin. The combined treatment also increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and the phosphorylation of its substrate ACC. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of AMPK with dorsomorphin (compound C) as well as knock down by siRNA of AMPK or its upstream kinase LKB1, abolished the synergy of docetaxel and capsaicin. Mechanistically, we showed that the synergistic anti-proliferative effect may be attributed to two independent effects: Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway by one side, and AMPK activation by the other. In vivo experiments confirmed the synergistic effects of docetaxel and capsaicin in reducing the tumor growth of PC3 cells. Conclusion:Combination of docetaxel and capsaicin represents a therapeutically relevant approach for the treatment of Prostate Cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cannabinoid receptor activation induces prostate carcinoma cell (PCC) apoptosis, but cannabinoids other than ?(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which lack potency at cannabinoid receptors, have not been investigated. Some of these compounds antagonize transient receptor potential melastatin type-8 (TRPM8) channels, the expression of which is necessary for androgen receptor (AR)-dependent PCC survival. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We tested pure cannabinoids and extracts from Cannabis strains enriched in particular cannabinoids (BDS), on AR-positive (LNCaP and 22RV1) and -negative (DU-145 and PC-3) cells, by evaluating cell viability (MTT test), cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction, by FACS scans, caspase 3/7 assays, DNA fragmentation and TUNEL, and size of xenograft tumours induced by LNCaP and DU-145 cells. KEY RESULTS: Cannabidiol (CBD) significantly inhibited cell viability. Other compounds became effective in cells deprived of serum for 24 h. Several BDS were more potent than the pure compounds in the presence of serum. CBD-BDS (i.p.) potentiated the effects of bicalutamide and docetaxel against LNCaP and DU-145 xenograft tumours and, given alone, reduced LNCaP xenograft size. CBD (1-10 µM) induced apoptosis and induced markers of intrinsic apoptotic pathways (PUMA and CHOP expression and intracellular Ca(2+)). In LNCaP cells, the pro-apoptotic effect of CBD was only partly due to TRPM8 antagonism and was accompanied by down-regulation of AR, p53 activation and elevation of reactive oxygen species. LNCaP cells differentiated to androgen-insensitive neuroendocrine-like cells were more sensitive to CBD-induced apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These data support the clinical testing of CBD against prostate carcinoma.
Project description:The androgen receptor (AR) plays an essential role in prostate cancer, and suppression of its signaling with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the mainstay of treatment for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer for more than 70 y. Chemotherapy has been reserved for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-led trial E3805: ChemoHormonal Therapy Versus Androgen Ablation Randomized Trial for Extensive Disease in Prostate Cancer (CHAARTED) showed that the addition of docetaxel to ADT prolonged overall survival compared with ADT alone in patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. This finding suggests that there is an interaction between AR signaling activity and docetaxel sensitivity. Here we demonstrate that the prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and LAPC4 display markedly different sensitivity to docetaxel with AR activation, and RNA-seq analysis of these cell lines identified KDM5D (lysine-specific demethylase 5D) encoded on the Y chromosome as a potential mediator of this sensitivity. Knocking down KDM5D expression in LNCaP leads to docetaxel resistance in the presence of dihydrotestosterone. KDM5D physically interacts with AR in the nucleus, and regulates its transcriptional activity by demethylating H3K4me3 active transcriptional marks. Attenuating KDM5D expression dysregulates AR signaling, resulting in docetaxel insensitivity. KDM5D deletion was also observed in the LNCaP-derived CRPC cell line 104R2, which displayed docetaxel insensitivity with AR activation, unlike parental LNCaP. Dataset analysis from the Oncomine database revealed significantly decreased KDM5D expression in CRPC and poorer prognosis with low KDM5D expression. Taking these data together, this work indicates that KDM5D modulates the AR axis and that this is associated with altered docetaxel sensitivity.
Project description:Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is thought to arise as prostate adenocarcinoma cells transdifferentiate into neuroendocrine (NE) cells to escape potent anti-androgen therapies however, the exact molecular events accompanying NE transdifferentiation and their plasticity remain poorly defined. Cell fate regulator ASCL1/hASH1's expression was markedly induced in androgen deprived (AD) LNCaP cells and prominent nuclear localisation accompanied acquisition of the NE-like morphology and expression of NE markers (NSE). By contrast, androgen-insensitive PC3 and DU145 cells displayed clear nuclear hASH1 localisation under control conditions that was unchanged by AD, suggesting AR signalling negatively regulated hASH1 expression and localisation. Synthetic androgen (R1881) prevented NE transdifferentiation of AD LNCaP cells and markedly suppressed expression of key regulators of lineage commitment and neurogenesis (REST and ASCL1/hASH1). Post-AD, NE LNCaP cells rapidly lost NE-like morphology following R1881 treatment, yet ASCL1/hASH1 expression was resistant to R1881 treatment and hASH1 nuclear localisation remained evident in apparently dedifferentiated LNCaP cells. Consequently, NE cells may not fully revert to an epithelial state and retain key NE-like features, suggesting a "hybrid" phenotype. This could fuel greater NE transdifferentiation, therapeutic resistance and NEPC evolution upon subsequent androgen deprivation. Such knowledge could facilitate CRPC tumour stratification and identify targets for more effective NEPC management.