Evidence of compensation among waterpipe smokers using harm reduction components.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:We examined two waterpipe tobacco smoking components advertised to reduce harm to determine if they result in lower levels of biomarkers of acute exposure. METHODS:We conducted a crossover study of 34 experienced waterpipe smokers smoking a research-grade waterpipe in three configurations ad libitum in a controlled chamber: control (quick-light charcoal), electric (electric heating) and bubble diffuser (quick-light charcoal and bubble diffuser). We collected data on smoking topography, environmental carbon monoxide (CO), subjective effects, heart rate, plasma nicotine and exhaled CO and benzene. RESULTS:Smokers' mean plasma nicotine, heart rate, and exhaled benzene and CO boost were all significantly lower for electric compared with control. However, smokers puffed more intensely and took significantly more and larger volume puffs for a larger total puffing volume (2.0 times larger, p<0.0001) when smoking electric; machine yields indicate this was likely due to lower mainstream nicotine. Smokers rated electric smoking experience less satisfying and less pleasant. For charcoal heating, the mean mass of CO emitted into the chamber was ~1?g when participants smoked for a mean of 32?minutes at a typical residential ventilation rate (2.3?hr-1). CONCLUSION:Waterpipe smokers engaged in compensation (i.e., increased and more intense puffing) to make up for decreased mainstream nicotine delivery from the same tobacco heated two ways. Waterpipe components can affect human puffing behaviours, exposures and subjective effects. Evidence reported here supports regulation of waterpipe components, smoking bans in multifamily housing and the use of human studies to evaluate modified or reduced risk claims.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>We examined mainstream total particulate matter, nicotine, cotinine, menthol, pyrene, carbon monoxide (CO) and semivolatile furan yields from a commercial waterpipe with two methods for heating the tobacco, quick-light charcoal (charcoal) and electric head (electric) and two water bowl preparations: with (ice) and without ice (water).<h4>Methods</h4>Emissions from a single brand of popular waterpipe tobacco (10 g) were generated using machine smoking according to a two-stage puffing regimen developed from human puffing topography. Tobacco and charcoal consumption were calculated for each machine smoking session as mass lost, expressed as a fraction of presmoking mass.<h4>Results</h4>The heating method had the greatest effect on toxicant yields. Electric heating resulted in increases in the fraction of tobacco consumed (2.4 times more, p<0.0001), mainstream nicotine (1.4 times higher, p=0.002) and semivolatile furan yields (1.4 times higher, p<0.03), and a decrease in mainstream CO and pyrene yields (8.2 and 2.1 times lower, respectively, p<0.001) as compared with charcoal. Adding ice to the bowl resulted in higher furan yields for electric heating. Menthol yields were not different across the four conditions and averaged 0.16±0.03 mg/session. 2-Furaldehyde and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde yields were up to 230 and 3900 times higher, respectively, than those reported for cigarettes.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Waterpipe components used to heat the tobacco and water bowl preparation can significantly affect mainstream toxicant yields. Mainstream waterpipe tobacco smoke is a significant source of inhalation exposure to semivolatile furans with human carcinogenic and mutagenic potential. These data highlight the need for acute and chronic inhalation toxicity data for semivolatile furans and provide support for the establishment of limits governing sugar additives in waterpipe tobacco and educational campaigns linking waterpipe tobacco smoking behaviours with their associated harm.
Project description:Waterpipe smoking is becoming more popular worldwide and there is a pressing need to better characterize the exposure of smokers to chemical compounds present in the mainstream smoke. We report real-time measurements of mainstream smoke for carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and nanoparticle size distribution and chemical composition using a custom dilution flow tube. A conventional tobacco mixture, a dark leaf unwashed tobacco and a nicotine-free herbal tobacco were studied. Results show that carbon monoxide is present in the mainstream smoke and originates primarily from the charcoal used to heat the tobacco. Online measurements of volatile organic compounds in mainstream smoke showed an overwhelming contribution from glycerol. Gas phase analysis also showed that very little filtration of the gas phase products is provided by the percolation of mainstream smoke through water. Waterpipe smoking generated high concentrations of 4-100 nm nanoparticles, which were mainly composed of sugar derivatives and especially abundant in the first 10 min of the smoking session. These measured emissions of volatiles and particles are compared with those from a reference cigarette (3R4F) and represent the equivalent of the emission of one or more entire cigarettes for a single puff of hookah smoke. Considerations related to the health impacts of waterpipe smoking are discussed.
Project description:Worldwide, commercially available waterpipes vary widely in design and durability, including differences in fabrication materials, degree of leak-tight fit, and flow path diameter. Little is known about how the components of the waterpipe may influence puffing behavior and user's exposure to toxins. To systematically evaluate exposure, it is necessary to use a standardized research-grade waterpipe (RWP) when conducting clinical and laboratory-based trials.We developed a RWP that is configured with an in-line topography system which allows real-time measurement and recording of the smoke volume drawn through the RWP. The RWP was calibrated across the flow rate range expected for waterpipe tobacco smoking and the calibration was verified for known puff volumes using a smoking machine. Operation of the RWP was qualified in a cohort of experienced waterpipe smokers, each smoker using the RWP ad libitum in a laboratory setting while smoker topography and subjective effects data were collected.RWP machine smoking was highly reproducible and yielded puff volumes that agreed well with true values. User acceptance was comparable, and puffing behavior was similar in pattern, with more frequent puffing in the beginning of the session, but significantly different in intensity from that used to estimate the majority of toxicant exposure reported in the literature.The RWP operates with known precision and accuracy and is well accepted by experienced smokers. This tool can be used to determine the extent to which puffing behaviors are affected by the waterpipe design, components, and/or accessories, tobacco nicotine content, sweet flavorings and/or additives known to increase addictiveness.This study describes a standardized RWP, equipped with a puffing topography analyzer, which can operate with known precision and accuracy, and is well-accepted by experienced smokers in terms of satisfaction and reward. The RWP is an important tool for determining if puffing behaviors, and thus estimated toxin exposures, are affected by the waterpipe design, components, and/or accessories, tobacco nicotine content, sweet flavorings, and/or additives that are known to increase addictiveness.
Project description:This study analyzed commercial waterpipe tobacco products in accordance with the newly developed ISO 22486 as well as with commercial waterpipes and charcoals using the ISO 22486 puffing regime for comparison. The aerosols from these products were analyzed for their nicotine, humectant, tobacco specific nitrosamine, carbonyl, benzo[a]pyrene, and metal yields. Significant differences were observed among the waterpipe tobacco products when analyzed in accordance with the ISO standard 22486 and with different commercial waterpipes and charcoals. The concentrations of CO and benzo[a]pyrene observed in the consumers' configuration using the ISO 22486 puffing regime (with lit charcoal) were higher than those obtained with the ISO standard using electrical heating, with the yields for carbonyl compounds being lower or higher. The use of the recently published ISO standard for generating water pipe tobacco aerosols should be complemented with analysis by using the consumers' configuration. The necessity for this was demonstrated by the differences in CO and benzo[a]pyrene yields in the present work. It appears that the temperature (280°C) selected for electrical heating of waterpipe tobacco products in ISO 22486 is somewhat lower than that obtained with commercial charcoals, resulting in a generally lower yield of nicotine and total collected matter. In addition, there is a need to evaluate the contribution of commercial charcoals to the concentration of constituents in waterpipe aerosols. This is particularly true for compounds resulting from charcoal combustion, such as CO and benzo[a]pyrene.
Project description:Background:Most smoke-free legislation to reduce secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure exempts waterpipe (hookah) smoking venues. Few studies have examined SHS exposure in waterpipe venues and their employees. Methods:We surveyed 276 employees of 46 waterpipe tobacco venues in Istanbul, Moscow, and Cairo. We interviewed venue managers and employees and collected biological samples from employees to measure exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), hair nicotine, saliva cotinine, urine cotinine, urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), and urine 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG). We estimated adjusted geometric mean ratios (GMR) of each SHS biomarker by employee characteristics and indoor air SHS measures. Results:There were 73 nonsmoking employees and 203 current smokers of cigarettes or waterpipe. In nonsmokers, the median (interquartile) range concentrations of SHS biomarkers were 1.1 (0.2, 40.9) µg/g creatinine urine cotinine, 5.5 (2, 15) ng/mL saliva cotinine, 0.95 (0.36, 5.02) ng/mg hair nicotine, 1.48 (0.98, 3.97) pg/mg creatinine urine NNAL, 0.54 (0.25, 0.97) pmol/mg creatinine urine 1-OHPG, and 1.67 (1.33, 2.33) ppm exhaled CO. An 8-hour increase in work hours was associated with higher urine cotinine (GMR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.20, 2.37) and hair nicotine (GMR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.43). Lighting waterpipes was associated with higher saliva cotinine (GMR: 2.83, 95% CI: 1.05, 7.62). Conclusions:Nonsmoking employees of waterpipe tobacco venues were exposed to high levels of SHS, including measurable levels of carcinogenic biomarkers (tobacco-specific nitrosamines and PAHs). Implications:Smoke-free regulation should be extended to waterpipe venues to protect nonsmoking employees and patrons from the adverse health effects of SHS.
Project description:Waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing in popularity though the toxicant exposure and effects associated with this tobacco use method are not well understood.Sixty-one waterpipe tobacco smokers (56 males; mean age +/- SD, 30.9 +/- 9.5 years; mean number of weekly waterpipe smoking episodes, 7.8 +/- 5.7; mean duration of waterpipe smoking 8.5 +/- 6.1 years) abstained from smoking for at least 24 hr and then smoked tobacco from a waterpipe ad libitum in a laboratory. Before and after smoking, expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) and subjective effects were assessed; puff topography was measured during smoking.The mean waterpipe use episode duration was 33.1 +/- 13.1 min. Expired-air CO increased significantly from a mean of 4.0 +/- 1.7 before to 35.5 +/- 32.7 after smoking. On average, participants took 169 +/- 100 puffs, with a mean puff volume of 511 +/- 333 ml. Urge to smoke, restlessness, craving, and other tobacco abstinence symptoms were reduced significantly after smoking, while ratings of dizzy, lightheaded, and other direct effects of nicotine increased.Expired-air CO and puff topography data indicate that, relative to a single cigarette, a single waterpipe tobacco smoking episode is associated with greater smoke exposure. Abstinent waterpipe tobacco smokers report symptoms similar to those reported by abstinent cigarette smokers, and these symptoms are reduced by subsequent waterpipe tobacco smoking. Taken together, these data are consistent with the notion that waterpipe tobacco smoking is likely associated with the risk of tobacco/nicotine dependence.
Project description:Background:Waterpipe nicotine dependence and its association with depressive symptoms and dual usage among adolescents are currently not examined in the literature. Adolescents are a vulnerable population that is susceptible to depression and initiation of tobacco use. We aim, in this novel study, to assess the association between depressive symptoms and waterpipe nicotine dependence among adolescents in Jordan, evaluate the association between waterpipe smoking status (waterpipe smoker vs. dual user) and waterpipe nicotine dependence, and assess the internal validity of the Waterpipe Nicotine Dependence Scale (WNDS). Method:A cross-sectional study among adolescents of grade 9th to 12th in Jordan was conducted through multistage cluster random sampling. The self-reported Arabic Youth Tobacco Use Composite Measure Questionnaire (YTUCM) was used to collect the surveys that include demographic information, smoking status, and the WNDS to assess waterpipe nicotine dependence and depressive symptoms. Multiple linear regression and the t-test were used to analyze the data. Findings. One thousand three hundred and three surveys were collected, of which 1082 were included in the study (443 males and 639 females). 64.9% of the sample were nontobacco users, while 20.1% were waterpipe- (WTP-) only smokers, 11.4% were dual users, and 3.7% were cigarettes-only users. After adjusting for weights, 66.6% were nonsmokers, 19.2% were WTP-only smokers, 10.2% were dual users, and 3.9% were cigarettes-only smokers. Using multiple linear regression, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with WTP nicotine dependence (? 0.618), upon adjusting for confounders. Furthermore, dual users were associated with higher WTP nicotine dependence (? 12.034) compared to WTP-only smokers after adjusting for confounders. Cronbach's alpha for the WNDS was 0.955. Conclusions:Our study shows that there is a statistically significant association between depressive symptoms and WTP nicotine dependence and higher dependence among dual users compared to WTP-only smokers. The WNDS can be a useful tool to assess WTP nicotine dependence with high internal consistency. However, a longitudinal study is needed to further understand the association and temporality between the depressive symptoms and WTP nicotine dependence. Additionally, research is needed to shorten the WNDS while maintaining high internal consistency and assess the external validity of the WNDS and the short- and long-term consequences of dual usage.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) remains a leading occupational hazard in firefighters, but cigarette and waterpipe smoking likely contributes to the other sources of CO in such workers. The aim of this study was to estimate the contribution of self-reported active cigarette smoking, waterpipe use, and potential job-related sources of CO to the level of exhaled CO in firefighters.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>We surveyed the personnel of 18 fire stations (N?=?842), median age 28?years, who participated at an annual screening not timed to coincide with recent firefighting. We surveyed smoking and waterpipe history, exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), use of coal for health and biomass for cooking and time since last exposure to firefighting in the workplace. We measured exhaled CO with an instantaneous reading device (piCO Smokerlyzer). We used multivariable regression models to test the association of time since last smoked cigarette (?12?h) and waterpipe (?12?h) and time since last fire (?6?h) with exhaled CO.<br><br><b>Results: </b>In analysis limited to men (93.5% of all surveyed), 42% were daily cigarette; 1% were waterpipe smokers; 94% were exposed to SHS, 29% used coal for heating and 4% used biomass for cooking. The median CO was 4 (interquartile range 3;8) ppm. Age (beta 0.74 per 10?years, p?<?0.001), use of biomass fuel for cooking (beta 1.38, p?=?0.05), cigarette smoked in the last 12?h (beta 8.22, p?<?0.001), waterpipe smoked in the last 12?h (beta 23.10, p?<?0.001) were statistically associated with CO, but not time since last fire (?6?h) (beta 4.12, p?=?0.12). There was a significant interaction between older age and firefighting for exhaled CO (p?=?0.03).<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>Cigarette and recent waterpipe smoking are associated with increased exhaled CO in firefighters. Firefighting itself was a less potent contributor to exhaled CO when measured at an annual screening, but an age interaction was manifested.
Project description:Alternative tobacco products are increasing in popularity. An important question is whether their use is associated with or even leads to conventional smoking, but large-scale (European) studies are scarce. In two cohorts of Dutch adolescents (Cohort I n = 6819, mean age = 13.8 SD = 1.1, 48.2% female; Cohort II n = 2758, mean age = 17.3 SD = 1.8, 61.3% female), we investigated use of electronic (e)-cigarettes with nicotine, e-cigarettes without nicotine and waterpipe. Generalized estimating equation modelling was conducted with ever conventional smoking as the dependent variable (0 = no, 1 = yes) and ever alternative tobacco use as the independent variable, correcting for clustering within schools, age, sex and education in both cohorts. In a subsample (n = 2100), the association between alternative tobacco use at baseline and conventional smoking 6 months later was tested, taking into account smoking propensity (based on personality, susceptibility to peer pressure and smoking intentions). Ever use prevalence was 13.7% for e-cigarettes with nicotine, 29.4% for e-cigarettes without nicotine and 22.1% for waterpipe in Cohort I and 12.3, 27.6 and 45.3% respectively in Cohort II. Ever smokers had tried alternative tobacco products more often than never smokers. Among never-smoking adolescents at baseline, alternative tobacco use predicted ever smoking 6 months later (e-cigarettes with nicotine OR 11.90 95% CI 3.36-42.11; e-cigarettes without nicotine OR 5.36 95% CI 2.73-10.52; waterpipe OR 5.36 95% CI 2.78-10.31). This association was strongest for adolescents with a low baseline risk of smoking. Experimenting with alternative tobacco products is common among Dutch youth. Alternative tobacco use predicts (future) smoking, especially among adolescents with a low smoking propensity.
Project description:Human smoking behavior influences exposure to smoke toxicants and is important for risk assessment. In a prospective observational study, the smoking behavior of Marlboro smokers was measured for 36 h. Puff volume, duration, frequency, flow and inter-puff interval were recorded with the portable CReSSmicro™ device, as has often been done by other scientists. However, the use of the CReSSmicro™ device may lead to some registration pitfalls since the method of insertion of the cigarette may influence the data collection. Participants demonstrated consistent individual characteristic puffing behavior over the course of the day, enabling the creation of a personalized puffing profile. These puffing profiles were subsequently used as settings for smoking machine experiments and tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide (TNCO) emissions were generated. The application of human puffing profiles led to TNCO exposures more in the range of Health Canada Intense (HCI)-TNCO emissions than for those of the International Standardization Organization (ISO). Compared to the ISO regime, which applies a low puff volume relative to human smokers, the generation of TNCO may be at least two times higher than when human puffing profiles were applied on the smoking machine. Human smokers showed a higher puffing intensity than HCI and ISO because of higher puffing frequency, which resulted in more puffs per cigarette, than both HCI and ISO.