Glyceryl trinitrate in first-episode psychosis unmedicated with antipsychotics: A randomised controlled pilot study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:There is a pressing need for new classes of treatment for psychosis. A key therapeutic target for novel compounds is the NMDA receptor, which may be modulated by nitric oxide donors such as sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Recent studies of SNP in patients with psychosis have mixed results, and the drug has to be administered intravenously. Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is a well-established cardiovascular medicine that is also a nitric oxide donor, and can be given orally. AIMS:We explored the safety and potential effects of GTN in unmedicated patients with a first episode of psychosis. METHODS:This was a single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial from December 2016 to April 2019 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02906553). Patients received 3 × sprays of GTN or placebo for three consecutive days, and were re-assessed on Days 1, 2, 3 and 7. The primary outcome was cognition (Jumping to Conclusions task), secondary outcomes were symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)), verbal memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning task), and mood (Bond-Lader Visual Analogue Scales). RESULTS:Nineteen patients were randomised, and 13 participants were included in the analyses. Compared with placebo, GTN was well tolerated, but was not associated with significant effects on cognition, symptoms, or mood. Bayesian statistics indicate that our results were 2× more likely under the null hypothesis than the alternative hypothesis, providing anecdotal evidence that GTN does not improve psychotic symptoms. CONCLUSIONS:We found no indication of an effect of GTN on symptoms of psychosis or cognition.
Project description:Abstract Background There is a pressing need for new classes of treatment for psychosis. A key therapeutic target for novel compounds is the NMDA receptor, which may be modulated by nitric oxide donors such as sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Recent early phase studies of SNP in patients with psychosis have had mixed results, and the drug has to be administered intravenously. GTN is a well-established cardiovascular medicine that is also a nitric oxide donor, and can be given orally. We explored the safety and effectiveness of GTN in unmedicated patients with a first episode of psychosis. Methods A single-centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted from December 2016 to April 2019 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02906553). Patients with a first episode of psychosis were recruited from the South London and Maudsley NHS Trust, London, UK. Nineteen patients were randomised to receive 3 x sprays of GTN or placebo for 3 consecutive days, and re-assessed on Day 7. Thirteen participants were included in the final analyses. At each assessment point, symptom levels were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and cognitive performance was evaluated using the Jumping to Conclusions (JTC) and the Hopkins Verbal Learning (HVLT) tasks. Results Compared to placebo, GTN was well tolerated, but it was not associated with significant effects on either psychotic symptoms or cognition. Bayesian statistics indicated with moderate confidence that GTN does not have a therapeutic effect. Discussion This study indicates that nitric oxide donors are not therapeutically beneficial in psychosis. It also highlights the difficulties in recruiting unmedicated patients with psychosis. Future clinical trials would benefit from frameworks built into clinical services, to signpost patients not responding to medication and those discontinuing medication to clinical trials of alternatives.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To produce a best evidence synthesis of the clinical effects of topical glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) in the treatment of tendinopathies. DESIGN:A systematic review of published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of the use of GTN in patients with tendinopathy. DATA SOURCES:MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus and CINAHL from database inception to January 2018. METHODS:We examined RCTs comparing the effects of topical GTN with either placebo or other treatments on tendinopathy. Overall quality of each eligible study was determined based on a combined assessment of internal validity, external validity and precision. The level of evidence for each assessed parameter was rated based on the system by van Tulder et al. RESULTS:A total of 10 eligible RCTs were identified including patients with tendinopathy of the rotator cuff (n=4), wrist extensors (n=3), Achilles (n=2) and patellar (n=1) tendons. For all tendinopathies, improvements in pain were significant when comparing GTN versus placebo in the short term (<8 weeks; poor evidence). Significant improvements in midterm outcomes for treatment with GTN versus placebo included the following: patient satisfaction (strong evidence); chances of being asymptomatic with activities of daily living (strong evidence); range of movement (moderate evidence); strength (moderate evidence); pain (at night and with activity; poor evidence) and local tenderness (poor evidence). Patients treated with topical GTN reported a higher incidence of headaches than those who received placebo (moderate evidence). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:Treatment of tendinopathies with topical GTN for up to 6 months appears to be superior to placebo and may therefore be a useful adjunct to the treating healthcare professions.
Project description:Background. Nitric oxide (NO) donors are a candidate treatment for acute stroke and two trials have suggested that they might improve outcome if administered within 4-6 hours of stroke onset. We assessed the safety and efficacy of NO donors using individual patient data (IPD) from completed trials. Methods. Randomised controlled trials of NO donors in patients with acute or subacute stroke were identified and IPD sought from the trialists. The effect of NO donor versus control on functional outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin scale (mRS) and death, by time to randomisation. Secondary outcomes included measures of disability, mood, and quality of life. Results. Five trials (4,197 participants) were identified, all involving glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). Compared with control, GTN lowered blood pressure by 7.4/3.3?mmHg. At day 90, GTN did not alter any clinical measures. However, in 312 patients randomised within 6 hours of stroke onset, GTN was associated with beneficial shifts in the mRS (odds ratio (OR) 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34-0.78) and reduced death (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.14-0.78). Conclusions. NO donors do not alter outcome in patients with recent stroke. However, when administered within 6 hours, NO donors might improve outcomes in both ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke.
Project description:AIM: To investigate the time course of the hypotensive interaction between sildenafil and glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). METHODS: Two double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover studies were performed. Subjects were challenged with sublingual GTN 400 microg at different times after oral sildenafil 100 mg. After each GTN challenge frequent measures of blood pressure (BP) were made. In the first study GTN was given 1-48 h after sildenafil/placebo to 33 healthy men. In the second study GTN was given 1-8 h after sildenafil/placebo to 20 men with stable angina. RESULTS: In healthy men there was a greater mean maximum reduction in BP with sildenafil/GTN than with placebo/GTN only at 1 h. In angina patients, there was a greater mean maximum reduction in BP with sildenafil/GTN than with placebo/GTN for up to 8 h. The mean (95% confidence interval) differences in maximum systolic BP reduction (mmHg) at 1, 4, 6 and 8 h were -16 (-12, -21), -12 (-4, -20), -6 (1, -12) and -9 (-3, -15), all P < 0.05 except at 6 h (NS). At 6 and 8 h the interaction was not more than additive, and hypotensive symptoms did not occur. CONCLUSIONS: In men with angina there is an interaction on BP reduction between sildenafil and GTN for >or= 8 h after sildenafil administration, but this is no more than additive from 6 h. These data may be helpful to clinicians who are considering the use of GTN in patients presenting with angina who have received sildenafil within 24 h.
Project description:Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at markedly elevated risk for schizophrenia-related disorders. Stability, emergence, remission and persistence of psychosis-spectrum symptoms were investigated longitudinally. Demographic, clinical and cognitive predictors of psychosis were assessed. Prospective follow-up over 2.8 years was undertaken in 75 individuals with 22q11DS aged 8-35 years. Mood, anxiety, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders and psychosis-spectrum symptoms were assessed with the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia and Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS). Four domains of cognition were evaluated with the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (executive functioning, memory, complex cognition and social cognition). Psychotic disorder or clinically significant SOPS-positive ratings were consistently absent in 35%, emergent in 13%, remitted in 22% and persistent in 31% of participants. Negative symptoms and functional impairment were found to be predictive of the emergence of positive psychosis-spectrum symptoms and to reflect ongoing deficits after remission of positive symptoms. Dysphoric mood and anxiety were predictive of emergent and persistent-positive psychosis-spectrum symptoms. Lower baseline global cognition and greater global cognitive decline were predictive of psychosis-spectrum outcomes but no particular cognitive domain stood out as being significantly more discriminating than others. Our findings suggest that negative symptoms, functioning and dysphoric mood are important predictors of psychosis risk in this population.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Topical application of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) ointment heals chronic anal fissures, providing an alternative to the traditional first line treatment of surgical sphincterotomy. AIMS: To determine the most effective dose of topical GTN for treatment of chronic anal fissures and to assess long term results. METHODS: Seventy consecutive patients with chronic anal fissure, were randomly allocated to eight weeks treatment with placebo, 0.2% GTN three times daily, or GTN starting at 0.2% with weekly 0.1% increments to a maximum of 0.6%, in a double blind study. RESULTS: After eight weeks fissure had healed in 67% of patients treated with GTN compared with 32% with placebo (p=0.008). No significant difference was seen between the two active treatments. Headaches were reported by 72% of patients on GTN compared with 27% on placebo (p<0.001). Maximum anal sphincter pressure reduced significantly from baseline by GTN treatment (p=0.02), but not placebo (p=0.8). Mean pain scores were lower after treatment with GTN compared with placebo (NS). Of fissures healed with placebo 43% recurred, compared with 33% of those healed with 0.2% GTN and 25% healed with escalating dose GTN (p=0.7). CONCLUSIONS: GTN is a good first line treatment for two thirds of patients with anal fissure. An escalating dose of GTN does not result in earlier healing. Significant recurrence of symptomatic fissures and a high incidence of headaches are limitations of the treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide is a major neurotransmitter in non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) pathways. NANC inhibitory innervation has been shown in human gall bladder muscle in vitro; the role of nitric oxide in human gall bladder emptying however is undefined. AIMS: To study the effect of glyceryl trinitrate, a nitric oxide donor, on gall bladder emptying in healthy subjects using a randomised, double blind, cross-over, placebo controlled design. METHODS: Ultrasonographic gall bladder volume was measured in the fasting state in eight healthy volunteers after randomised administration of either glyceryl trinitrate 1200 micrograms buccal spray or placebo spray. On two further occasions, after randomised administration of either glyceryl trinitrate 1200 micrograms buccal spray or placebo spray, gall bladder volumes were also measured after a liquid test meal. RESULTS: Glyceryl trinitrate significantly increased fasting gall bladder volume to a mean of 114% (SEM 5%) of pretreatment volume (p = 0.039). Glyceryl trinitrate also significantly impaired gall bladder emptying between five and 40 minutes postprandially. Gall bladder ejection fraction was also reduced after glyceryl trinitrate compared with placebo (43 (6.9)% versus 68.4 (6.5)%, p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that glyceryl trinitrate produces gall bladder dilatation in the fasting state and reduces postprandial gall bladder emptying, suggesting that nitric oxide mechanisms may be operative in the human gall bladder in vivo.
Project description:While accumulating evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency may be involved in the risk to develop schizophrenia and its outcome, there are no studies on vitamin D supplementation in this context. We sought to assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on psychiatric, cognitive and metabolic parameters in chronic clozapine-treated schizophrenia patients.This eight-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, recruited schizophrenia patients who had been maintained on clozapine treatment for at least 18weeks and had low levels of vitamin D (<75nmol/l) and total PANSS scores >70 (to ascertain the presence of residual symptoms). Patients were randomly allocated to either weekly oral drops of vitamin D (14,000IU) or placebo and subsequently assessed at two-week intervals for psychosis severity, mood, cognition and metabolic profile.Twenty four patients were randomly assigned to vitamin D (aged 39.4±9.6years, 75% males) and the other 23 patients to the placebo arm (aged 42.5±11.2years, 60.9% males). After eight weeks, the vitamin D group exhibited a significant increase in vitamin D levels (31.4 vs -0.4nmol/l, p<0.0001). There was no significant effect of vitamin D on psychotic, depressive or metabolic parameters. However, in the vitamin D group, there was a trend towards improved cognition (effect size=0.17, significance lost following Bonferroni correction).Vitamin D supplementation was associated with a trend towards improved cognition, but did not affect psychosis, mood or metabolic status. It is possible that the robust decrease in the PANSS scores in both groups may have obscured an effect of vitamin D supplementation.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Infusion of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a donor of nitric oxide, induces immediate headache in humans that in migraineurs is followed by a delayed migraine attack. In order to achieve increased knowledge of mechanisms activated during GTN-infusion this present study aims to investigate transcriptional responses to GTN-infusion in the rat trigeminal ganglia. METHODS:Rats were infused with GTN or vehicle and trigeminal ganglia were isolated either 30 or 90 minutes post infusion. RNA sequencing was used to investigate transcriptomic changes in response to the treatment. Furthermore, we developed a novel method for Gene Set Analysis Of Variance (GSANOVA) to identify gene sets associated with transcriptional changes across time. RESULTS:15 genes displayed significant changes in transcription levels in response to GTN-infusion. Ten of these genes showed either sustained up- or down-regulation in the 90-minute period after infusion. The GSANOVA analysis demonstrate enrichment of pathways pointing towards an increase in immune response, signal transduction, and neuroplasticity in response to GTN-infusion. Future functional in-depth studies of these mechanisms are expected to increase our understanding of migraine pathogenesis.
Project description:Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) using transient limb ischemia/reperfusion has been reported to reduce perioperative myocardial injury in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and/or valve surgery. The role of intravenous glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) therapy administered during cardiac surgery as a cardioprotective agent and whether it interferes with RIC cardioprotection is not clear and is investigated in the ERIC-GTN trial ( http://www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01864252). The ERIC-GTN trial is a single-site, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Consenting adult patients (age > 18 years) undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting ± valve surgery with blood cardioplegia will be eligible for inclusion. Two hundred sixty patients will be randomized to 1 of 4 treatment groups following anesthetic induction: (1) RIC alone, a RIC protocol comprising three 5-minute cycles of simultaneous upper-arm and thigh cuff inflation/deflation followed by an intravenous (IV) placebo infusion; (2) GTN alone, a simulated sham RIC protocol followed by an IV GTN infusion; (3) RIC + GTN, a RIC protocol followed by an IV GTN infusion; and (4) neither RIC nor GTN, a sham RIC protocol followed by IV placebo infusion. The primary endpoint will be perioperative myocardial injury as quantified by the 72-hour area-under-the-curve serum high-sensitivity troponin T. The ERIC-GTN trial will determine whether intraoperative GTN therapy is cardioprotective during cardiac surgery and whether it affects RIC cardioprotection.