GlyStruct: glycation prediction using structural properties of amino acid residues.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Glycation is a one of the post-translational modifications (PTM) where sugar molecules and residues in protein sequences are covalently bonded. It has become one of the clinically important PTM in recent times attributed to many chronic and age related complications. Being a non-enzymatic reaction, it is a great challenge when it comes to its prediction due to the lack of significant bias in the sequence motifs. RESULTS:We developed a classifier, GlyStruct based on support vector machine, to predict glycated and non-glycated lysine residues using structural properties of amino acid residues. The features used were secondary structure, accessible surface area and the local backbone torsion angles. For this work, a benchmark dataset was extracted containing 235 glycated and 303 non-glycated lysine residues. GlyStruct demonstrated improved performance of approximately 10% in comparison to benchmark method of Gly-PseAAC. The performance for GlyStruct on the metrics, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and Mathew's correlation coefficient were 0.7013, 0.7989, 0.7562, and 0.5065, respectively for 10-fold cross-validation. CONCLUSION:Glycation has emerged to be one of the clinically important PTM of proteins in recent times. Therefore, the development of computational tools become necessary to predict glycation, which could help medical professionals administer drugs and manage patients more effectively. The proposed predictor manages to classify glycated and non-glycated lysine residues with promising results consistently on various cross-validation schemes and outperforms other state of the art methods.
Project description:Non-enzymatic glycation of human serum albumin (HSA) is associated with the long-term complications of diabetes. We examined the structure and location of modifications on minimally-glycated HSA and considered their possible impact on the binding of drugs to this protein.Minimally-glycated and normal HSA (used as a control) were digested with trypsin, Glu-C or Lys-C, followed by fractionation of the resulting peptides and their analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to determine the structures and locations of glycation adducts.Several specific lysine and arginine residues were identified as modification sites in minimally-glycated HSA. Residues K12, K51, K199, K205, K439 and K538 were found to be modified through the formation of fructosyl-lysine, while the modification of K159 and K286 involved the formation of pyrraline or N(epsilon)-carboxymethyl-lysine, respectively. Lysine K378 was found to give N(epsilon)-carboxyethyl-lysine in some forms of glycated HSA but fructosyl-lysine in other forms. Residues R160 and R472 produced a modification based on N(epsilon)-(5-hydro-4-imidazolon-2-yl)ornithine. Lysine R222 was modified to produce argpyrimidine, N(epsilon)-[5-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutyl)-5-hydro-4-imidazolon-2-yl]ornithine or tetrahydropyrimidine.With the exception of K12, K199, K378, K439 and K525, all of the observed sites of modification for minimally-glycated HSA were new to this current study. The fact that many of these glycation-related modifications are located at or near known drug binding sites on HSA explains why some differences have been previously noted in the binding of certain drugs to normal vs glycated HSA.
Project description:Glycation of ?-crystallin is responsible for age- and diabetic-related cataracts, which are the main cause of blindness worldwide. We optimized the method of identification of lysine residues prone to glycation using the combination of LC-MS, isotopic labeling, and modified synthetic peptide standards with the glycated lysine derivative (Fmoc-Lys(i,i-Fru,Boc)-OH). The in vitro glycation of bovine lens ?-crystallin was conducted by optimized method with the equimolar mixture of [(12)C6]- and [(13)C6]D-glucose. The in vivo glycation was studied on human lens crystallin. The glycated protein was subjected to proteolysis and analyzed using LC-MS. The results of in vitro and in vivo glycation of ?-crystallin reveal a different distribution of the modified lysine residues. More Amadori products were detected as a result of the in vitro reaction due to forced glycation conditions. The developed method allowed us to identify the glycation sites in crystallin from eye lenses obtained from patients suffering from the cataract. We identified K166 in the A chain and K166 in the B chain of ?-crystallin as major glycation sites during the in vitro reaction. We found also two in vivo glycated lysine residues: K92 in the B chain and K166 in the A chain, which are known as locations for Amadori products. These modification sites were confirmed by the LC-MS experiment using two synthetic standards. This study demonstrates the applicability of the LC-MS methods combined with the isotopic labeling and synthetic peptide standards for analysis of post-translational modifications in the biological material.
Project description:Glycation is a non-enzymatic process occurring inside or outside the host body by attaching a sugar molecule to a protein or lipid molecule. It is an important form of post-translational modification (PTM), which impairs the function and changes the characteristics of the proteins so that the identification of the glycation sites may provide some useful guidelines to understand various biological functions of proteins. In this study, we proposed an accurate prediction tool, named Glypre, for lysine glycation. Firstly, we used multiple informative features to encode the peptides. These features included the position scoring function, secondary structure, AAindex, and the composition of k-spaced amino acid pairs. Secondly, the distribution of distinctive features of the residues surrounding the glycation and non-glycation sites was statistically analysed. Thirdly, based on the distribution of these features, we developed a new predictor by using different optimal window sizes for different properties and a two-step feature selection method, which utilized the maximum relevance minimum redundancy method followed by a greedy feature selection procedure. The performance of Glypre was measured with a sensitivity of 57.47%, a specificity of 90.78%, an accuracy of 79.68%, area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of 0.86, and a Matthews's correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.52 by 10-fold cross-validation. The detailed analysis results showed that our predictor may play a complementary role to other existing methods for identifying protein lysine glycation. The source code and datasets of the Glypre are available in the Supplementary File.
Project description:Lysine succinylation in protein is one type of post-translational modifications (PTMs). Succinylation is associated with some diseases and succinylated sites data just has been found in recent years in experiments. It is highly desired to develop computational methods to identify the candidate proteins and their sites. In view of this, a new predictor called iSuc-PseAAC was proposed by incorporating the peptide position-specific propensity into the general form of pseudo amino acid composition. The accuracy is 79.94%, sensitivity 51.07%, specificity 89.42% and MCC 0.431 in leave-one-out cross validation with support vector machine algorithm. It demonstrated by rigorous leave-one-out on stringent benchmark dataset that the new predictor is quite promising and may become a useful high throughput tool in this area. Meanwhile a user-friendly web-server for iSuc-PseAAC is accessible at http://app.aporc.org/iSuc-PseAAC/. Users can easily obtain their desired results without the need to understand the complicated mathematical equations presented in this paper just for its integrity.
Project description:The measuring method for glycated albumin (GA) has been developed as a new glycemic control marker since the beginning of the 21st century. Since GA has an advantage in reflecting glycemic status over a shorter period than hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), much research and many reviews have been reported. However, so far there have been few reports on glycation sites based on the tertiary structure of human serum albumin (HSA) and the comparison of glycation rates between GA and HbA1c in detail. The present review discusses how the glycation sites of lysine residues in HSA are modified with glucose, whereas the glycation sites of lysine residues are located inside of HSA as well as the direct comparison of glycation rates between GA and HbA1c using human blood. Moreover, the most recent clinical researches on GA are described.
Project description:Non-enzymatic glycation of proteins is a post-translational modification produced by a reaction between reducing sugars and amino groups located in lysine and arginine residues or in the N-terminal position. This modification plays a relevant role in medicine and food industry. In the clinical field, this undesired role is directly linked to blood glucose concentration and therefore to pathological conditions derived from hyperglycemia (>11 mm glucose) such as diabetes mellitus or renal failure. An approach for qualitative and quantitative analysis of glycated proteins is here proposed to achieve the three information levels for their complete characterization. These are: 1) identification of glycated proteins, 2) elucidation of sugar attachment sites, and 3) quantitative analysis to compare glycemic states. Qualitative analysis was carried out by tandem mass spectrometry after endoproteinase Glu-C digestion and boronate affinity chromatography for isolation of glycated peptides. For this purpose, two MS operational modes were used: higher energy collisional dissociation-MS2 and CID-MS3 by neutral loss scan monitoring of two selective neutral losses (162.05 and 84.04 Da for the glucose cleavage and an intermediate rearrangement of the glucose moiety). On the other hand, quantitative analysis was based on labeling of proteins with [(13)C(6)]glucose incubation to evaluate the native glycated proteins labeled with [(12)C(6)]glucose. As glycation is chemoselective, it is exclusively occurring in potential targets for in vivo modifications. This approach, named glycation isotopic labeling, enabled differentiation of glycated peptides labeled with both isotopic forms resulting from enzymatic digestion by mass spectrometry (6-Da mass shift/glycation site). The strategy was then applied to a reference plasma sample, revealing the detection of 50 glycated proteins and 161 sugar attachment positions with identification of preferential glycation sites for each protein. A predictive approach was also tested to detect potential glycation sites under high glucose concentration.
Project description:Diabetes diagnosis and management majorly depend upon the measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Various factors influence HbA1c levels such as the use of various analytical methods and the presence of various clinical conditions. Plasma albumin levels were known to be negatively associated with HbA1c. However, the precise mechanism by which they affect HbA1c is not well understood. Therefore, we have studied the influence of albumin levels and its glycation status on hemoglobin glycation using erythrocyte culture experiments. Erythrocytes maintained at low albumin concentration exhibited relatively increased albumin and hemoglobin glycation as compared to that in those maintained at higher albumin concentration. Increase in albumin glycation may decrease its ability to protect hemoglobin glycation. This was demonstrated by treatment of erythrocytes with N(?)-(carboxymethyl)lysine-modified serum albumin (CMSA), which failed to protect hemoglobin glycation; instead, it increased hemoglobin glycation. The inability of CMSA to reduce hemoglobin glycation was due to the lack of free lysine residues of albumin, which was corroborated by using N(?)-(acetyl)lysine serum albumin (AcSA) and clinical diabetic plasma. This is the first study which demonstrates that the modification of lysine residues of albumin impairs its ability to inhibit hemoglobin glycation. Furthermore, correlation studies between HbA1c and albumin levels or relative albumin fructosamine from clinical subjects supported our experimental finding that albumin abundance and its glycation status influence hemoglobin glycation. Therefore, we propose albumin level and its glycation status to be quantified in conjunction with HbA1c for better management of diabetes.
Project description:Background:The amino acid residues, in protein, undergo post-translation modification (PTM) during protein synthesis, a process of chemical and physical change in an amino acid that in turn alters behavioral properties of proteins. Tyrosine sulfation is a ubiquitous posttranslational modification which is known to be associated with regulation of various biological functions and pathological pro-cesses. Thus its identification is necessary to understand its mechanism. Experimental determination through site-directed mutagenesis and high throughput mass spectrometry is a costly and time taking process, thus, the reliable computational model is required for identification of sulfotyrosine sites. Methodology:In this paper, we present a computational model for the prediction of the sulfotyrosine sites named iSulfoTyr-PseAAC in which feature vectors are constructed using statistical moments of protein amino acid sequences and various position/composition relative features. These features are in-corporated into PseAAC. The model is validated by jackknife, cross-validation, self-consistency and in-dependent testing. Results:Accuracy determined through validation was 93.93% for jackknife test, 95.16% for cross-validation, 94.3% for self-consistency and 94.3% for independent testing. Conclusion:The proposed model has better performance as compared to the existing predictors, how-ever, the accuracy can be improved further, in future, due to increasing number of sulfotyrosine sites in proteins.
Project description:Human erythrocytes are continuously exposed to glucose, which reacts with the amino terminus of the ?-chain of hemoglobin (Hb) to form glycated Hb, HbA1c, levels of which increase with the age of the circulating cell. In contrast to extensive insights into glycation of hemoglobin, little is known about glycation of erythrocyte membrane proteins. In the present study, we explored the conditions under which glucose and ribose can glycate spectrin, both on the intact membrane and in solution and the functional consequences of spectrin glycation. Although purified spectrin could be readily glycated, membrane-associated spectrin could be glycated only after ATP depletion and consequent translocation of phosphatidylserine (PS) from the inner to the outer lipid monolayer. Glycation of membrane-associated spectrin led to a marked decrease in membrane deformability. We further observed that only PS-binding spectrin repeats are glycated. We infer that the absence of glycation in situ is the consequence of the interaction of the target lysine and arginine residues with PS and thus is inaccessible for glycation. The reduced membrane deformability after glycation in the absence of ATP is likely the result of the inability of the glycated spectrin repeats to undergo the obligatory unfolding as a consequence of interhelix cross-links. We thus postulate that through the use of an ATP-driven phospholipid translocase (flippase), erythrocytes have evolved a protective mechanism against spectrin glycation and thus maintain their optimal membrane function during their long circulatory life span.
Project description:The use of different expression systems to produce the same recombinant human protein can result in expression-dependent chemical modifications (CMs) leading to variability of structure, stability and immunogenicity. Of particular interest are recombinant human proteins expressed in plant-based systems, which have shown particularly high CM variability. In studies presented here, recombinant human serum albumins (rHSA) produced in Oryza sativa (Asian rice) (OsrHSA) from a number of suppliers have been extensively characterized and compared to plasma-derived HSA (pHSA) and rHSA expressed in yeast (Pichia pastoris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The heterogeneity of each sample was evaluated using size exclusion chromatography (SEC), reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Modifications of the samples were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The secondary and tertiary structure of the albumin samples were assessed with far U/V circular dichroism spectropolarimetry (far U/V CD) and fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. Far U/V CD and fluorescence analyses were also used to assess thermal stability and drug binding. High molecular weight aggregates in OsrHSA samples were detected with SEC and supplier-to-supplier variability and, more critically, lot-to-lot variability in one manufactures supplied products were identified. LC-MS analysis identified a greater number of hexose-glycated arginine and lysine residues on OsrHSA compared to pHSA or rHSA expressed in yeast. This analysis also showed supplier-to-supplier and lot-to-lot variability in the degree of glycation at specific lysine and arginine residues for OsrHSA. Both the number of glycated residues and the degree of glycation correlated positively with the quantity of non-monomeric species and the chromatographic profiles of the samples. Tertiary structural changes were observed for most OsrHSA samples which correlated well with the degree of arginine/lysine glycation. The extensive glycation of OsrHSA from multiple suppliers may have further implications for the use of OsrHSA as a therapeutic product.