Selection and Characterization of Staphylococcus hominis subsp. hominis WiKim0113 Isolated from Kimchi as a Starter Culture for the Production of Natural Pre-converted Nitrite.
ABSTRACT: Synthetic nitrite is considered an undesirable preservative for meat products; thus, controlling synthetic nitrite concentrations is important from the standpoint of food safety. We investigated 1,000 species of microorganisms from various kimchi preparations for their potential use as a starter culture for the production of nitrites. We used 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to select a starter culture with excellent nitrite and nitric oxide productivity, which we subsequently identified as Staphylococcus hominis subspecies hominis WiKim0113. That starter culture was grown in NaCl (up to 9%; w/v) at 10°C-40°C; its optimum growth was observed at 30°C at pH 4.0-10.0. It exhibited nonproteolytic activity and antibacterial activity against Clostridium perfringens, a bacterium that causes food poisoning symptoms. Analysis of Staphylococcus hominis subspecies hominis WiKim0113 with an API ZYM system did not reveal the presence of ?-glucuronidase, and tests of the starter culture on 5% (v/v) sheep blood agar showed no hemolytic activity. Our results demonstrated the remarkable stability of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus hominis subspecies hominis WiKim0113, especially in strain negative for staphylococcal enterotoxins and sensitive to clinically relevant antibiotics. Moreover, Staphylococcus hominis subspecies hominis WiKim0113 exhibited a 45.5% conversion rate of nitrate to nitrite, with nitrate levels reduced to 25% after 36 h of culturing in the minimal medium supplemented with nitrate (200 ppm). The results clearly demonstrated the safety and utility of Staphylococcus hominis subspecies hominis WiKim0113, and therefore its suitability as a starter culture.
Project description:Staphylococcus hominis is part of the normal human microbiome. Two subspecies, S. hominis hominis (Shh) and S. hominis novobiosepticus (Shn), have clinical significance. Forty-nine S. hominis isolates were analyzed by the MicroScan automated system, SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF methods, followed by partial sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene. The trehalose fermentation test, disk diffusion and broth microdilution tests were used to identify (novobiocin test) and access the susceptibility to oxacillin and vancomycin of isolates. The SCCmec elements and genomic diversity were evaluated by PCR and PFGE methods, respectively. Profiles of 28 (57%; 8 Shh and 20 Shn) isolates corroborated with the results found in all the applied methods of identification. The remaining 21 (43%) isolates were phenotypically identified as Shh by MicroScan; however, they were identified as Shn by SDS-PAGE and mass spectral, and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. Among 41 isolates identified as Shn by the molecular and mass spectrometry methods, 19 (41%) were novobiocin-sensitive, and the trehalose test indicated 11 positive isolates, which are considered atypical phenotypic results for this subspecies. In addition, 92.7% of the isolates identified as Shn by these methods carried mecA gene, while only 12.5% of the Shh isolates were positive. Together, the results highlighted the SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS methods as promising tools for discriminating S. hominis subspecies.
Project description:Staphylococcus hominis is a commensal resident of human skin and an opportunistic pathogen. The species is subdivided into two subspecies, S. hominis subsp. hominis and S. hominis subsp. novobiosepticus, which are difficult to distinguish. To investigate the evolution and epidemiology of S. hominis, a total of 108 isolates collected from 10 countries over 40 years were characterized by classical phenotypic methods and genetic methods. One nonsynonymous mutation in gyrB, scored with a novel SNP typing assay, had a perfect association with the novobiocin-resistant phenotype. A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme was developed from six housekeeping gene fragments, and revealed relatively high levels of genetic diversity and a significant impact of recombination on S. hominis population structure. Among the 40 sequence types (STs) identified by MLST, three STs (ST2, ST16 and ST23) were S. hominis subsp. novobiosepticus, and they distinguished between isolates from different outbreaks, whereas 37 other STs were S. hominis subsp. hominis, one of which was widely disseminated (ST1). A modified PCR assay was developed to detect the presence of ccrAB4 from the SCCmec genetic element. S. hominis subsp. novobiosepticus isolates were oxacillin-resistant and carriers of specific components of SCCmec (mecA class A, ccrAB3, ccrAB4, ccrC), whereas S. hominis subsp. hominis included both oxacillin-sensitive and -resistant isolates and a more diverse array of SCCmec components. Surprisingly, phylogenetic analyses indicated that S. hominis subsp. novobiosepticus may be a polyphyletic and, hence, artificial taxon. In summary, these results revealed the genetic diversity of S. hominis, the identities of outbreak-causing clones, and the evolutionary relationships between subspecies and clones. The pathogenic lifestyle attributed to S. hominis subsp. novobiosepticus may have originated on more than one occasion.
Project description:Staphylococcus hominis is frequently isolated from human skin and we hypothesize that it may protect the cutaneous barrier from opportunistic pathogens. We determined that S. hominis makes six unique auto inducing peptide (AIP) signals that inhibit the major virulence factor accessory gene regulator (agr) quorum sensing system of Staphylococcus aureus. We solved and confirmed the structures of three novel AIP signals in conditioned media by mass spectrometry, then validated synthetic AIP activity against all S. aureus agr classes. Synthetic AIPs also inhibited the conserved agr system in a related species, Staphylococcus epidermidis. We determined the distribution of S. hominis agr types on healthy human skin and found S. hominis agr-I and agr-II were highly represented across subjects. Further, synthetic AIP-II was protective in vivo against S. aureus-associated dermonecrotic or epicutaneous injury. Together, these findings demonstrate that a ubiquitous colonizer of human skin has a fundamentally protective role against opportunistic damage. Overall design: We analyzed bacterial RNA from Staphylococcus hominis (strain C5) treated for 8 hours with DMSO (vehicle) or the AgrA inhibitor Apicidin (Parlet. Et al. Cell Rep. 2019) to determine genes under the transcriptional regulation of AgrA. Each group (treatment or control) contains three biological replicates for a total of 6 samples.
Project description:Spiral organisms were isolated from an antral gastric mucosal biopsy specimen from a dyspeptic patient with gastritis. Only corkscrew-shaped organisms resembling "Gastrospirillum hominis" ("Helicobacter heilmannii") but no Helicobacter pylori-like organisms were seen in histological sections. H. pylori was not cultured from specimens from this patient. On the basis of biochemical reactions, morphology, ultrastructure, and 16S DNA sequencing, the isolated "G. hominis" was shown to be a true Helicobacter sp. very similar to Helicobacter felis and the "Gastrospirillum" but was separate from H. pylori. "G. hominis" is a pleomorphic gram-negative cork-screw-shaped, motile rod with 3 to 8 coils and a wavelength of about 1 micrometer. In contrast to H. pylori, it has up to 14 sheathed flagellar uni- or bipolar fibrils but no periplasmic fibrils. "G. hominis" grows under microaerobic conditions at 36 and 41 degrees C on 7% lysed, defibrinated horse blood agar plates within 3 to 7 days and can be subcultured under microaerobic but not under anaerobic conditions on media similar to those used for H. pylori and H. felis. The small translucent colonies were, in contrast to those of H. felis, indistinguishable from those of H. pylori. "G. hominis" is, like H. pylori and H. felis, motile, is oxidase, catalase, nitrite, nitrate, and urease positive, and produces alkaline phosphatase and arginine arylamidase. Like H. pylori and H. felis, it is sensitive to cephalothin (30-microgram disc), resistant to nalidixic acid (30-microgram disc), and sensitive to most other antibiotics. The 16S DNA sequence clusters "G. hominis" together with "Gastrospirillum," H. felis, Helicobacter bizzozeronii, Helicobacter salmonii, Helicobacter nemestrinae, Helicobacter acinonychis, and H. pylori.
Project description:Staphylococcus xylosus is one of the major starter cultures used for meat fermentation because of its crucial role in the reduction of nitrate to nitrite which contributes to color and flavor development. Despite longstanding use of these additives, their impact on the physiology of S. xylosus has not yet been explored. We present the first in situ global gene expression profile of S. xylosus in meat supplemented with nitrate and nitrite at the levels used in the meat industry. More than 600 genes of S. xylosus were differentially expressed at 24 or 72 h of incubation. They represent more than 20% of the total genes and let us to suppose that addition of nitrate and nitrite to meat leads to a global change in gene expression. This profile revealed that S. xylosus is subject to nitrosative stress caused by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generated from nitrate and nitrite. To overcome this stress, S. xylosus has developed several oxidative stress resistance mechanisms, such as modulation of the expression of several genes involved in iron homeostasis and in antioxidant defense. Most of which belong to the Fur and PerR regulons, respectively. S. xylosus has also counteracted this stress by developing DNA and protein repair. Furthermore, it has adapted its metabolic response-carbon and nitrogen metabolism, energy production and cell wall biogenesis-to the alterations produced by nitrosative stress.
Project description:Staphylococcus hominis is frequently isolated from human skin, and we hypothesize that it may protect the cutaneous barrier from opportunistic pathogens. We determined that S. hominis makes six unique autoinducing peptide (AIP) signals that inhibit the major virulence factor accessory gene regulator (<i>agr</i>) quorum sensing system of Staphylococcus aureus. We solved and confirmed the structures of three novel AIP signals in conditioned medium by mass spectrometry and then validated synthetic AIP activity against all S. aureus <i>agr</i> classes. Synthetic AIPs also inhibited the conserved <i>agr</i> system in a related species, Staphylococcus epidermidis. We determined the distribution of S. hominis <i>agr</i> types on healthy human skin and found S. hominis <i>agr</i>-I and <i>agr</i>-II were highly represented across subjects. Further, synthetic AIP-II was protective <i>in vivo</i> against S. aureus-associated dermonecrotic or epicutaneous injury. Together, these findings demonstrate that a ubiquitous colonizer of human skin has a fundamentally protective role against opportunistic damage. <b>IMPORTANCE</b> Human skin is home to a variety of commensal bacteria, including many species of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). While it is well established that the microbiota as a whole maintains skin homeostasis and excludes pathogens (i.e., colonization resistance), relatively little is known about the unique contributions of individual CoNS species to these interactions. Staphylococcus hominis is the second most frequently isolated CoNS from healthy skin, and there is emerging evidence to suggest that it may play an important role in excluding pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, from colonizing or infecting the skin. Here, we identified that S. hominis makes 6 unique peptide inhibitors of the S. aureus global virulence factor regulation system (<i>agr</i>). Additionally, we found that one of these peptides can prevent topical or necrotic S. aureus skin injury in a mouse model. Our results demonstrate a specific and broadly protective role for this ubiquitous, yet underappreciated skin commensal.
Project description:Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in fermented meat products and contributes to color formation by the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Nitrite is a food additive that is chemically turned to nitric oxide (NO) in meat but its safety has been questioned. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of NO synthase (NOS) of S. xylosus C2a to produce NO. For this purpose, a nos deletion mutant (?nos) in S. xylosus was constructed and NO production was evaluated in a test based on its ability to form nitrosomyoglobin and nitrosoheme. Production of NO was abrogated in the ?nos mutant under aerobic conditions and reduced about 35-40% comparing to the wild type C2a under limited oxygenation. This mutant was sensitive to oxidative stress. The expression of genes encoding catalase was modulated in the mutant with an up-regulation of katA and a down-regulation of katB and katC. The ?nos mutant displayed high colony pigmentation after prolonged growth on agar medium. Finally, the ?nos mutant showed no growth in minimal medium. Growth was not restored in the minimal medium by complementation with nos, but was restored by either addition of phenylalanine or complementation with pdt, a gene that encodes a prephenate dehydratase involved in phenylalanine biosynthesis and co-transcribed with nos. Our findings clearly demonstrate NOS-mediated NO production in S. xylosus, a meat-associated coagulase-negative Staphylococcus.
Project description:Objective. We compared laboratory developed real-time PCR assays for detection of Mycoplasma hominis and for detection and differentiation of Ureaplasma urealyticum and parvum to culture using genitourinary specimens submitted for M. hominis and Ureaplasma culture. Methods. 283 genitourinary specimens received in the clinical bacteriology laboratory for M. hominis and Ureaplasma species culture were evaluated. Nucleic acids were extracted using the Total Nucleic Acid Kit on the MagNA Pure 2.0. 5??L of the extracts were combined with 15??L of each of the two master mixes. Assays were performed on the LightCycler 480 II system. Culture was performed using routine methods. Results.??M. hominis PCR detected 38/42 M. hominis culture-positive specimens, as well as 2 that were culture negative (sensitivity, 90.5%; specificity, 99.2%). Ureaplasma PCR detected 139/144 Ureaplasma culture-positive specimens, as well as 9 that were culture negative (sensitivity, 96.5%; specificity, 93.6%). Of the specimens that tested positive for Ureaplasma species, U. urealyticum alone was detected in 33, U. parvum alone in 109, and both in 6. Conclusion. The described PCR assays are rapid alternatives to culture for detection of M. hominis and Ureaplasma species, and, unlike culture, the Ureaplasma assay easily distinguishes U. urealyticum from parvum.
Project description:Staphylococcus xylosus is one of the major starter cultures used for meat fermentation because of its crucial role in the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, which contributes to color and flavor development. Despite the long use of these additives, their impact on the physiology of S. xylosus has not yet been explored. We present the first in situ global gene expression profile of S. xylosus in meat supplemented with nitrate and nitrite. More than 600 genes of S. xylosus were differentially expressed at 24 or 72 hours of incubation. They represent more than 20% of the total genes and led us to suppose that addition of nitrate and nitrite to meat leads to a global change in gene expression. This profile revealed that S. xylosus is subject to nitrosative stress caused by reactive nitrogen species generated from nitrate and nitrite. To overcome this stress, S. xylosus has developed several oxidative stress resistance mechanisms, such as modulation of the expression of several genes involved in iron homeostasis and in antioxidant defense. Most of these genes belong to the Fur and PerR regulons respectively. S. xylosus has also counteracted this stress by developing DNA and protein repair. Furthermore, it has adapted its metabolic responseM-bM-^@M-^Tcarbon and nitrogen metabolism, energy production and cell wall biogenesisM-bM-^@M-^Tto the alterations produced by nitrosative stress. Microarray was used to evaluate modification in the transcriptome of S. xylosus C2a strain in the presence (N) or absence (V) of nitroso compounds. Three biological replicates collected on separate days for each meat matrix and labelled following a dye-switch design; for each condition one labeling in Cy3 and one in Cy5.
Project description:The genotyping of numerous isolates of Cryptosporidium parasites has led to the definition of new species and a better understanding of the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis. A single-locus genotyping method based on the partial sequence of a polymorphic sporozoite surface glycoprotein gene (GP60) has been favored by many for surveying Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis populations. Since genetically distinct Cryptosporidium parasites recombine in nature, it is unclear whether single-locus classifications can adequately represent intraspecies diversity. To address this question, we investigated whether multilocus genotypes of C. parvum and C. hominis cluster according to the GP60 genotype. C. hominis multilocus genotypes did not segregate according to this marker, indicating that for this species the GP60 sequence is not a valid surrogate for multilocus typing methods. In contrast, in C. parvum the previously described "anthroponotic" genotype was confirmed as a genetically distinct subspecies cluster characterized by a diagnostic GP60 allele. However, as in C. hominis, several C. parvum GP60 alleles did not correlate with distinct subpopulations. Given the rarity of some C. parvum GP60 alleles in our sample, the existence of additional C. parvum subgroups with unique GP60 alleles cannot be ruled out. We conclude that with the exception of genotypically distinct C. parvum subgroups, multilocus genotyping methods are needed to characterize C. parvum and C. hominis populations. Unless parasite virulence is controlled at the GP60 locus, attempts to find associations within species or subspecies between GP60 and phenotype are unlikely to be successful.