Characterization of the renal cortical transcriptome following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in experimental diabetic kidney disease.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) reduces albuminuria and the long-term incidence of end-stage renal disease in patients with obesity and diabetes. Preclinical modeling in experimental diabetic kidney disease demonstrates that improvements in glomerular structure likely underpin these findings. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:In adult male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, we profiled the effect of RYGB on weight and metabolic control as well biochemical, structural and ultrastructural indices of diabetic renal injury. Furthermore, we sequenced the renal cortical transcriptome in these rats and used bioinformatic pathway analyses to characterize the transcriptional alterations governing the renal reparative response to RYGB. RESULTS:In parallel with improvements in weight and metabolic control, RYGB reduced albuminuria, glomerulomegaly, podocyte stress and podocyte foot process effacement. Pathway analysis of RYGB-induced transcriptomic changes in the renal cortex highlighted correction of disease-associated alterations in fibrosis, inflammation and biological oxidation pathways. RYGB reversed disease-associated changes in the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-? superfamily genes that strongly correlated with improvements in structural measures of glomerulopathy. CONCLUSIONS:Improved glomerular structure in ZDF rats following RYGB is underpinned by pathway level changes, including interruption of the TGF-?-driven early profibrotic programme. Our data provide an important layer of experimental support for clinical evidence demonstrating that RYGB arrests renal damage in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Albuminuria is significantly reduced following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, suggesting a renoprotective effect of the intervention. Herein, we assess the relative impact of RYGB and RYGB equivalent non-surgical weight loss and glycaemic improvement on glomerular injury and global renal transcriptomic responses in the Zucker diabetic fatty rat (ZDF) model of diabetic nephropathy. We coined the term "medical bypass" (MB) to describe the intensive diet and pharmacotherapy based non-surgical intervention Adult ZDF rats underwent sham surgery (n=15) or RYGB (n=9). Nine sham-operated rats were calorie restricted and received insulin, liraglutide, metformin, ramipril, rosuvastatin and fenofibrate for 2 months (MB). Zucker fa/+ rats acted as healthy controls throughout. Bodyweight, glycaemia, albuminuria and glomerular injury specifically podocyte number, density and ultrastructure were assessed at follow up. Renal transcriptomes were compared by RNA-seq. RYGB resulted in 20-30% weight loss, normalized glycaemia and albuminuria and reduced indices of glomerular injury, specifically podocyte injury (foot process effacement). RYGB equivalent outcomes were obtained on all parameters following MB. Overall design: RNA-seq was performed to identify the renal transcriptomic profile of kidney disease in the ZDF rat, and to investigate the relative effects of Medical bypass intervention on the renal transcriptome. N=9 replicates were profiled.
Project description:Podocyte injury in diabetic kidney disease contributes to the development of albuminuria and subsequent renal decline. Clinically, gastric bypass surgery is associated with reductions in albuminuria, and rodent studies demonstrate coherent improvements in renal histology. We aimed to investigate the mechanisms underpinning remission of albuminuria following gastric bypass focussing on podocyte injury. Firstly, we tracked the evolution of albuminuria and cognate evidence of histological and ultrastructural damage to the glomerulus in male Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. Secondly, we examined the impact of gastric bypass in these rats, focussing on podocyte injury. Thirdly, we conducted a global transcriptomic study profiling the shift in the renal transcriptome in the Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats rat and its relevance to human disease. Lastly, we explored whether gastric bypass could reverse the changes seen in the disease associated transcriptome. Albuminuria in the Zucker Diabetic Fatty rat developed by 12 weeks of age. This was accompanied by glomerulomegaly, podocyte stress and ultrastructural evidence of podocyte dedifferentiation. When animals underwent gastric bypass at 12 weeks of age, marked reductions in albuminuria in association with normalisation of glomerular tuft size, attenuation of podocyte stress and improvements in podocyte foot process morphology were observed within 2 months of surgery. A characteristic disease associated gene expression signature was observed in the kidneys of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats, with a core set of alterations conserved in global analysis of the human DKD transcriptome. Many of the shared gene expression alterations were reversed by gastric bypass. Reductions in podocyte injury represent a key mechanism underpinning the remission of albuminuria following gastric bypass. Overall design: RNA-seq was performed to identify the renal transcriptomic profile of kidney disease in the ZDF rat, and to investigate the relative effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass intervention on the renal transcriptome. N=6 replicates were profiled.
Project description:Nephrin is a core component of podocyte (glomerular epithelial cell) slit diaphragm and is required for kidney ultrafiltration. Down-regulation or mislocalization of nephrin has been observed in diabetic kidney disease (DKD), characterized by albuminuria. Here, we investigate the role of protein kinase C and casein kinase 2 substrate in neurons 2 (PACSIN2), a regulator of endocytosis and recycling, in the trafficking of nephrin and development of DKD. We observe that PACSIN2 is up-regulated and nephrin mislocalized in podocytes of obese Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats that have altered renal function. In cultured podocytes, PACSIN2 and nephrin colocalize and interact. We show that nephrin is endocytosed in PACSIN2-positive membrane regions and that PACSIN2 overexpression increases both nephrin endocytosis and recycling. We identify rabenosyn-5, which is involved in early endosome maturation and endosomal sorting, as a novel interaction partner of PACSIN2. Interestingly, rabenosyn-5 expression is increased in podocytes in obese ZDF rats, and, in vitro, its overexpression enhances the association of PACSIN2 and nephrin. We also show that palmitate, which is elevated in diabetes, enhances this association. Collectively, PACSIN2 is up-regulated and nephrin is abnormally localized in podocytes of diabetic ZDF rats. In vitro, PACSIN2 enhances nephrin turnover apparently via a mechanism involving rabenosyn-5. The data suggest that elevated PACSIN2 expression accelerates nephrin trafficking and associates with albuminuria.-Dumont, V., Tolvanen, T. A., Kuusela, S., Wang, H., Nyman, T. A., Lindfors, S., Tienari, J., Nisen, H., Suetsugu, S., Plomann, M., Kawachi, H., Lehtonen, S. PACSIN2 accelerates nephrin trafficking and is up-regulated in diabetic kidney disease.
Project description:Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of end-stage kidney disease, and overactivity of the endocannabinoid/cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) system contributes to diabetes and its complications. Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats develop type 2 diabetic nephropathy with albuminuria, reduced glomerular filtration, activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), oxidative/nitrative stress, podocyte loss, and increased CB1R expression in glomeruli. Peripheral CB1R blockade initiated in the prediabetic stage prevented these changes or reversed them when animals with fully developed diabetic nephropathy were treated. Treatment of diabetic ZDF rats with losartan, an angiotensin II receptor-1 (Agtr1) antagonist, attenuated the development of nephropathy and down-regulated renal cortical CB1R expression, without affecting the marked hyperglycemia. In cultured human podocytes, CB1R and desmin gene expression were increased and podocin and nephrin content were decreased by either the CB1R agonist arachydonoyl-2'-chloroethylamide, angiotensin II, or high glucose, and the effects of all three were antagonized by CB1R blockade or siRNA-mediated knockdown of CNR1 (the cannabinoid type 1 receptor gene). We conclude that increased CB1R signaling in podocytes contributes to the development of diabetic nephropathy and represents a common pathway through which both hyperglycemia and increased RAS activity exert their deleterious effects, highlighting the therapeutic potential of peripheral CB1R blockade.
Project description:Type2 diabetes-associated nephropathy is the commonest cause of renal failure. Mechanisms responsible are controversial. Leptin-deficient hyperphagic Zucker (fa/fa) rats were modeled to test the hypothesis that glomerular enlargement drives podocyte hypertrophic stress leading to accelerated podocyte detachment, podocyte depletion, albuminuria and progression. By 6weeks, prior to development of either hyperglycemia or albuminuria, fa/fa rats were hyperinsulinemic with high urinary IGF1/2 excretion, gaining weight rapidly, and had 1.6-fold greater glomerular volume than controls (P?<?0.01). At this time the podocyte number per glomerulus was not yet reduced although podocytes were already hypertrophically stressed as shown by high podocyte phosphor-ribosomal S6 (a marker of mTORC1 activation), high urinary pellet podocin:nephrin mRNA ratio and accelerated podocyte detachment (high urinary pellet podocin:aquaporin2 mRNA ratio). Subsequently, fa/fa rats became both hyperglycemic and albuminuric. 24?hr urine albumin excretion correlated highly with decreasing podocyte density (R<sup>2</sup>?=?0.86), as a consequence of both increasing glomerular volume (R<sup>2</sup>?=?0.70) and decreasing podocyte number (R<sup>2</sup>?=?0.63). Glomerular podocyte loss rate was quantitatively related to podocyte detachment rate measured by urine pellet mRNAs. Glomerulosclerosis occurred when podocyte density reached <50/10<sup>6</sup>um<sup>3</sup>. Reducing food intake by 40% to slow growth reduced podocyte hypertrophic stress and "froze" all elements of the progression process in place, but had small effect on hyperglycemia. Glomerular enlargement caused by high growth factor milieu starting in pre-diabetic kidneys appears to be a primary driver of albuminuria in fa/fa rats and thereby an under-recognized target for progression prevention. Progression risk could be identified prior to onset of hyperglycemia or albuminuria, and monitored non-invasively by urinary pellet podocyte mRNA markers.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Changes in podocyte morphology and function are associated with albuminuria and progression of diabetic nephropathy. NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) is the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the kidney and Nox4 is upregulated in podocytes in response to high glucose. We assessed the role of NOX4-derived ROS in podocytes in vivo in a model of diabetic nephropathy using a podocyte-specific NOX4-deficient mouse, with a major focus on the development of albuminuria and ultra-glomerular structural damage. METHODS:Streptozotocin-induced diabetes-associated changes in renal structure and function were studied in male floxedNox4 and podocyte-specific, NOX4 knockout (podNox4KO) mice. We assessed albuminuria, glomerular extracellular matrix accumulation and glomerulosclerosis, and markers of ROS and inflammation, as well as glomerular basement membrane thickness, effacement of podocytes and expression of the podocyte-specific protein nephrin. RESULTS:Podocyte-specific Nox4 deletion in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice attenuated albuminuria in association with reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and prevention of the diabetes-induced reduction in nephrin expression. In addition, podocyte-specific Nox4 deletion reduced glomerular accumulation of collagen IV and fibronectin, glomerulosclerosis and mesangial expansion, as well as glomerular basement membrane thickness. Furthermore, diabetes-induced increases in renal ROS, glomerular monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and protein kinase C alpha (PKC-?) were attenuated in podocyte-specific NOX4-deficient mice. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Collectively, this study shows the deleterious effect of Nox4 expression in podocytes by promoting podocytopathy in association with albuminuria and extracellular matrix accumulation in experimental diabetes, emphasising the role of NOX4 as a target for new renoprotective agents.
Project description:Studies were performed to determine if early treatment with an angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor blocker (ARB), olmesartan, prevents the onset of microalbuminuria by attenuating glomerular podocyte injury in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus.OLETF rats were treated with either a vehicle, olmesartan (10 mg/kg/day) or a combination of nonspecific vasodilators (hydralazine 15 mg/kg/day, hydrochlorothiazide 6 mg/kg/day, and reserpine 0.3 mg/kg/day; HHR) from the age of 7-25 weeks.OLETF rats were hypertensive and had microalbuminuria from 9 weeks of age. At 15 weeks, OLETF rats had higher Ang II levels in the kidney, larger glomerular desmin-staining areas (an index of podocyte injury), and lower gene expression of nephrin in juxtamedullary glomeruli, than nondiabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats. At 25 weeks, OLETF rats showed overt albuminuria, and higher levels of Ang II in the kidney and larger glomerular desmin-staining areas in superficial and juxtamedullary glomeruli compared to LETO rats. Reductions in mRNA levels of nephrin were also observed in superficial and juxtamedullary glomeruli. Although olmesartan did not affect glucose metabolism, it decreased blood pressure and prevented the renal changes in OLETF rats. HHR treatment also reduced blood pressure, but did not affect the renal parameters.This study demonstrated that podocyte injury occurs in juxtamedullary glomeruli prior to superficial glomeruli in type 2 diabetic rats with microalbuminuria. Early treatment with an ARB may prevent the onset of albuminuria through its protective effects on juxtamedullary glomerular podocytes.
Project description:Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and therapeutic strategies for delaying its progression are limited. Loss of podocytes by apoptosis characterizes the early stages of DKD. To identify novel therapeutic options, we investigated the effects of Xuesaitong (XST), consisting of total saponins from Panax notoginseng, on podocyte apoptosis in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats. XST (5?mg/kg·d) or Losartan (10?mg/kg·d) was given to diabetic rats for 12 weeks. Albuminuria, renal function markers, and renal histopathology morphological changes were examined. Podocyte apoptosis was determined by triple immunofluorescence labelling including a TUNEL assay, WT1, and DAPI. Renal expression of Nox4, miRNA-214, PTEN, PDK1, phosphorylated Akt, mTOR, and mTORC1 was detected. In diabetic rats, severe hyperglycaemia and albuminuria developed, and apoptotic podocytes were markedly increased in diabetic kidneys. However, XST attenuated albuminuria, mesangial expansion, podocyte apoptosis, and morphological changes of podocytes in diabetic rats. Decreased expression of PTEN, as well as increased expression of Nox4, miRNA-214, PDK1, phosphorylated Akt, mTOR, and mTORC1, was detected. These abnormalities were partially restored by XST treatment. Thus, XST ameliorated podocyte apoptosis partly through modulating the PTEN-PDK1-Akt-mTOR pathway. These novel findings might point the way to a natural therapeutic strategy for treating DKD.
Project description:Renal fibrosis is a common complication of diabetic nephropathy and is a major cause of end-stage renal disease. Despite the suggested link between renal fibrosis and microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation in diabetic nephropathy, the identification of the specific miRNAs involved is still incomplete. The aim of this study was to investigate miRNA profiles in the diabetic kidney and to identify potential downstream targets implicated in renal fibrosis.miRNA expression profiling was investigated in the kidneys of 8-month-old Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats during overt nephropathy. Localisation of the most upregulated miRNA was established by in situ hybridisation. The candidate miRNA target was identified by in silico analysis and its expression documented in the diabetic kidney associated with fibrotic markers. Cultured tubule cells served to assess which of the profibrogenic stimuli acted as a trigger for the overexpressed miRNA, and to investigate underlying epigenetic mechanisms.In ZDF rats, miR-184 showed the strongest differential upregulation compared with lean rats (18-fold). Tubular localisation of miR-184 was associated with reduced expression of lipid phosphate phosphatase 3 (LPP3) and collagen accumulation. Transfection of NRK-52E cells with miR-184 mimic reduced LPP3, promoting a profibrotic phenotype. Albumin was a major trigger of miR-184 expression. Anti-miR-184 counteracted albumin-induced LPP3 downregulation and overexpression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. In ZDF rats, ACE-inhibitor treatment limited albuminuria and reduced miR-184, with tubular LPP3 preservation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis amelioration. Albumin-induced miR-184 expression in tubule cells was epigenetically regulated through DNA demethylation and histone lysine acetylation and was accompanied by binding of NF-?B p65 subunit to miR-184 promoter.These results suggest that miR-184 may act as a downstream effector of albuminuria through LPP3 to promote tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and offer the rationale to investigate whether targeting miR-184 in association with albuminuria-lowering drugs may be a new strategy to achieve fully anti-fibrotic effects in diabetic nephropathy.
Project description:The NADPH oxidase (NOX) isoform NOX4 has been linked with diabetic kidney disease (DKD). However, a mechanistic understanding of the downstream effects of NOX4 remains to be established. We report that podocyte-specific induction of NOX4 in vivo was sufficient to recapitulate the characteristic glomerular changes noted with DKD, including glomerular hypertrophy, mesangial matrix accumulation, glomerular basement membrane thickening, albuminuria, and podocyte dropout. Intervention with a NOX1/NOX4 inhibitor reduced albuminuria, glomerular hypertrophy, and mesangial matrix accumulation in the F1 Akita model of DKD. Metabolomic analyses from these mouse studies revealed that tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-related urinary metabolites were increased in DKD, but fumarate levels were uniquely reduced by the NOX1/NOX4 inhibitor. Expression of fumarate hydratase (FH), which regulates urine fumarate accumulation, was reduced in the diabetic kidney (in mouse and human tissue), and administration of the NOX1/NOX4 inhibitor increased glomerular FH levels in diabetic mice. Induction of Nox4 in vitro and in the podocyte-specific NOX4 transgenic mouse led to reduced FH levels. In vitro, fumarate stimulated endoplasmic reticulum stress, matrix gene expression, and expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and TGF-?. Similar upregulation of renal HIF-1? and TGF-? expression was observed in NOX4 transgenic mice and diabetic mice and was attenuated by NOX1/NOX4 inhibition in diabetic mice. In conclusion, NOX4 is a major mediator of diabetes-associated glomerular dysfunction through targeting of renal FH, which increases fumarate levels. Fumarate is therefore a key link connecting metabolic pathways to DKD pathogenesis, and measuring urinary fumarate levels may have application for monitoring renal NOX4 activity.