Targeting CD83 in mantle cell lymphoma with anti-human CD83 antibody.
ABSTRACT: Objectives:Effective antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) provide potent targeted cancer therapies. CD83 is expressed on activated immune cells including B cells and is a therapeutic target for Hodgkin lymphoma. Our objective was to determine CD83 expression on non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and its therapeutic potential to treat mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) which is currently an incurable NHL. Methods:We analysed CD83 expression on MCL cell lines and the lymph node/bone marrow biopsies of MCL patients. We tested the killing effect of CD83 ADC in vitro and in an in vivo xenograft MCL mouse model. Results:CD83 is expressed on MCL, and its upregulation is correlated with the nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) activation. CD83 ADC kills MCL in vitro and in vivo. Doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (CP), which are included in the current treatment regimen for MCL, enhance the NF-?B activity and increase CD83 expression on MCL cell lines. The combination of CD83 ADC with doxorubicin and CP has synergistic killing effect of MCL. Conclusion:This study provides evidence that a novel immunotherapeutic agent CD83 ADC, in combination with chemotherapy, has the potential to enhance the efficacy of current treatments for MCL.
Project description:Chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are effective treatments for most Hodgkin lymphoma patients, however there remains a need for better tumor-specific target therapy in Hodgkin lymphoma patients with refractory or relapsed disease. Herein, we demonstrate that membrane CD83 is a diagnostic and therapeutic target, highly expressed in Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines and Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells in 29/35 (82.9%) Hodgkin lymphoma patient lymph node biopsies. CD83 from Hodgkin lymphoma tumor cells was able to trogocytose to surrounding T cells and, interestingly, the trogocytosing CD83+T cells expressed significantly more programmed death-1 compared to CD83-T cells. Hodgkin lymphoma tumor cells secreted soluble CD83 that inhibited T-cell proliferation, and anti-CD83 antibody partially reversed the inhibitory effect. High levels of soluble CD83 were detected in Hodgkin lymphoma patient sera, which returned to normal in patients who had good clinical responses to chemotherapy confirmed by positron emission tomography scans. We generated a human anti-human CD83 antibody, 3C12C, and its toxin monomethyl auristatin E conjugate, that killed CD83 positive Hodgkin lymphoma cells but not CD83 negative cells. The 3C12C antibody was tested in dose escalation studies in non-human primates. No toxicity was observed, but there was evidence of CD83 positive target cell depletion. These data establish CD83 as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in Hodgkin lymphoma.
Project description:B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) frequently express CD19, CD20 and CD22 on the cell surfaces. Immunotherapeutic agents including antibodies and chimeric antigen receptor T cells are widely studied in clinical trials. Several antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) have been approved for clinical use (gemtuzumab ozogamicin in acute myeloid leukemia and brentuximab vedotin in Hodgkin lymphoma as well as CD30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma). Inotuzumab ozogamicin (INO), a CD22 antibody conjugated with calicheamicin is one of the newest ADCs. INO has been approved for treatment of relapsed /refractory B cell precursor ALL. Multiple ongoing trials are evaluating its role in the relapsed /refractory B cell NHL. This review summarized recent development in INO applications for ALL and NHL.
Project description:Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a group of lymphoproliferative malignancies with varying treatment responses and progression-free survival (PFS) times. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of treatment and patient-population characteristics on PFS in patients with NHL.A database was developed from 513 NHL clinical trials reported from 1993 to 2015. Summary-level PFS was obtained from 112 of these trials, which included 155 cohorts and 11,824 patients. Characteristics evaluated for their impact on PFS included cohort treatment, percentage of patients with each NHL subtype, percentage of patients with different numbers of prior treatments, percentage of subjects previously administered rituximab, performance status, disease stage, median age, and sex distribution.Rituximab, bendamustine, CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone combination)/CHOP-like, and other nonchemotherapy drugs, aside from bortezomib, prolonged median PFS time 2 to 4-fold. Follicular lymphoma patients had 60% longer median PFS time than mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients, while diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients had a median PFS time that was 25% of MCL patients. Patients who received ?1 prior treatment had median PFS times?>?10-fold longer than patients who received ?2 prior treatments. The final model predicted the hazard ratio in 75% of the studies within 25% of the observed value and the observed median PFS time of 92% of the studies fell within the predicted 90% confidence intervals.The developed PFS model predicts the median PFS time and hazard ratio for specific populations and treatment combinations quantitatively and can potentially be extended to link short-term and long-term clinical outcomes.
Project description:Several studies have implicated HLA in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtype etiology. However, NHL patients indicated for stem cell transplants are underrepresented in these reports. We therefore evaluated the association between HLA and NHL subtypes among a transplant-indicated population. One thousand three hundred and sixty-six NHL patients HLA-typed and indicated for transplant at the City of Hope National Medical Center (Duarte, CA) were compared to 10,271 prospective donors. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for HLA haplotype and alleles, adjusted for sex and age. The <i>HLA-A*0201?C*0602?B*1302?DRB1*0701?DQB1*0201</i> haplotype was significantly associated with follicular lymphoma (FL) risk among Caucasians. Several haplotypes were associated with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) risk among Caucasians, including the previously implicated DLBCL risk loci, <i>HLA-B*0801</i>. The <i>HLA-A*0101</i> allele was also observed to be associated with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) risk. Our results support the association between previously reported susceptibility loci and FL and suggest potentially new DLBCL and MCL risk loci.
Project description:Purpose This first-in-human study evaluated SGN-CD70A, an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) directed against the integral plasma membrane protein CD70 and linked to a pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) dimer, in patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R) CD70-positive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) including diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), and Grade 3b follicular lymphoma (FL3b). Methods SGN-CD70A was administered intravenously on Day 1 of 3-week cycles beginning at 8 mcg/kg with planned dose escalation to 200 mcg/kg. Due to observations of prolonged thrombocytopenia, the study was amended to dose every 6 weeks (q6wk). Results Twenty patients were enrolled and treated with SGN-CD70A. The maximum tolerated dose of SGN-CD70A was 30 mcg/kg q6wk. The most common adverse events (AEs) reported were thrombocytopenia (75%), nausea (55%), anemia (50%), and fatigue (50%). The onset for treatment-related thrombocytopenia typically occurred during Cycle 1. Most of the treatment-related events of thrombocytopenia were ≥ Grade 3. Antitumor activity in patients included 1 complete remission (CR) and 3 partial remissions (PRs), 2 of which were ongoing for at least 42.9 weeks. SGN-CD70A exposures were approximately dose proportional, with a mean terminal half-life of 3 to 5 days. Conclusions While modest single-agent activity was observed in heavily pretreated NHL patients, the applicability of SGN-CD70A is limited by the frequency and severity of thrombocytopenia, despite the long-term response with limited drug exposure.
Project description:Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is typically an aggressive and rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with a poor prognosis despite recent advances in immunochemotherapy and targeted therapeutics against NHL. New therapeutic agents are needed for MCL. In this study, we generated a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7), designated QS1189, and confirmed its anti-cancer effects towards MCL and other lymphomas. QS1189 was highly selective for CDK7 and showed potent anticancer effects in MCL compared to other targeted therapeutic agents, such as ibrutinib and venetoclax. Consistent with a conventional CDK7 inhibitor, QS1189 treatment significantly decreased phosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II and transcription-associated genes. QS1189 induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and apoptosis. Interestingly, QS1189 overcame the acquired resistance to venetoclax, which is mediated by Bcl-xL. Similarly, QS1189 showed potent tumour cell growth inhibition of various lymphomas. Thus, CDK7 might be a suitable therapeutic target for inhibiting lymphoma, and QS1189 is a promising therapeutic option for various lymphomas and cells with acquired resistance to targeted therapy.
Project description:Purpose B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) overexpression is common in many non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes. A phase I trial in patients with NHL was conducted to determine safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of venetoclax, a selective, potent, orally bioavailable BCL-2 inhibitor. Patients and Methods A total of 106 patients with relapsed or refractory NHL received venetoclax once daily until progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity at target doses from 200 to 1,200 mg in dose-escalation and safety expansion cohorts. Treatment commenced with a 3-week dose ramp-up period for most patients in dose-escalation cohorts and for all patients in safety expansion. Results NHL subtypes included mantle cell lymphoma (MCL; n = 28), follicular lymphoma (FL; n = 29), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL; n = 34), DLBCL arising from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (Richter transformation; n = 7), Waldenström macroglobulinemia (n = 4), and marginal zone lymphoma (n = 3). Venetoclax was generally well tolerated. Clinical tumor lysis syndrome was not observed, whereas laboratory tumor lysis syndrome was documented in three patients. Treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 103 patients (97%), a majority of which were grade 1 to 2 in severity. Grade 3 to 4 events were reported in 59 patients (56%), and the most common were hematologic, including anemia (15%), neutropenia (11%), and thrombocytopenia (9%). Overall response rate was 44% (MCL, 75%; FL, 38%; DLBCL, 18%). Estimated median progression-free survival was 6 months (MCL, 14 months; FL, 11 months; DLBCL, 1 month). Conclusion Selective targeting of BCL-2 with venetoclax was well tolerated, and single-agent activity varied among NHL subtypes. We determined 1,200 mg to be the recommended single-agent dose for future studies in FL and DLBCL, with 800 mg being sufficient to consistently achieve durable response in MCL. Additional investigations including combination therapy to augment response rates and durability are ongoing.
Project description:Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with aggressive disease characteristics resulting in multiple relapses after initial treatment. Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent approved in the US for patients with relapsed/refractory MCL following bortezomib based on results from 3 multicenter phase II studies (2 including relapsed/refractory aggressive NHL and 1 focusing on MCL post-bortezomib). The purpose of this report is to provide longer follow-up on the MCL-001 study (follow-ups were 6.8 [NHL-002], 7.6 [NHL-003], and 52.2 [MCL-001] months). The 206 relapsed MCL patients treated with single-agent lenalidomide (25 mg/day PO, days 1 to 21 every 28-days) had a median age of 67 years (63% ?65 years), 91% with stage III/IV disease, and 50% with ?4 previous treatment regimens. With a median follow-up of X, the combined best overall response rate (ORR) was 33% (including 11% with complete remission [CR]/CR unconfirmed CRu). Lenalidomide produced rapid and durable responses with a median time to response of 2.2 months and median duration of response (DOR) of 16.6 months (95% CI: 11.1%-29.8%). The safety profile was consistent and manageable; myelosuppression was the most common adverse event (AE). Overall, single-agent lenalidomide showed consistent efficacy and safety in multiple phase II studies of heavily pretreated patients with relapsed/refractory MCL, including those previously treated with bortezomib.
Project description:Certain malignant B cells rely on B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated survival signals. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) initiates and amplifies the BCR signal. In in vivo analyses of B-cell lymphoma cell lines and primary tumors, Syk inhibition induces apoptosis. These data prompted a phase 1/2 clinical trial of fostamatinib disodium, the first clinically available oral Syk inhibitor, in patients with recurrent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). Dose-limiting toxicity in the phase 1 portion was neutropenia, diarrhea, and thrombocytopenia, and 200 mg twice daily was chosen for phase 2 testing. Sixty-eight patients with recurrent B-NHL were then enrolled in 3 cohorts: (1) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), (2) follicular lymphoma (FL), and (3) other NHL, including mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas, and small lymphocytic leukemia/chronic lymphocytic leukemia (SLL/CLL). Common toxicities included diarrhea, fatigue, cytopenias, hypertension, and nausea. Objective response rates were 22% (5 of 23) for DLBCL, 10% (2 of 21) for FL, 55% (6 of 11) for SLL/CLL, and 11% (1/9) for MCL. Median progression-free survival was 4.2 months. Disrupting BCR-induced signaling by inhibiting Syk represents a novel and active therapeutic approach for NHL and SLL/CLL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00446095.
Project description:Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an incurable, typically aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, accounting for 4%-7% of newly diagnosed non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases. Chemoresistance commonly ensues in MCL, and patients with this heterogeneous disease invariably relapse, underscoring the unmet need for better therapies. Over the past few years, several novel agents with promising activity and unique mechanisms of action have been deemed effective in MCL. Bortezomib is a reversible proteasome inhibitor, approved as a single agent for patients with relapsed/refractory MCL who have received at least one prior line of therapy. Addition of bortezomib to chemoimmunotherapies has demonstrated good tolerability and superior efficacy, both in the upfront and salvage settings, and recently one such combination of bortezomib plus rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisone was approved as a frontline regimen in untreated patients with MCL. This review examines the role of bortezomib in a multitude of clinical settings and ongoing clinical trials designed to optimize its integration in the current treatment paradigms of MCL.