The Salmonella enterica Plasmidome as a Reservoir of Antibiotic Resistance.
ABSTRACT: The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains worldwide has become a serious problem for public health over recent decades. The increase in antimicrobial resistance has been expanding via plasmids as mobile genetic elements encoding antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes that are transferred vertically and horizontally. This study focuses on Salmonella enterica, one of the leading foodborne pathogens in industrialized countries. S. enterica is known to carry several plasmids involved not only in virulence but also in AMR. In the current paper, we present an integrated strategy to detect plasmid scaffolds in whole genome sequencing (WGS) assemblies. We developed a two-step procedure to predict plasmids based on i) the presence of essential elements for plasmid replication and mobility, as well as ii) sequence similarity to a reference plasmid. Next, to confirm the accuracy of the prediction in 1750 S. enterica short-read sequencing data, we combined Oxford Nanopore MinION long-read sequencing with Illumina MiSeq short-read sequencing in hybrid assemblies for 84 isolates to evaluate the proportion of plasmid that has been detected. At least one scaffold with an origin of replication (ORI) was predicted in 61.3% of the Salmonella isolates tested. The results indicated that IncFII and IncI1 ORIs were distributed in many S. enterica serotypes and were the most prevalent AMR genes carrier, whereas IncHI2A/IncHI2 and IncA/C2 were more serotype restricted but bore several AMR genes. Comparison between hybrid and short-read assemblies revealed that 81.1% of plasmids were found in the short-read sequencing using our pipeline. Through this process, we established that plasmids are prevalent in S. enterica and we also substantially expand the AMR genes in the resistome of this species.
Project description:U.S. public health agencies have employed next-generation sequencing (NGS) as a tool to quickly identify foodborne pathogens during outbreaks. Although established short-read NGS technologies are known to provide highly accurate data, long-read sequencing is still needed to resolve highly-repetitive genomic regions and genomic arrangement, and to close the sequences of bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. Here, we report the use of long-read nanopore sequencing to simultaneously sequence the entire chromosome and plasmid of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Bareilly and Escherichia coli O157:H7. We developed a rapid and random sequencing approach coupled with de novo genome assembly within a customized data analysis workflow that uses publicly-available tools. In sequencing runs as short as four hours, using the MinION instrument, we obtained full-length genomes with an average identity of 99.87% for Salmonella Bareilly and 99.89% for E. coli in comparison to the respective MiSeq references. These nanopore-only assemblies provided readily available information on serotype, virulence factors, and antimicrobial resistance genes. We also demonstrate the potential of nanopore sequencing assemblies for rapid preliminary phylogenetic inference. Nanopore sequencing provides additional advantages as very low capital investment and footprint, and shorter (10?hours library preparation and sequencing) turnaround time compared to other NGS technologies.
Project description:Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the most prominent public health threats. AMR genes localized on plasmids can be easily transferred between bacterial isolates by horizontal gene transfer, thereby contributing to the spread of AMR. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are ideal for the detection of AMR genes; however, reliable reconstruction of plasmids is still a challenge due to large repetitive regions. This study proposes a workflow to reconstruct plasmids with NGS data in view of AMR gene localization, i.e., chromosomal or on a plasmid. Whole-genome and plasmid DNA extraction methods were compared, as were assemblies consisting of short reads (Illumina MiSeq), long reads (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) and a combination of both (hybrid). Furthermore, the added value of conjugation of a plasmid to a known host was evaluated. As a case study, an isolate harboring a large, low-copy mcr-1-carrying plasmid (>200 kb) was used. Hybrid assemblies of NGS data obtained from whole-genome DNA extractions of the original isolates resulted in the most complete reconstruction of plasmids. The optimal workflow was successfully applied to multidrug-resistant Salmonella Kentucky isolates, where the transfer of an ESBL-gene-containing fragment from a plasmid to the chromosome was detected. This study highlights a strategy including wet and dry lab parameters that allows accurate plasmid reconstruction, which will contribute to an improved monitoring of circulating plasmids and the assessment of their risk of transfer.
Project description:Bacteroides fragilis constitutes a significant part of the normal human gut microbiota and can also act as an opportunistic pathogen. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and the prevalence of AMR genes are increasing, and prediction of antimicrobial susceptibility based on sequence information could support targeted antimicrobial therapy in a clinical setting. Complete identification of insertion sequence (IS) elements carrying promoter sequences upstream of resistance genes is necessary for prediction of AMR. However, de novo assemblies from short reads alone are often fractured due to repeat regions and the presence of multiple copies of identical IS elements. Identification of plasmids in clinical isolates can aid in the surveillance of the dissemination of AMR, and comprehensive sequence databases support microbiome and metagenomic studies. We tested several short-read, hybrid and long-lead assembly pipelines by assembling the type strain B. fragilis CCUG4856T (=ATCC25285=NCTC9343) with Illumina short reads and long reads generated by Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) MinION sequencing. Hybrid assembly with Unicycler, using quality filtered Illumina reads and Filtlong filtered and Canu-corrected ONT reads, produced the assembly of highest quality. This approach was then applied to six clinical multidrug-resistant B. fragilis isolates and, with minimal manual finishing of chromosomal assemblies of three isolates, complete, circular assemblies of all isolates were produced. Eleven circular, putative plasmids were identified in the six assemblies, of which only three corresponded to a known cultured Bacteroides plasmid. Complete IS elements could be identified upstream of AMR genes; however, there was not complete correlation between the absence of IS elements and antimicrobial susceptibility. As our knowledge on factors that increase expression of resistance genes in the absence of IS elements is limited, further research is needed prior to implementing AMR prediction for B. fragilis from whole-genome sequencing.
Project description:The incidence of infections caused by extraintestinal Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is rising globally, which is a major public health concern. ExPEC strains that are resistant to antimicrobials have been associated with excess mortality, prolonged hospital stays, and higher health care costs. E. coli sequence type 131 (ST131) is a major ExPEC clonal group worldwide, with variable plasmid composition, and has an array of genes enabling antimicrobial resistance (AMR). ST131 isolates frequently encode the AMR genes bla CTX-M-14, bla CTX-M-15, and bla CTX-M-27, which are often rearranged, amplified, and translocated by mobile genetic elements (MGEs). Short DNA reads do not fully resolve the architecture of repetitive elements on plasmids to allow MGE structures encoding bla CTX-M genes to be fully determined. Here, we performed long-read sequencing to decipher the genome structures of six E. coli ST131 isolates from six patients. Most long-read assemblies generated entire chromosomes and plasmids as single contigs, in contrast to more fragmented assemblies created with short reads alone. The long-read assemblies highlighted diverse accessory genomes with bla CTX-M-15, bla CTX-M-14, and bla CTX-M-27 genes identified in three, one, and one isolates, respectively. One sample had no bla CTX-M gene. Two samples had chromosomal bla CTX-M-14 and bla CTX-M-15 genes, and the latter was at three distinct locations, likely transposed by the adjacent MGEs: ISEcp1, IS903B, and Tn2 This study showed that AMR genes exist in multiple different chromosomal and plasmid contexts, even between closely related isolates within a clonal group such as E. coli ST131.IMPORTANCE Drug-resistant bacteria are a major cause of illness worldwide, and a specific subtype called Escherichia coli ST131 causes a significant number of these infections. ST131 bacteria become resistant to treatments by modifying their DNA and by transferring genes among one another via large packages of genes called plasmids, like a game of pass-the-parcel. Tackling infections more effectively requires a better understanding of what plasmids are being exchanged and their exact contents. To achieve this, we applied new high-resolution DNA sequencing technology to six ST131 samples from infected patients and compared the output to that of an existing approach. A combination of methods shows that drug resistance genes on plasmids are highly mobile because they can jump into ST131's chromosomes. We found that the plasmids are very elastic and undergo extensive rearrangements even in closely related samples. This application of DNA sequencing technologies illustrates at a new level the highly dynamic nature of ST131 genomes.
Project description:Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major public health threat. Plasmids are able to transfer AMR genes among bacterial isolates. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is a powerful tool to monitor AMR determinants. However, plasmids are difficult to reconstruct from WGS data. This study aimed to improve the characterization, including the localization of AMR genes using short and long read WGS strategies. We used a genetically modified (GM) Bacillus subtilis isolated as unexpected contamination in a feed additive, and therefore considered unauthorized (RASFF 2014.1249), as a case study. In GM organisms, AMR genes are used as selection markers. Because of the concern of spread of these AMR genes when present on mobile genetic elements, it is crucial to characterize their location. Our approach resulted in an assembly of one chromosome and one plasmid, each with several AMR determinants of which five are against critically important antibiotics. Interestingly, we found several plasmids, containing AMR genes, integrated in the chromosome in a repetitive region of at least 53?kb. Our findings would have been impossible using short reads only. We illustrated the added value of long read sequencing in addressing the challenges of plasmid reconstruction within the context of evaluating the risk of AMR spread.
Project description:We sequenced 25 isolates of phenotypically multidrug-resistant Salmonella Indiana (n = 11), Typhimurium (n = 8), and Enteritidis (n = 6) using both MinION long-read [SQK-LSK109 and flow cell (R9.4.1)] and MiSeq short-read (Nextera XT and MiSeq Reagent Kit v2) sequencing technologies to determine the advantages of each approach in terms of the characteristics of genome structure, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), virulence potential, whole-genome phylogeny, and pan-genome. The MinION reads were base-called in real-time using MinKnow 3.4.8 integrated with Guppy 3.0.7. The long-read-only assembly, Illumina-only assembly, and hybrid assembly pipelines of Unicycler 0.4.8 were used to generate the MinION, MiSeq, and hybrid assemblies, respectively. The MinION assemblies were highly contiguous compared to the MiSeq assemblies but lacked accuracy, a deficiency that was mitigated by adding the MiSeq short reads through the Unicycler hybrid assembly which corrected erroneous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The MinION assemblies provided similar predictions of AMR and virulence potential compared to the MiSeq and hybrid assemblies, although they produced more total false negatives of AMR genotypes, primarily due to failure in identifying tetracycline resistance genes in 11 of the 19 MinION assemblies of tetracycline-resistant isolates. The MinION assemblies displayed a large genetic distance from their corresponding MiSeq and hybrid assemblies on the whole-genome phylogenetic tree, indicating that the lower read accuracy of MinION sequencing caused incorrect clustering. The pan-genome of the MinION assemblies contained significantly more accessory genes and less core genes compared to the MiSeq and hybrid assemblies, suggesting that although these assemblies were more contiguous, their sequencing errors reduced accurate genome annotations. Our research demonstrates that MinION sequencing by itself provides an efficient assessment of the genome structure, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence potential of Salmonella; however, it is not sufficient for whole-genome phylogenetic and pan-genome analyses. MinION in combination with MiSeq facilitated the most accurate genomic analyses.
Project description:The aim of this study was to characterize the plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants in multiple Salmonella serotypes recovered from the commercial swine farm environment after manure application on land. Manure and soil samples were collected on day 0 before and after manure application on six farms in North Carolina, and sequential soil samples were recollected on days 7, 14, and 21 from the same plots. All environmental samples were processed for Salmonella, and their plasmid contents were further characterized. A total of 14 isolates including Salmonella enterica serotypes Johannesburg (n = 2), Ohio (n = 2), Rissen (n = 1), Typhimurium var5- (n = 5), Worthington (n = 3), and 4,12:i:- (n = 1), representing different farms, were selected for plasmid analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by broth microdilution against a panel of 14 antimicrobials on the 14 confirmed transconjugants after conjugation assays. The plasmids were isolated by modified alkaline lysis, and PCRs were performed on purified plasmid DNA to identify the AMR determinants and the plasmid replicon types. The plasmids were sequenced for further analysis and to compare profiles and create phylogenetic trees. A class 1 integron with an ANT(2?)-Ia-aadA2 cassette was detected in the 50-kb IncN plasmids identified in S Worthington isolates. We identified 100-kb and 90-kb IncI1 plasmids in S Johannesburg and S Rissen isolates carrying the blaCMY-2 and tet(A) genes, respectively. An identical 95-kb IncF plasmid was widely disseminated among the different serotypes and across different farms. Our study provides evidence on the importance of horizontal dissemination of resistance determinants through plasmids of multiple Salmonella serotypes distributed across commercial swine farms after manure application.IMPORTANCE The horizontal gene transfer of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants located on plasmids is considered to be the main reason for the rapid proliferation and spread of drug resistance. The deposition of manure generated in swine production systems into the environment is identified as a potential source of AMR dissemination. In this study, AMR gene-carrying plasmids were detected in multiple Salmonella serotypes across different commercial swine farms in North Carolina. The plasmid profiles were characterized based on Salmonella serotype donors and incompatibility (Inc) groups. We found that different Inc plasmids showed evidence of AMR gene transfer in multiple Salmonella serotypes. We detected an identical 95-kb plasmid that was widely distributed across swine farms in North Carolina. These conjugable resistance plasmids were able to persist on land after swine manure application. Our study provides strong evidence of AMR determinant dissemination present in plasmids of multiple Salmonella serotypes in the environment after manure application.
Project description:Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica bacteria are important foodborne pathogens with major economic impact. Some isolates exhibit increased heat tolerance, a concern for food safety. Analysis of a finished-quality genome sequence of an isolate commonly used in heat resistance studies, S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Senftenberg 775W (ATCC 43845), demonstrated an interesting observation that this strain contains not just one, but two horizontally acquired thermotolerance locus homologs. These two loci reside on a large 341.3-kbp plasmid that is similar to the well-studied IncHI2 R478 plasmid but lacks any antibiotic resistance genes found on R478 or other IncHI2 plasmids. As this historical Salmonella isolate has been in use since 1941, comparative analysis of the plasmid and of the thermotolerance loci contained on the plasmid will provide insight into the evolution of heat resistance loci as well as acquisition of resistance determinants in IncHI2 plasmids. IMPORTANCE Thermal interventions are commonly used in the food industry as a means of mitigating pathogen contamination in food products. Concern over heat-resistant food contaminants has recently increased, with the identification of a conserved locus shown to confer heat resistance in disparate lineages of Gram-negative bacteria. Complete sequence analysis of a historical isolate of Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg, used in numerous studies because of its novel heat resistance, revealed that this important strain possesses two distinct copies of this conserved thermotolerance locus, residing on a multireplicon IncHI2/IncHI2A plasmid. Phylogenetic analysis of these loci in comparison with homologs identified in various bacterial genera provides an opportunity to examine the evolution and distribution of loci conferring resistance to environmental stressors, such as heat and desiccation.
Project description:In the current study, we identified plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance genes in draft whole genome sequences of 16 selected Salmonella enterica isolates representing six different serovars from humans in Ghana. The plasmids and the location of resistance genes in the genomes were predicted using a combination of PlasmidFinder, ResFinder, plasmidSPAdes and BLAST genomic analysis tools. Subsequently, S1-PFGE was employed for analysis of plasmid profiles. Whole genome sequencing confirmed the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes in Salmonella isolates showing multidrug resistance phenotypically. ESBL, either blaTEM52-B or blaCTX-M15 were present in two cephalosporin resistant isolates of S. Virchow and S. Poona, respectively. The systematic genome analysis revealed the presence of different plasmids in different serovars, with or without insertion of antimicrobial resistance genes. In S. Enteritidis, resistance genes were carried predominantly on plasmids of IncN type, in S. Typhimurium on plasmids of IncFII(S)/IncFIB(S)/IncQ1 type. In S. Virchow and in S. Poona, resistance genes were detected on plasmids of IncX1 and TrfA/IncHI2/IncHI2A type, respectively. The latter two plasmids were described for the first time in these serovars. The combination of genomic analytical tools allowed nearly full mapping of the resistance plasmids in all Salmonella strains analyzed. The results suggest that the improved analytical approach used in the current study may be used to identify plasmids that are specifically associated with resistance phenotypes in whole genome sequences. Such knowledge would allow the development of rapid multidrug resistance tracking tools in Salmonella populations using WGS.
Project description:A total of 73 nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica isolates, 33 from raw chicken meat and 40 from routine clinical specimens, were collected between 2015 and 2017 from eight cities in Sri Lanka for a pilot study of whole-genome sequencing for Salmonella surveillance. The isolates were characterized by conventional serotyping and whole-genome sequencing. The raw sequenced data were assembled and analyzed to predict Salmonella serotypes, determine sequence type (ST) profiles of genome and plasmid, and identify plasmid replicon sequences and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes. The most common serovar isolated from chicken meat was Salmonella enterica serovar Agona of ST13 (n?=?16), in contrast to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis of ST11 (n?=?21) in human. Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis is the only serovar that was overlapping between human and chicken meat. The level of agreement between serotyping and serotype prediction results was 100%. Among the 33 chicken isolates, multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed in five isolates, including two Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky ST314, which harbored six different classes of AMR determinants. Among the 40 human isolates, MDR was detected in two Salmonella enterica serovar Chester (ST2063) isolates containing five different antibiotic classes of AMR determinants. Out of 73 isolates, the only human Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain of ST36 was found to possess extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) gene, blaCTX-M-15, and it was positive for ESBL production. In summary, this study identified S. enterica serovars that were dominating in chicken meat and human and showed the genomic differences among the chicken meat and human strains. It should be noted that the limited number of isolates and sampling at a different time period means that thorough source attribution is not possible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of whole-genome sequencing analysis of nontyphoidal S. enterica isolated from chicken meat and human in Sri Lanka.