Antimuscarinic Discontinuation in Patients with Overactive Bladder in Nursing Homes: A Retrospective Study of Medicare Beneficiaries.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Although antimuscarinics form the first-line therapy in overactive bladder (OAB), little is known regarding antimuscarinic discontinuation among OAB patients in nursing homes. This study examined treatment patterns and predictors of antimuscarinic discontinuation among long-term nursing home (LTNH) residents with OAB. METHODS:The study cohort included LTNH residents (defined as residents staying???101 consecutive days) from the Minimum Data Set linked 2013-2015 Medicare claims data. Patients with OAB were defined by OAB-related claims and medication codes. Treatment patterns and discontinuation (medication gap???30 days) were characterized by examining OAB-specific antimuscarinics prescribed during LTNH stays. The Andersen Behavioral Model was used to identify predisposing, enabling and need factors that predict discontinuation. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to assess the unadjusted and adjusted times to discontinuation, respectively, among different antimuscarinics. RESULTS:The mean age of the study cohort (n?=?11,012) was 81.6 years (±?8.5), 74.6% were female, and 89.8% were non-Hispanic White. The mean duration of nursing home stay was 530.1 (±?268.4) days. The most commonly prescribed OAB-specific antimuscarinic was oxybutynin (69.8%). Overall, 66.5% of the study cohort discontinued the index antimuscarinic. Multivariable Cox PH regression analysis revealed that compared to LTNH residents who initiated treatment with oxybutynin, treatment discontinuation was lower with solifenacin or fesoterodin and discontinuation was more frequent when treatment was initiated with tolterodine, darifenacin or trospium compared with oxybutynin. In addition, several need factors (comorbidities, medication use and anticholinergic burden, etc.) were associated with antimuscarinic discontinuation. CONCLUSION:About two-thirds of LTNH residents with OAB discontinued their index antimuscarinic during their nursing home stay. There was significant variation in discontinuation based on the index antimuscarinic agent with lowest risk of discontiuation with solifenacin and fesoterodin. Concerted efforts to optimize antimuscarinic use are needed to improve the management of OAB in nursing homes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Overactive bladder (OAB) affects the lives of millions of people worldwide and antimuscarinics are the pharmacological treatment of choice. Meta-analyses of all currently used antimuscarinics for treating OAB found similar efficacy, making the choice dependent on their adverse event profiles. However, conventional meta-analyses often fail to quantify and compare adverse events across different drugs, dosages, formulations, and routes of administration. In addition, the assessment of the broad variety of adverse events is dissatisfying. Our aim was to compare adverse events of antimuscarinics using a network meta-analytic approach that overcomes shortcomings of conventional analyses. METHODS: Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialized Trials Register, previous systematic reviews, conference abstracts, book chapters, and reference lists of relevant articles were searched. Eligible studies included randomized controlled trials comparing at least one antimuscarinic for treating OAB with placebo or with another antimuscarinic, and adverse events as outcome measures. Two authors independently extracted data. A network meta-analytic approach was applied allowing for joint assessment of all adverse events of all currently used antimuscarinics while fully maintaining randomization. RESULTS: 69 trials enrolling 26'229 patients were included. Similar overall adverse event profiles were found for darifenacin, fesoterodine, transdermal oxybutynin, propiverine, solifenacin, tolterodine, and trospium chloride but not for oxybutynin orally administered when currently used starting dosages were compared. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed generally applicable transparent network meta-analytic approach summarizes adverse events in an easy to grasp way allowing straightforward benchmarking of antimuscarinics for treating OAB in clinical practice. Most currently used antimuscarinics seem to be equivalent first choice drugs to start the treatment of OAB except for oral oxybutynin dosages of ? 10 mg/d which may have more unfavorable adverse event profiles.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Oral oxybutynin has been associated with the development of cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to describe the use of oral oxybutynin versus other antimuscarinics (e.g., tolterodine, darifenacin, solifenacin, trospium, fesoterodine, transdermal oxybutynin) in older adults with documented cognitive impairment. METHODS:This is a population-based retrospective analysis of antimuscarinic new users aged ? 66 years from January 2008 to December 2011 (n = 42,886) using a 5% random sample of Medicare claims linked with Part D data. Cognitive impairment was defined as a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment, dementia, use of antidementia medication, and memory loss/drug-induced cognitive conditions in the year prior to the initial antimuscarinic claim. We used multivariable generalized linear models to assess indicators of cognitive impairment associated with initiation of oral oxybutynin versus other antimuscarinics after adjusting for comorbid conditions. RESULTS:In total, 33% received oral oxybutynin as initial therapy. Cognitive impairment was documented in 10,259 (23.9%) patients prior to antimuscarinic therapy. Patients with cognitive impairment were 5% more likely to initiate another antimuscarinic versus oral oxybutynin (relative risk [RR] 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.06). The proportion of patients with cognitive impairment initiated on oral oxybutynin increased from 24.1% in 2008 to 41.1% in 2011. The total cost of oral oxybutynin, in $US, year 2011 values, decreased by 10.5%, whereas the total cost of other antimuscarinics increased by 50.3% from 2008 to 2011. CONCLUSION:Our findings suggest opportunities for quality improvement of antimuscarinic prescribing in older adults, but this may be hampered by cost and formulary restrictions.
Project description:PURPOSE:To describe the use of antimuscarinic drugs to treat overactive bladder (OAB) in Denmark, Sweden, and the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS:We identified new users of darifenacin, fesoterodine, oxybutynin, solifenacin, tolterodine, and trospium aged 18 years or older from the Danish National Registers (2004-2012), the Swedish National Registers (2006-2012), and UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (2004-2012). Users were followed until disenrollment, cancer diagnosis, death, or study end. Treatment episodes, identified by linking consecutive prescriptions, were described with respect to duration, drug switch, and drug add-on. RESULTS:Mean age of OAB drug users was 66 years in Denmark (n = 72,917) and Sweden (n = 130,944), and 62 years in the UK (n = 119,912); 60% of Danish and Swedish patients and 70% of UK patients were female. In Denmark, of 224,680 treatment episodes, 39% were with solifenacin, and 35% with tolterodine; 2% were with oxybutynin. In Sweden, of 240,141 therapy episodes, 37% were with tolterodine and 35% with solifenacin; 5% were with oxybutynin. In the UK, of 245,800 treatment episodes, 28% were with oxybutynin, 27% with solifenacin, and 26% with tolterodine. In the three countries, 49%-52% of treatment episodes comprised one prescription and over 80% of episodes ended because of no refill; less than 20% ended because of a switch to another antimuscarinic. During the study years, we observed a change in OAB treatment preference from tolterodine to solifenacin. CONCLUSIONS:In these cohorts, persistence with antimuscarinic drugs was low. By 2012, the preferred drug was solifenacin; oxybutynin use was marginal in Nordic countries compared with the UK.
Project description:Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of solifenacin 5 mg/day versus other oral antimuscarinic agents used for overactive bladder (OAB) from a UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Study design: In a Markov model, hypothetical patients received solifenacin 5 mg/day or a comparator antimuscarinic, after which they could switch to an alternative antimuscarinic. The model estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER), expressed as cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) over a 5-year period. Results: Solifenacin 5 mg/day was the dominant treatment strategy (i.e., less costly and more effective) versus tolterodine extended-release (ER) 4 mg/day, fesoterodine 4 and 8 mg/day, oxybutynin ER 10 mg/day and solifenacin 10 mg/day, and was cost-effective (i.e., ICERs below the £30,000 per QALY threshold generally applied in the NHS) versus oxybutynin immediate release (IR) 10 mg/day, tolterodine IR 4 mg/day and trospium chloride 60 mg/day. The probability of solifenacin 5 mg/day being dominant/cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £30,000 per QALY was 57-98%. Conclusions: Solifenacin 5 mg/day appears to be a cost-effective strategy for the treatment of OAB over a 5-year timeframe compared with other oral antimuscarinic agents in the UK. These findings are important for decision-makers considering the economic implications of selecting treatments for OAB.
Project description:Our objective was to estimate the economic outcomes of using mirabegron versus antimuscarinics in the treatment of patients with overactive bladder (OAB) from a societal perspective in the UK.A Markov model was developed using Microsoft Excel®. The time horizon and cycle length are 12 and 1 months, respectively; and the hypothetical cohort size 100 patients. Antimuscarinic comparators are fesoterodine, oxybutynin extended release (ER) and immediate release (IR), solifenacin, tolterodine ER/IR, trospium ER/IR, darifenacin and flavoxate. Model inputs included real-world treatment patterns data, healthcare resource use (e.g. clinic visits) and direct and indirect costs (e.g. drug acquisition and productivity loss). Model outputs included patient disposition, healthcare resource use, drug acquisition costs and other treatment-related costs over a 1-year time horizon. A one-way sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the key drivers of the model.In a hypothetical cohort of 100 patients, total annual costs per patient were lower with mirabegron than with all antimuscarinics (£1270.84 vs. 1321.71-1607.48). Healthcare resource use was lower with mirabegron than with all antimuscarinics (115 vs. 119-123 general practitioner visits; 173 vs. 178-185 specialist visits and 0.0042 vs. 0.0050-0.0060 surgical operations) and fewer work hours were lost (4017 vs. 5114-6990 [all per 100 patients]). Sensitivity analysis showed the model was sensitive to persistence and switching rates, although the impact on the overall results was minimal.In the UK, using mirabegron to treat OAB may improve persistence and lead to reductions in switching treatment, healthcare resource utilization, productivity costs, and overall treatment costs versus antimuscarinics.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Persistence on-treatment with antimuscarinics in patients with overactive bladder (OAB) is reported to be sub-optimal. This retrospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study assessed treatment persistence with β3-adrenoceptor agonists (i.e. mirabegron) and antimuscarinics, both classes of OAB pharmacotherapy, in patients with OAB in Spain. METHODS:Adults who received mirabegron or an antimuscarinic in routine clinical practice (1 June-31 October 2014), were identified from anonymised prescription data within the Spanish Cegedim Electronic Medical Records database. The primary endpoint, treatment persistence (time to treatment discontinuation [TTD] and the proportion of patients remaining on-treatment after 12 months), was unadjusted for potential confounders. Multivariate Cox regression models of persistence, adjusted for baseline characteristics, were used to compare differences in treatment groups. Adjusted subgroup analyses (target OAB drug, age, treatment status and sex) and sensitivity analyses (extending the time used to define treatment discontinuation from 30 days [base-case] to 45, 60 or 90 days without prescription renewal) were also performed. RESULTS:Overall, 1798 patients received mirabegron (N = 1169) or an antimuscarinic (N = 629); the mean age was 66.42 years. Median TTD was longer for mirabegron versus antimuscarinics (90 vs 56 days) and a higher proportion of patients who received mirabegron were persistent after 12 months (20.2% vs 10.2%); multivariate analyses indicated significantly greater persistence with mirabegron versus antimuscarinics (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37-1.70; p < 0.001). Significant differences were also observed in subgroup analyses of mirabegron versus individual antimuscarinics (median TTD: 90 vs [range] 28-60 days; HR range: 1.21-2.17; p ≤ 0.013) and in all other subgroups assessed (p < 0.001). Sensitivity analysis showed that the median TTD for mirabegron increased by up to 31 days, and was significantly longer versus antimuscarinics across all adjusted periods (HR range: 1.43-1.53; all p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Patients with OAB in Spain who received mirabegron experienced longer persistence on-treatment than those who received antimuscarinics and the proportion of patients persistent on-treatment at 12 months with mirabegron was two-times higher versus antimuscarinics. These data may provide strategic insights for clinicians and policy makers involved in the management of OAB.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common condition, increasing with age and affecting quality of life. While numerous OAB drugs are available, persistence is low. We evaluated evidence published since 2012 to determine if newer drugs provided better efficacy and harm profiles. METHODS:We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library from 2012 to September 2018 using terms for included drugs and requested information from manufacturers of included drugs. We performed dual review of all systematic review processes, evaluated study quality, and conducted meta-analyses using random effects models. RESULTS:In addition to 31 older studies, we included 20 trials published since 2012 (N = 16,478; 4 good, 11 fair, and 5 poor quality). Where statistical differences were found, they were clinically small (reductions of < 0.5 episodes/day). Solifenacin plus mirabegron improved efficacy outcomes over monotherapy with either drug, but significantly increased constipation compared with solifenacin and dry mouth compared with mirabegron. Solifenacin reduced incontinence over mirabegron and tolterodine and urgency episodes over tolterodine. Mirabegron did not differ from tolterodine in efficacy but had significantly lower incidence of dry mouth than solifenacin or tolterodine. Fesoterodine showed significant improvements but also anticholinergic effects vs. tolterodine. Oxybutynin, solifenacin, and tolterodine had similar efficacy, but dry mouth led to greater discontinuation with oxybutynin. Blurred vision, cardiac arrhythmia, and dizziness were uncommon. CONCLUSION:New evidence confirms small, but clinically uncertain, differences among monotherapies and also between combination and monotherapy, regardless of statistical significance. While drugs mainly differed in incidence of dry mouth or constipation, none provided improved efficacy without increased harms.
Project description:Patient perception of overactive bladder (OAB) treatment outcomes can be a useful indicator of benefit and may help drive persistence on treatment, which is known to be poor in OAB. It remains unclear whether OAB patients dissatisfied with one antimuscarinic can achieve satisfaction with another and supporting data are limited. This study investigated patient-reported outcomes and clinical parameters during darifenacin treatment in OAB patients who expressed dissatisfaction with prior extended-release (ER) oxybutynin or tolterodine therapy (administered for >or= 1 week within the past year).This open-label study was conducted in darifenacin-naïve OAB patients. Patients received 7.5 mg darifenacin once daily with the possibility of up-titrating to 15 mg after 2 weeks, for up to 12 weeks. Efficacy parameters included the Patient's Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC), patient satisfaction with treatment, micturition frequency and number of urgency and urge urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes. Adverse events (AEs) were also recorded.In total, 497 patients were treated (84.1% women). Darifenacin treatment resulted in statistically significant improvements in PPBC scores, micturition frequency, urgency and UUI episodes from baseline at 12 weeks. The improvements were similar for patients previously treated with oxybutynin ER or tolterodine ER. More than 85% of patients expressed satisfaction with darifenacin. As noted in other studies, the most common AEs were dry mouth and constipation, but these infrequently resulted in treatment discontinuation, which was low overall.In this study, PPBC score and OAB symptoms were significantly improved, and satisfaction was high during treatment with darifenacin (7.5/15 mg) in patients who were dissatisfied with the previous antimuscarinic treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite several new medications being Food and Drug Administration-approved for overactive bladder (OAB) and new prescription drug payment programs, there are limited population-based data regarding OAB medication use among older adults. OBJECTIVES:To examine: (1) impacts of new medications and $4 generic programs on time trends for OAB-related medication dispensing for older adults in the United States; (2) differences by age and sex; and (3) temporal changes in OAB-related medication payments. METHODS:Using Truven Health Analytics' Medicare Supplemental Database (2000-2015), we analyzed OAB-related medication claims for 9,477,061 Medigap beneficiaries age 65-104. We estimated dispensing rates (per 1000 person-months), assessed dispensing trends using interrupted time-series methods, compared dispensing rates by age and sex, and summarized payment trends. RESULTS:From 2000 to 2015, 771,609 individuals filled 13,863,998 OAB-related prescriptions. During 2000-2007, 3 new extended-release medications became available (tolterodine, darifenacin, solifenacin), leading to increases in overall OAB-related dispensing rates by 19.1 (99% confidence interval, 17.0-21.2), a 92% increase since 2000; overall rates remained stable during 2008-2015. By 2015, the most common medications were oxybutynin (38%), solifenacin (20%), tolterodine (19%), and mirabegron (12%). Dispensing rates peaked at age 90 (rate, 53.4; 99% confidence interval, 53.1-53.7). Women had higher rates than men at all ages (average ratewomen-ratemen, 22.0). The gap between upper and lower percentiles of medication payments widened between 2008-2015; by 2015, 25% of reimbursed dispensed prescriptions had total payments exceeding $250. CONCLUSIONS:Medication-specific dispensing rates for OAB changed when new alternatives became available. Recent changes in utilization and cost of OAB medications have implications for clinical guidelines, pharmacoepidemiologic studies, and payment policies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To assess treatment persistence and adherence in men ?45 years of age with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), using prescription records from the Netherlands IMS Lifelink™ LRx database. METHODS:In this retrospective, observational cohort study, we identified men who received combination therapy with an ?-blocker plus an antimuscarinic (e.g. solifenacin or tolterodine) between 1 November 2013 and 31 October 2014. Treatment could be received as a fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet or as two drugs administered together (concomitant therapy), if both combination drugs were prescribed within 30 days. The primary objective was to assess treatment persistence, defined as the time from initiation of combination therapy until first discontinuation of the FDC or at least one of the drugs given concomitantly (i.e. ?30 days without prescription renewal). Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess persistence by antimuscarinic agent, and with different gap lengths used to define discontinuation (45, 60 and 90 days), respectively. RESULTS:A total of 1891 men received an ?-blocker plus an antimuscarinic (FDC, N = 665; concomitant therapy, N = 1226). Median time to discontinuation was significantly longer with FDC versus concomitant therapy (414 vs. 112 days; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.04, 95% confidence interval 1.77, 2.35; p < 0.0001). Persistence at 12 months (51.3% vs. 29.9%) was also significantly greater with FDC compared with concomitant therapy. Assessment of antimuscarinic subgroups showed that median time to discontinuation was longest with solifenacin combinations (214 days) compared with other antimuscarinic combinations (range, 47-164 days; adjusted HR range, 1.27-1.77, p = 0.037). No observable impact on treatment persistence was found by adjusting the gaps used to define discontinuation. DISCUSSION:This study of real-world evidence of men with LUTS/BPH treated with ?-blocker plus antimuscarinic combination therapy in the Netherlands showed that treatment persistence was significantly greater in those who received a FDC tablet compared with combination therapy given concomitantly. The study also shows that treatment persistence was extended in men who received combination therapy containing solifenacin compared with other antimuscarinics. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, these findings may be useful for prescribers, as improved persistence on-treatment may translate into improved outcomes for men with LUTS/BPH. Further study is warranted to establish the key drivers of persistence in men receiving combination therapy for LUTS/BPH.