Discovery of Two Novel Negeviruses in a Dungfly Collected from the Arctic.
ABSTRACT: Negeviruses are a proposed group of insect-specific viruses that can be separated into two distinct phylogenetic clades, Nelorpivirus and Sandewavirus. Negeviruses are well-known for their wide geographic distribution and broad host range among hematophagous insects. In this study, the full genomes of two novel negeviruses from each of these clades were identified by RNA extraction and sequencing from a single dungfly (Scathophaga furcata) collected from the Arctic Yellow River Station, where these genomes are the first negeviruses from cold zone regions to be discovered. Nelorpivirus dungfly1 (NVD1) and Sandewavirus dungfly1 (SVD1) have the typical negevirus genome organization and there was a very high coverage of viral transcripts. Small interfering RNAs derived from both viruses were readily detected in S. furcata, clearly showing that negeviruses are targeted by the host antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. These results and subsequent in silico analysis (studies) of public database and published virome data showed that the hosts of nege-like viruses include insects belonging to many orders as well as various non-insects in addition to the hematophagous insects previously reported. Phylogenetic analysis reveals at least three further groups of negeviruses, as well as several poorly resolved solitary branches, filling in the gaps within the two sub-groups of negeviruses and plant-associated viruses in the Kitaviridae. The results of this study will contribute to a better understanding of the geographic distribution, host range, evolution and host antiviral immune responses of negeviruses.
Project description:With advances in sequencing technologies, there has been an increase in the discovery of viruses that do not group with any currently described virus families. The newly described taxon Negevirus encompasses a group of viruses displaying an insect-specific phenotype which have been isolated from multiple host species on numerous continents. Using a broad-spectrum virus screening assay based on the detection of double-stranded RNA and next-generation sequencing, we have detected a novel species of negevirus, from Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes mosquitoes collected in 4 geographically separate regions of Australia. Bioinformatic analysis of the virus, tentatively named Castlerea virus, revealed that it is genetically distinct from previously described negeviruses but clusters in the newly proposed Nelorpivirus clade within this taxon. Analysis of virions confirmed the presence of 2 proteins of 24 and 40 kDa which support previous bioinformatic predictions of negevirus structural proteins.
Project description:The recently described taxon Negevirus is comprised of a diverse group of insect-specific viruses isolated from mosquitoes and phlebotomine sandflies. In this study, a comprehensive genetic characterization, molecular, epidemiological and evolutionary analyses were conducted on nearly full-length sequences of 91 new negevirus isolates obtained in Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Panama, USA and Nepal. We demonstrated that these arthropod restricted viruses are clustered in two major phylogenetic groups with origins related to three plant virus genera (Cilevirus, Higrevirus and Blunevirus). Molecular analyses demonstrated that specific host correlations are not present with most negeviruses; instead, high genetic variability, wide host-range, and cross-species transmission were noted. The data presented here also revealed the existence of five novel insect-specific viruses falling into two arthropod-restrictive virus taxa, previously proposed as distinct genera, designated Nelorpivirus and Sandewavirus. Our results provide a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology, evolution, taxonomy and stability of this group of insect-restricted viruses.
Project description:Pools of mosquitoes collected in Côte d'Ivoire and Mexico were tested for cytopathic effects on the mosquito cell line C6/36. Seven pools induced strong cytopathic effects after one to five days post infection and were further investigated by deep sequencing. The genomes of six virus isolates from Côte d'Ivoire showed pairwise nucleotide identities of ~99% among each other and of 56%-60% to Dezidougou virus and Wallerfield virus, two insect-specific viruses belonging to the proposed new taxon Negevirus. The novel virus was tentatively named Goutanap virus. The isolate derived from the Mexican mosquitoes showed 95% pairwise identity to Piura virus and was suggested to be a strain of Piura virus, named C6.7-MX-2008. Phylogenetic inferences based on a concatenated alignment of the methyltransferase, helicase, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains showed that the new taxon Negevirus formed two monophyletic clades, named Nelorpivirus and Sandewavirus after the viruses grouping in these clades. Branch lengths separating these clades were equivalent to those of the related genera Cilevirus, Higrevirus and Blunervirus, as well as to those within the family Virgaviridae. Genetic distances and phylogenetic analyses suggest that Nelorpivirus and Sandewavirus might form taxonomic groups on genus level that may define alone or together with Cilevirus, Higrevirus and Blunervirus a viral family.
Project description:Negeviruses are insect-specific enveloped RNA viruses that have been detected in mosquitoes and sandflies from various geographical locations. Here, we describe a new negevirus from Northern Europe, isolated from pool of Aedes vexans mosquitoes collected in Finland, designated as Mekrijärvi negevirus (MEJNV). MEJNV had a typical negevirus genome organization, is 9,740 nucleotides in length, and has a GC content of 47.53%. The MEJNV genome contains three ORFs, each containing the following identified conserved domains: ORF1 (7,068 nt) encodes a viral methyltransferase, an FtsJ-like methyltransferase, a viral RNA helicase, and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, ORF2 (1,242 nt) encodes a putative virion glycoprotein, and ORF3 (660 nt) encodes a putative virion membrane protein. A distinctive feature relative to other currently known negeviruses is a 7-nucleotide-long overlap between ORF1 and ORF2. MEJNV shares the highest sequence identity with Ying Kou virus from China, with 67.71% nucleotide and 75.19% and 59.00% amino acid sequence identity in ORF 1 and ORF 2, respectively. ORF3 had the highest amino acid sequence similarity to Daeseongdong virus 1 and negevirus Nona 1, both with 77.61% identity, and to Ying Kou virus, with 71.22% identity. MEJNV is currently the northernmost negevirus described. Our report supports the view that negeviruses are a globally distributed, diverse group of viruses that can be found from mosquitoes in a wide range of terrestrial biomes from tropical to boreal forests.
Project description:Pools of mosquitoes were tested for insect-specific viruses using cytopathic effect (CPE) assays on Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. Illumina sequencing of RNA from pool TR7094, which produced extensive CPE 2 days post-infection, yielded the complete genome sequences of a previously unknown Bunyavirus, designated Cumuto virus (CUMV), and a second virus designated Wallerfield virus (WALV). WALV shared highest amino acid identity (60.1 %) with Dezidougou virus from Côte d'Ivoire, a positive-sense, single-strand RNA, insect-specific virus belonging to the newly proposed genus Negevirus associated with mosquitoes and phlebotomine sandflies. The S, M and L segments of CUMV were most closely related to those of Gouleako virus, also from Côte d'Ivoire (amino acid identities of 36 %, 38% and 54 % respectively). Neither virus produced CPE on vertebrate cells, or illness in newborn mice. Isolation and characterization of these viruses increase our knowledge of the geographical distribution, diversity and host range of mosquito-specific bunyaviruses and negeviruses.
Project description:Passion fruit green spot and passion fruit sudden death are two reportedly distinct viral diseases that recurrently affect passion fruit (Passiflora spp.) groves in Brazil. Here we used a systematic approach that interconnects symptoms, transmission electron microscopy, RT-PCR detection assays followed by Sanger sequencing, and high-throughput sequencing of the RNA of affected passion fruit plants to gain insights about these diseases. Our data confirmed not only the involvement of cileviruses in these two pathologies, as previously suggested, but also that these viruses belong to the same tentative species: passion fruit green spot virus (PfGSV). Results revealed that PfGSV has a positive-sense RNA genome split into two molecules of approximately 9 kb (RNA1) and 5 kb (RNA2), which share about 50-70% nucleotide sequence identity with other viruses in the genus Cilevirus. Genome sequences of five PfGSV isolates suggest that they have more conserved RNA1 (<5% of nucleotide sequence variability) compared to RNA2 (up to 7% of variability) molecules. The highest nucleotide sequence divergence among PfGSV isolates and other cileviruses is in the genomic segment covering from the 5'-end of the RNA2 until the 5'-end of the open reading frame (ORF) p61, which includes the ORF p15 and the intergenic region. This genomic stretch also harbors a novel orphan ORF encoding a 13 kDa protein presenting a cysteine-rich domain. High variability of 5'-end of the RNA2 in cileviruses is discussed in an evolutionary context assuming that they share putative common ancestors with unclassified arthropod-infecting single-strand positive RNA viruses, including mosquito-specific viruses of the group Negevirus (clades Nelorpivirus and Sandwavirus), and other viruses in the family Kitaviridae.
Project description:Six novel insect-specific viruses, isolated from mosquitoes and phlebotomine sand flies collected in Brazil, Peru, the United States, Ivory Coast, Israel, and Indonesia, are described. Their genomes consist of single-stranded, positive-sense RNAs with poly(A) tails. By electron microscopy, the virions appear as spherical particles with diameters of ?45 to 55 nm. Based on their genome organization and phylogenetic relationship, the six viruses, designated Negev, Ngewotan, Piura, Loreto, Dezidougou, and Santana, appear to form a new taxon, tentatively designated Negevirus. Their closest but still distant relatives are citrus leposis virus C (CiLV-C) and viruses in the genus Cilevirus, which are mite-transmitted plant viruses. The negeviruses replicate rapidly and to high titer (up to 10(10) PFU/ml) in mosquito cells, producing extensive cytopathic effect and plaques, but they do not appear to replicate in mammalian cells or mice. A discussion follows on their possible biological significance and effect on mosquito vector competence for arboviruses.
Project description:The spectrum of viruses in insects is important for subjects as diverse as public health, veterinary medicine, food production, and biodiversity conservation. The traditional interest in vector-borne diseases of humans and livestock has drawn the attention of virus studies to hematophagous insect species. However, these represent only a tiny fraction of the broad diversity of Hexapoda, the most speciose group of animals. Here, we systematically probed the diversity of negative strand RNA viruses in the largest and most representative collection of insect transcriptomes from samples representing all 34 extant orders of Hexapoda and 3 orders of Entognatha, as well as outgroups, altogether representing 1243 species. Based on profile hidden Markov models we detected 488 viral RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRp) sequences with similarity to negative strand RNA viruses. These were identified in members of 324 arthropod species. Selection for length, quality, and uniqueness left 234 sequences for analyses, showing similarity to genomes of viruses classified in Bunyavirales (n = 86), Articulavirales (n = 54), and several orders within Haploviricotina (n = 94). Coding-complete genomes or nearly-complete subgenomic assemblies were obtained in 61 cases. Based on phylogenetic topology and the availability of coding-complete genomes we estimate that at least 20 novel viral genera in seven families need to be defined, only two of them monospecific. Seven additional viral clades emerge when adding sequences from the present study to formerly monospecific lineages, potentially requiring up to seven additional genera. One long sequence may indicate a novel family. For segmented viruses, cophylogenies between genome segments were generally improved by the inclusion of viruses from the present study, suggesting that in silico misassembly of segmented genomes is rare or absent. Contrary to previous assessments, significant virus-host codivergence was identified in major phylogenetic lineages based on two different approaches of codivergence analysis in a hypotheses testing framework. In spite of these additions to the known spectrum of viruses in insects, we caution that basing taxonomic decisions on genome information alone is challenging due to technical uncertainties, such as the inability to prove integrity of complete genome assemblies of segmented viruses.
Project description:The diversity and evolution of RNA viruses has been well studied in arthropods and especially in insects. However, the diversity of RNA viruses in the basal hexapods has not been analysed yet. To better understand their diversity, evolutionary histories and genome organizations, we searched for RNA viruses in transcriptome and genome databases of basal hexapods. We discovered 40 novel RNA viruses, some of which are also present as endogenous viral elements derived from RNA viruses. Here, we demonstrated that basal hexapods host 14 RNA viral clades that have been recently identified in invertebrates. The following RNA viral clades are associated with basal hexapods: Reo, Partiti-Picobirna, Toti-Chryso, Mono-Chu, Bunya-Arena, Orthomyxo, Qinvirus, Picorna-Calici, Hepe-Virga, Narna-Levi, Tombus-Noda, Luteo-Sobemo, Permutotetra and Flavi. We have found representatives of the nine RNA viral clades that are present as endogenous genomic copies in the genomes of Machilis (Monocondylia) and Catajapyx (Diplura). Our study provided a first insight into the diversity of RNA viruses in basal hexapods and demonstrated that the basal hexapods possess quite high diversity of RNA viral clades.
Project description:Triatoma infestans is an important hematophagous vector of Chagas disease, a neglected chronic illness affecting approximately 6 million people in Latin America. Hematophagous insects possess several molecules in their saliva that counteract host defensive responses. Calreticulin (CRT), a multifunctional protein secreted in saliva, contributes to the feeding process in some insects. Human CRT (HuCRT) and Trypanosoma cruzi CRT (TcCRT) inhibit the classical pathway of complement activation, mainly by interacting through their central S domain with complement component C1. In previous studies, we have detected CRT in salivary gland extracts from T. infestans We have called this molecule TiCRT. Given that the S domain is responsible for C1 binding, we have tested its role in the classical pathway of complement activation in vertebrate blood. We have cloned and characterized the complete nucleotide sequence of CRT from T. infestans, and expressed its S domain. As expected, this S domain binds to human C1 and, as a consequence, it inhibits the classical pathway of complement, at its earliest stage of activation, namely the generation of C4b. Possibly, the presence of TiCRT in the salivary gland represents an evolutionary adaptation in hematophagous insects to control a potential activation of complement proteins, present in the massive blood meal that they ingest, with deleterious consequences at least on the anterior digestive tract of these insects.