Investigating and evaluating evidence of the behavioural determinants of adherence to social distancing measures - A protocol for a scoping review of COVID-19 research.
ABSTRACT: Background: The WHO has declared the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a pandemic. With no vaccine currently available, using behavioural measures to reduce the spread of the virus within the population is an important tool in mitigating the effects of this pandemic. As such, social distancing measures are being implemented globally and have proven an effective tool in slowing the large-scale spread of the virus. Aim: This scoping review will focus on answering key questions about the state of the evidence on the behavioural determinants of adherence to social distancing measures in research on COVID-19. Methods: A scoping review will be conducted in accordance with guidelines for best practice. Literature searches will be conducted using online databases and grey literature sources. Databases will include Medline, Web of Science, Embase and PsycInfo, alongside relevant pre-print servers. Grey literature will be searched on Google Scholar. Screening, data extraction and quality appraisal will be conducted independently by two members of the research team, with any discrepancies resolved by consensus discussion and an additional team member if needed. Quality appraisal will be conducted using the Cochrane's ROBINS-I tool, the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool, and the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist where appropriate. Results will be analysed by mapping findings onto the Theoretical Domains Framework and visualising characteristics of the included studies using EviAtlas. This scoping review is pre-registered with Open Science Framework. Conclusions The results of this study may facilitate the systematic development of behavioural interventions to increase adherence to social distancing measures.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Pain is highly prevalent in the adult population diagnosed with liver disease. Those progressing to advanced liver disease often experience persistent pain and poor pain relief. There is presently limited guidance for the management of pain and associated symptoms in this population. The current literature lacks attention on how physical, psychological and social domains of liver disease modulate the pain experience. In this paper, we outline our scoping review protocol to systematically review the literature from academic bibliographic databases and grey sources to identify and map the biopsychosocial factors associated with pain in adults with advanced liver disease. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:Arksey and O'Malley's methodology, and Tricco et al's Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews, will guide the process for this scoping review. The literature search will include electronic and hand-searching methods using scholarly and grey sources. Scholarly databases include Medline, Embase, Allied and Complementary Medicine and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Grey databases will focus on research studies not captured in the scholarly databases including those by government agencies and professional organisations. Two members of the research team will independently screen the resulting publications following specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Quality appraisal of the included research studies will employ the use of the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool version 2018. Data collection and extraction of study characteristics will use a data extraction tool developed iteratively by the research team. Analysis of the factors associated with pain outcomes will be mapped and described according to the domains of the biopsychosocial model of pain. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The scoping review involves analysis of the published literature on pain and advanced liver disease and does not require ethics approval. The results will be shared with expert stakeholders to help establish clinical significance. We will disseminate the findings through publication in a scholarly journal: local, provincial, national and international scientific and professional conferences. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42019135677.
Project description:This study was conducted to review the evidence on the association between area-level social inequalities and population oral health according to type and extent of social theories. A scoping review was conducted of studies, which assessed the association between area-level social inequality measures, and population oral health outcomes including self-rated oral health, number of teeth, dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and dental pain. A search strategy was applied to identify evidence on PubMed, MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE, Web of Science, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, references of selected studies, and further grey literature. A qualitative content analysis of the selected studies was conducted to identify theories and categorize studies according to their theoretical basis. A total of 2892 studies were identified with 16 included in the review. Seven types of social theories were used on 48 occasions within the selected studies including: psychosocial (n=13), behavioural (n=10), neo-material (n=10), social capital (n=6), social cohesion (n=4), material (n=3) and social support (n=2). Of the selected studies, four explicitly tested social theories as pathways from inequalities to population oral health outcomes, three used a theoretical construct, seven used theories for post-hoc explanation and two did not have any use of theory. In conclusion, psychosocial theories were used most frequently. Although theories were often mentioned, majority of these studies did not test a social theory.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are measures of a person's own views of their health, functioning and quality of life. They are typically assessed using validated, self-completed questionnaires known as patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). PROMs are used in healthcare settings to support care planning, clinical decision-making, patient-practitioner communication and quality improvement. PROMs have a potential role in the delivery of social care where people often have multiple and complex long-term health conditions. However, the use of PROMs in this context is currently unclear. The objective of this scoping review is to explore the evidence relating to the use of PROMs in adult social care.<h4>Methods and analyses</h4>The electronic databases Medline (Ovid), PsychInfo (Ovid), ASSIA (ProQuest), Social Care Online (SCIE), Web of Science and EMBASE (Ovid) were searched on 29 September 2020 to identify eligible studies and other publically available documents published since 2010. A grey literature search and hand searching of citations and reference lists of the included studies will also be undertaken. No restrictions on study design or language of publication will be applied. Screening and data extraction will be completed independently by two reviewers. Quality appraisal of the included documents will use the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme and AACODS (Authority, Accuracy, Coverage, Objectivity, Date, Significance) checklists. A customised data charting table will be used for data extraction, with analysis of qualitative data using the framework method. The review findings will be presented as tables and in a narrative summary.<h4>Ethics and dissemination</h4>Ethical review is not required as scoping reviews are a form of secondary data analysis that synthesise data from publically available sources. Review findings will be shared with service users and other relevant stakeholders and disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication and conference presentations. This protocol is registered on the Open Science Framework (www.osf.io).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Covid-19 triggered the rapid roll-out of mass social distancing behavioural measures for infection control. Pregnant women were categorised as 'at risk' requiring extra vigilance with behavioural guidelines. Their understanding and ability to adhere to recommendations was unknown.<h4>Objectives</h4>To complete a behavioural analysis of the determinants of recommended social distancing behaviour in pregnant women, according to the 'capability, opportunity, motivation and behaviour' ('COM-B') model to inform the development of recommendations/materials to support pregnant women in understanding and adhering to behavioural guidelines.<h4>Design</h4>Qualitative interview study with pregnant women in the Bristol area (UK).<h4>Methods</h4>Semi-structured telephone/videoconference interviews were conducted following a topic guide informed by the COM-B model, transcribed verbatim and subjected to framework analysis. Infographic materials were iteratively produced with stakeholder consultation, to support pregnant women.<h4>Results</h4>Thirty-one women participated (selected for demographic range). Women reported adhering to social distancing recommendations and intended to continue. COM-B analysis identified gaps in understanding around risk, vulnerability, and the extent of required social distancing, as well as facilitators of social distancing behaviour (e.g. social support, motivation to stay safe, home environment/resources). Additional themes around detrimental mental health effects and changes to maternity healthcare from the social distancing measures were identified. Infographic resources (plus midwife report) addressing women's key concerns were produced and disseminated.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The COM-B model provided useful details of determinants of pregnant women's adherence to social distancing behaviours. The confusion of what being 'at risk' meant and varying interpretation of what was expected indicates a need for greater clarity around categories and guidance. The loss of maternity care and negative mental health effects of social distancing suggest a growing area of unmet health needs to be addressed in future.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Infectious outbreaks, most recently coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), have required pervasive public health strategies, termed lockdown measures, including quarantine, social distancing, and closure of workplaces and educational establishments. Although evidence analysing immediate effects is expanding, repercussions following lockdown measures remain poorly understood. This systematic review aims to analyse biopsychosocial consequences after lockdown measures end according to short, medium, and long-term impacts.<h4>Methods</h4>PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, PsycInfo, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched from inception to January 12, 2021. Reference lists were manually reviewed. Eligible studies analysed biopsychosocial functioning after lockdown measures secondary to recent infectious outbreaks ended. Lockdown measures were defined as quarantine, isolation, workplace or educational closures, social or physical distancing, and national or local closure of public institutions deemed non-essential. Studies exclusively researching outcomes during lockdown measures, examined infectious participants, or analysed lockdown measures not pertaining to an infectious outbreak were excluded. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed bias with a third resolving discrepancies. Data was extracted from published reports with further information requested from authors where necessary. The mixed methods appraisal tool assessed study quality, languages were restricted to English, German, Italian, and French and narrative synthesis was applied.<h4>Results</h4>Of 5149 identified studies, 40 were eligible for inclusion. Psychological distress, economic repercussions, social, biological, and behavioural ramifications were observed. Short to medium-term effects comprised reactions relating to early trauma processing whereas medium to long-term repercussions manifested in maladaptive behaviours and mental health deterioration. Increased alcohol intake, stigmatisation, and economic effects were also identified consequences. High-risk groups included health care workers, children, elderly, inpatients, those with pre-existing psychiatric diagnoses, and socially isolated individuals.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Supporting vulnerable groups and offering education, workplace modifications, financial, and social assistance may mitigate negative repercussions. Establishing a rapid and comprehensive evidence base appraising the efficacy of such interventions and identifying areas for development is essential. This review was limited by study heterogeneity and lack of randomisation in available literature. Given the unprecedented nature and progression of COVID-19, the relevance of previous outcomes remains uncertain.<h4>Protocol registration</h4>PROSPERO registration CRD42020181134.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Mental health problems are common in the working population and represent a growing concern internationally, with potential impacts on workers, organisations, workplace health and compensation authorities, labour markets and social policies. Workplace interventions that create workplaces supportive of mental health, promote mental health awareness, destigmatise mental illness and support those with mental disorders are likely to improve health and economical outcomes for employees and organisations. Identifying factors associated with successful implementation of these interventions can improve intervention quality and evaluation, and facilitate the uptake and expansion. Therefore, we aim to review research reporting on the implementation of mental health promotion interventions delivered in workplace settings, in order to increase understanding of factors influencing successful delivery.<h4>Methods and analysis</h4>A scoping review will be conducted incorporating a stepwise methodology to identify relevant literature reviews, primary research and grey literature. This review is registered with Research Registry (reviewregistry897). One reviewer will conduct the search to identify English language studies in the following electronic databases from 2008 through to July 1, 2020: Scopus, PROSPERO, Health Technology Assessments, PubMed, Campbell Collaboration, Joanna Briggs Library, PsycINFO, Web of Science Core Collection, CINAHL and Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (IOSH). Reference searching, Google Scholar, Grey Matters, IOSH and expert contacts will be used to identify grey literature. Two reviewers will screen title and abstracts, aiming for 95% agreement, and then independently screen full texts for inclusion. Two reviewers will assess methodological quality of included studies using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool and extract and synthesize data in line with the RE-AIM framework, Nielson and Randall's model of organisational-level interventions and Moore's sustainability criteria, if the data allows. We will recruit and consult with international experts in the field to ensure engagement, reach and relevance of the main findings.<h4>Discussion</h4>This will be the first systematic scoping review to identify and synthesise evidence of barriers and facilitators to implementing mental health promotion interventions in workplace settings. Our results will inform future evaluation studies and randomised controlled trials and highlight gaps in the evidence base.<h4>Systematic review registration</h4>Research Registry ( reviewregistry897 ).
Project description:The Covid-19 outbreak was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization in January 2020. As a consequence, several protective measures were urged by national governments in order to limit the spread of the pandemic. Drawing on the literature on health behaviours, in the present study, we investigated the psychological factors (i.e., attitudes, social norms, perceived behavioural control, intentions, and risk perception) that were associated with two highly recommended behaviours: frequent hand washing and social distancing (i.e., staying at home except for essential reasons). The study employed a correlational design with a follow-up. A questionnaire including measures of psychological predictors was administered via social media to a sample of 403 adults residing in Italy during the lockdown. Self-reported behaviours were assessed one week later. Findings showed that attitudes, social norms, perceived behavioural control were significantly related to hand washing and social distancing through intentions. Risk perception was a significant predictor of social distancing but not of hand washing. These findings suggest that intervention and communication strategies aimed at encouraging preventive measures during the Covid-19 pandemic should be organized taking into account multiple factors which partially differ depending on the type of behaviour considered. Please refer to the Supplementary Material section to find this article's Community and Social Impact Statement.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>Poor adherence to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is associated with low rates of smoking cessation. Hence, this study aims to identify and map patient-related factors associated with adherence to NRT using the capability, opportunity, motivation, and behaviour (COM-B) model.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>A systematic review was conducted by searching five databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) and grey literature on 30 August 2020. Data were extracted, thematically analysed, and mapped to the COM-B model. The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal tool was utilised to assess the quality of studies.<br><br><b>Results: </b>A total of 2929 citations were screened, and 26 articles with a total of 13,429 participants included. Thirty-one factors were identified and mapped to COM-B model: psychological capability (forgetfulness, education), physical capability (level of nicotine dependence, withdrawal symptoms), reflective motivation (perception about NRT and quitting), automatic motivation (alcohol use, stress, depression), physical opportunity (cost), and social opportunity (social support). The most prominent element associated with adherence was reflective motivation followed by physical capability and automatic motivation.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>Multiple personal, social, and environmental factors affect NRT adherence. Hence, it is recommended to implement a multifaceted behavioural intervention incorporating factors categorised under the COM-B model, which is the hub of the behaviour change wheel (BCW) to improve adherence and quitting.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To explore ways in which occupational justice and social inclusion are conceptualised, defined and operationalised in highly stigmatised and chronic conditions of mental illness and HIV. DESIGN:This scoping review protocol followed Arksey and O'Malley's (2005) Scoping Review Framework. DATA SOURCES AND ELIGIBILITY:The following databases were searched for the period January 1997 to January 2019: Medline via PubMed, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Africa-Wide Information, Humanities International Complete, Web of Science, PsychInfo, SocINDEX and grey literature.Eligible articles were primary studies, reviews or theoretical papers which conceptualised, defined and/or operationalised social inclusion or occupational justice in mental illness or HIV. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS:We undertook a three-part article screening process. Screening and data extraction were undertaken independently by two researchers. Arksey's framework and thematic analysis informed the collation and synthesis of included papers. RESULTS:From 3352 records, we reviewed 139 full articles and retained 27 for this scoping review. Definitions of social inclusion and occupational justice in the domains of mental illness and HIV were heterogeneous and lacked definitional clarity. The two concepts were conceptualised as either processes or personal experiences, with key features of community participation, respect for human rights and establishment and maintenance of healthy relationships. Conceptual commonalities between social inclusion and occupational justice were premised on social justice. CONCLUSIONS:To address lack of clarity, we propose further and concurrent exploration of these concepts, specifically with reference to persons with comorbid mental health disorders such as substance use disorders and HIV living in low-income countries. This should reflect contextual realities influencing community participation, respect for human rights and meaningful occupational participation. From this broadened understanding, quantitative measures should be applied to improve the standardisation of measurements for occupational justice and social inclusion in policy, research and practice.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Globally, breast cancer is the most common malignant condition in women. Breast self-examination practice following correct procedure potentially can lead to early detection of breast abnormalities. We propose to systematically chart literature and examine the scope of evidence on women's knowledge and practice of breast self-examination in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).<h4>Methods</h4>Our scoping review methods will be guided by the framework proposed by Arksey and O'Malley, Levac et al. and Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. Literature searches will be conducted in the following electronic databases (from 2008 onwards): PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Health Sources. Grey literature will be identified through searching dissertation databases, Google Scholar and governmental databases. Two reviewers will screen all citations and full-text articles We will abstract data, organise them into themes and sub-themes, summarise them and report the results using a narrative synthesis. The study methodological quality (or bias) will be appraised using a mixed-method appraisal tool.<h4>Discussion</h4>The findings from the scoping review will contribute to obtain an understanding of the women's knowledge and practice of breast self-examination in sub-Saharan Africa, and will likely reveal the depth of evidence helping to identify gaps for future research. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. Implications for clinical practice and health policy will be discussed.