Non-invasive early detection of cancer four years before conventional diagnosis using a blood test.
ABSTRACT: Early detection has the potential to reduce cancer mortality, but an effective screening test must demonstrate asymptomatic cancer detection years before conventional diagnosis in a longitudinal study. In the Taizhou Longitudinal Study (TZL), 123,115 healthy subjects provided plasma samples for long-term storage and were then monitored for cancer occurrence. Here we report the preliminary results of PanSeer, a noninvasive blood test based on circulating tumor DNA methylation, on TZL plasma samples from 605 asymptomatic individuals, 191 of whom were later diagnosed with stomach, esophageal, colorectal, lung or liver cancer within four years of blood draw. We also assay plasma samples from an additional 223 cancer patients, plus 200 primary tumor and normal tissues. We show that PanSeer detects five common types of cancer in 88% (95% CI: 80-93%) of post-diagnosis patients with a specificity of 96% (95% CI: 93-98%), We also demonstrate that PanSeer detects cancer in 95% (95% CI: 89-98%) of asymptomatic individuals who were later diagnosed, though future longitudinal studies are required to confirm this result. These results demonstrate that cancer can be non-invasively detected up to four years before current standard of care.
Project description:BACKGROUND:T-zone lymphoma (TZL), an indolent disease in older dogs, comprises approximately 12% of lymphomas in dogs. TZL cells exhibit an activated phenotype, indicating the disease may be antigen-driven. Prior research found that asymptomatic aged Golden Retrievers (GLDRs) commonly have populations of T-zone-like cells (phenotypically identical to TZL) of undetermined significance (TZUS). OBJECTIVE:To evaluate associations of inflammatory conditions, TZL and TZUS, using a case-control study of GLDRs. ANIMALS:TZL cases (n = 140), flow cytometrically diagnosed, were identified through Colorado State University's Clinical Immunology Laboratory. Non-TZL dogs, recruited through either a database of owners interested in research participation or the submitting clinics of TZL cases, were subsequently flow cytometrically classified as TZUS (n = 221) or control (n = 147). METHODS:Health history, signalment, environmental, and lifestyle factors were obtained from owner-completed questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, obtaining separate estimates for TZL and TZUS (versus controls). RESULTS:Hypothyroidism (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), omega-3 supplementation (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.6), and mange (OR, 5.5; 95% CI, 1.4-21.1) were significantly associated with TZL. Gastrointestinal disease (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 0.98-5.8) had nonsignificantly increased TZL odds. Two shared associations for TZL and TZUS were identified: bladder infection or calculi (TZL OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 0.96-12.7; TZUS OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.9-13.7) and eye disease (TZL OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 0.97-5.2; TZUS OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.99-3.8). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE:These findings may elucidate pathways involved in TZUS risk and progression from TZUS to TZL. Further investigation into the protective association of omega-3 supplements is warranted.
Project description:Identifying biomarkers in body fluids may improve the noninvasive detection of colorectal cancer. Previously, we identified N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 4 (NDRG4) and GATA binding protein 5 (GATA5) methylation as promising biomarkers for colorectal cancer in stool DNA. Here, we examined the utility of NDRG4, GATA5, and two additional markers [Forkhead box protein E1 (FOXE1) and spectrin repeat containing nuclear envelope 1 (SYNE1)] promoter methylation as biomarkers in plasma DNA. Quantitative methylation-specific PCR was performed on plasma DNA from 220 patients with colorectal cancer and 684 noncancer controls, divided in a training set and a test set. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to measure the area under the curve of GATA5, NDRG4, SYNE1, and FOXE1 methylation. Functional assays were performed in SYNE1 and FOXE1 stably transfected cell lines. The sensitivity of NDRG4, GATA5, FOXE1, and SYNE1 methylation in all stages of colorectal cancer (154 cases, 444 controls) was 27% [95% confidence interval (CI), 20%-34%), 18% (95% CI, 12%-24%), 46% (95% CI, 38%-54%), and 47% (95% CI, 39%-55%), with a specificity of 95% (95% CI, 93%-97%), 99% (95% CI, 98%-100%), 93% (95% CI, 91%-95%), and 96% (95% CI, 94%-98%), respectively. Combining SYNE1 and FOXE1, increased the sensitivity to 56% (95% CI, 48%-64%), while the specificity decreased to 90% (95% CI, 87%-93%) in the training set and to 58% sensitivity (95% CI, 46%-70%) and 91% specificity (95% CI, 80%-100%) in a test set (66 cases, 240 controls). SYNE1 overexpression showed no major differences in cell proliferation, migration, and invasion compared with controls. Overexpression of FOXE1 significantly decreased the number of colonies in SW480 and HCT116 cell lines. Overall, our data suggest that SYNE1 and FOXE1 are promising markers for colorectal cancer detection.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The diterpene ester tonantzitlolone (TZL) is a natural product, which displays cytotoxicity towards certain types of cancer cell such as renal cell carcinoma cells. The effect is similar to that of (-)-englerin A, and so, although it is chemically distinct, we investigated whether TZL also targets transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels of the 1, 4 and 5 type (TRPC1/4/5 channels). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:The effects of TZL on renal cell carcinoma A498 cells natively expressing TRPC1 and TRPC4, modified HEK293 cells overexpressing TRPC4, TRPC5, TRPC4-TRPC1 or TRPC5-TRPC1 concatemer, TRPC3 or TRPM2, or CHO cells overexpressing TRPV4 were studied by determining changes in intracellular Ca2+ , or whole-cell or excised membrane patch-clamp electrophysiology. KEY RESULTS:TZL induced an elevation of intracellular Ca2+ in A498 cells, similar to that evoked by englerin A. TZL activated overexpressed channels with EC50 values of 123 nM (TRPC4), 83 nM (TRPC5), 140 nM (TRPC4-TRPC1) and 61 nM (TRPC5-TRPC1). These effects of TZL were reversible on wash-out and potently inhibited by the TRPC1/4/5 inhibitor Pico145. TZL activated TRPC5 channels when bath-applied to excised outside-out but not inside-out patches. TZL failed to activate endogenous store-operated Ca2+ entry or overexpressed TRPC3, TRPV4 or TRPM2 channels in HEK 293 cells. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:TZL is a novel potent agonist for TRPC1/4/5 channels, which should be useful for testing the functionality of this type of ion channel and understanding how TRPC1/4/5 agonists achieve selective cytotoxicity against certain types of cancer cell.
Project description:Development of molecular markers that help to identify high-risk individuals or diagnose indeterminate pulmonary nodules could have a major impact on lung cancer clinical management. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic potential of a newly-developed ELISA that specifically detects complement C4d. We measured this marker in five independent cohorts of plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage samples from lung cancer patients and controls. In case-control studies, the area under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of lung cancer was 0.82 (95%CI = 0.72-0.92) in plasma samples, and 0.80 (95%CI = 0.69 to 0.90) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. In a set of plasma samples from the MILD CT-screening trial, the assay was unable to discriminate between asymptomatic high-risk individuals with or without early stage lung cancer. On the contrary, in two independent cohorts of individuals with indeterminate pulmonary nodules, plasma samples from patients with lung cancer nodules presented higher levels of C4d than those from patients with benign nodules. Using a target population of patients with 8 to 30 mm nodules, the test identified likely benign lung nodules with 84% negative predictive value and 54% positive predictive value, at 89% specificity and 44% sensitivity. In conclusion, the specific determination of C4d may serve as an adjunct to current clinical practice in the diagnosis of indeterminate pulmonary nodules.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 accounts for a larger share of cervical cancer and has been a major health problem worldwide for decades. The progression of initial infection to cervical cancer has been linked to viral sequence properties; however, the role of HPV16 variants in the risk of cervical carcinogenesis, especially with longitudinal follow-up, is not fully understood in China.<h4>Methods</h4>We aimed to investigate the genetic variability of HPV16 E6 and E7 oncogenes in isolates from cervical exfoliated cells. Between December 2012 and December 2014, a total of 310 single HPV16-positive samples were selected from women living in the Taizhou area, China. Sequences of all E6 and E7 oncogenes were analysed by PCR-sequencing assay. Detailed sequence comparison, genetic heterogeneity analyses and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree construction were performed with BioEdit Sequence Alignment Editor and MEGA X software. Data for cytology tests and histological diagnoses were obtained from our Taizhou Area Study with longitudinal follow-up for at least 5 years. The relationship between HPV16 variants and cervical carcinogenesis risk was analysed by the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test.<h4>Results</h4>In this study, we obtained 64 distinct variation patterns with the accession GenBank numbers MT681266-MT681329. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 98.3% of HPV16 variants belong to lineage A, in which the A4 (Asian) sublineage was dominant (64.8%), followed by A2 (12.1%), A1 (11.4%), and A3 (10.0%). The A4 (Asian) sublineage had a higher risk of CIN2+ than the A1-3 (European) sublineages (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.04-6.97, P < 0.05). Furthermore, nucleotide variation in HPV16 E6 T178G is associated with the development of cervical cancer.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These data could provide novel insights into the role of HPV16 variants in cervical carcinogenesis risk in China.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recurrent mutations in the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene (C228T and C250T) detected in tumours and cells shed into urine of urothelial cancer (UC) patients are putative biomarkers for UC detection and monitoring. However, the possibility of detecting these mutations in cell-free circulating DNA (cfDNA) in blood and urine, or DNA from urinary exfoliated cells (cellDNA) with a single-gene sensitive assay has never been tested in a case-control setting. METHODS:We developed a single-plex assay (UroMuTERT) for the detection of low-abundance TERT promoter mutations. We tested 93 primary and recurrent UC cases and 94 controls recruited in France (blood, urine samples and tumours for the cases), and 50 primary UC cases and 50 controls recruited in Portugal (urinary exfoliated cell samples). We compared our assay with urine cytology. FINDINGS:In the French series, C228T or C250T were detected in urinary cfDNA or cellDNA in 81 cases (87·1%; 95% CI 78·6-93·2), and five controls (Specificity 94·7%; 95%CI 88·0-98·3), with 98·6% (95% CI 92·5-99·96) concordance in matched tumours. Detection rate in plasma cfDNA among cases was 7·1%. The UroMuTERT sensitivity was (i) highest for urinary cfDNA and cellDNA combined, (ii) consistent across primary and recurrent cases, tumour stages and grades, (iii) higher for low-risk non-muscle invasive UC (86·1%) than urine cytology (23·0%) (P < 0·0001) and (iv) 93·9% when combined with cytology. In the Portuguese series - the sensitivity and specificity for detection of UC with urinary cellDNA was 68·0% (95% CI 53·3-80·5) and 98·0% (95% CI 89·3-100·0). INTERPRETATION:TERT promoter mutations detected by the UroMuTERT assay in urinary DNA (cfDNA or cellDNA) show excellent sensitivity and specificity for the detection of UC, significantly outperforming that of urine cytology notably for detection of low-grade early stages UC. FUND: French Cancer League; French Foster Research in Molecular Biology and European Commission FP7 Marie Curie COFUND.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The frequency of asymptomatic infection with Ebola virus is unclear: previous estimates vary and there is no standard test. Asymptomatic infection with Ebola virus could contribute to population immunity, reducing spread. If people with asymptomatic infection are infectious it could explain re-emergences of Ebola virus disease (EVD) without known contact. METHODS:We validated a new oral fluid anti-glycoprotein IgG capture assay among survivors from Kerry Town Ebola Treatment Centre and controls from communities unaffected by EVD in Sierra Leone. We then assessed the seroprevalence of antibodies to Ebola virus in a cross-sectional study of household contacts of the survivors. All household members were interviewed. Two reactive tests were required for a positive result, with a third test to resolve any discrepancies. FINDINGS:The assay had a specificity of 100% (95% CI 98·9-100; 339 of 339 controls tested negative) and sensitivity of 95·9% (89·8-98·9; 93 of 97 PCR-confirmed survivors tested positive). Of household contacts not diagnosed with EVD, 47·6% (229 of 481) had high level exposure (direct contact with a corpse, body fluids, or a case with diarrhoea, vomiting, or bleeding). Among the contacts, 12·0% (95% CI 6·1-20·4; 11 of 92) with symptoms at the time other household members had EVD, and 2·6% (1·2-4·7; 10 of 388) with no symptoms tested positive. Among asymptomatic contacts, seropositivity was weakly correlated with exposure level. INTERPRETATION:This new highly specific and sensitive assay showed asymptomatic infection with Ebola virus was uncommon despite high exposure. The low prevalence suggests asymptomatic infection contributes little to herd immunity in Ebola, and even if infectious, would account for few transmissions. FUNDING:Wellcome Trust ERAES Programme, Save the Children.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Tools for plague diagnosis and surveillance are not always available and affordable in most of the countries affected by the disease. Yersinia pestis isolation for confirmation is time-consuming and difficult to perform under field conditions. Serologic tests like ELISA require specific equipments not always available in developing countries. In addition to the existing rapid test for antigen detection, a rapid serodiagnostic assay may be useful for plague control. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed two rapid immunochromatography-based tests for the detection of antibodies directed against F1 antigen of Y. pestis. The first test, SIgT, which detects total Ig (IgT) anti-F1 in several species (S) (human and reservoirs), was developed in order to have for the field use an alternative method to ELISA. The performance of the SIgT test was evaluated with samples from humans and animals for which ELISA was used to determine the presumptive diagnosis of plague. SIgT test detected anti-F1 Ig antibodies in humans with a sensitivity of 84.6% (95% CI: 0.76-0.94) and a specificity of 98% (95% CI: 0.96-1). In evaluation of samples from rodents and other small mammals, the SlgT test had a sensitivity of 87.8% (95% CI: 0.80-0.94) and a specificity of 90.3% (95% CI: 0.86-0.93). Improved performance was obtained with samples from dogs, a sentinel animal, with a sensitivity of 93% (95% CI: 0.82-1) and a specificity of 98% (95% CI: 0.95-1.01). The second test, HIgM, which detects human (H) IgM anti-F1, was developed in order to have another method for plague diagnosis. Its sensitivity was 83% (95% CI: 0.75-0.90) and its specificity about 100%. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The SIgT test is of importance for surveillance because it can detect Ig antibodies in a range of reservoir species. The HIgM test could facilitate the diagnosis of plague during outbreaks, particularly when only a single serum sample is available.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To assess the accuracy of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes in identifying patients diagnosed with incident carcinoma in situ and invasive breast cancer in three Italian administrative databases.<h4>Design</h4>A diagnostic accuracy study comparing ICD-9-CM codes for carcinoma in situ (233.0) and for invasive breast cancer (174.x) with medical chart (as a reference standard). Case definition: (1) presence of a primary nodular lesion in the breast and (2) cytological or histological documentation of cancer from a primary or metastatic site.<h4>Setting</h4>Administrative databases from Umbria Region, Azienda Sanitaria Locale (ASL) Napoli 3 Sud (NA) and Friuli VeneziaGiulia (FVG) Region.<h4>Participants</h4>Women with breast carcinoma in situ (n=246) or invasive breast cancer (n=384) diagnosed (in primary position) between 2012 and 2014.<h4>Outcome measures</h4>Sensitivity and specificity for codes 233.0 and 174.x.<h4>Results</h4>For invasive breast cancer the sensitivities were 98% (95% CI 93% to 99%) for Umbria, 96% (95% CI 91% to 99%) for NA and 100% (95% CI 97% to 100%) for FVG. Specificities were 90% (95% CI 82% to 95%) for Umbria, 91% (95% CI 83% to 96%) for NA and 91% (95% CI 84% to 96%) for FVG.For carcinoma in situ the sensitivities were 100% (95% CI 93% to 100%) for Umbria, 100% (95% CI 95% to 100%) for NA and 100% (95% CI 96% to 100%) for FVG. Specificities were 98% (95% CI 93% to 100%) for Umbria, 86% (95% CI 78% to 92%) for NA and 90% (95% CI 82% to 95%) for FVG.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Administrative healthcare databases from Umbria, NA and FVG are accurate in identifying hospitalised news cases of carcinoma of the breast. The proposed case definition is a powerful tool to perform research on large populations of newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer.