Sex Disparities in the Self-Evaluation of Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation Effects on Mood and Personality in Parkinson's Disease Patients.
ABSTRACT: Changes in personality are one of the main concerns Parkinson's disease (PD) patients raise when facing the decision to undergo neurosurgery for deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). While clinical instruments for monitoring functional changes following DBS surgery are well-established in the daily therapeutic routine, personality issues are far less systematically encompassed. Moreover, while sex disparities in the outcomes of STN-DBS therapy have been reported, little is known about the different effects that DBS treatment may have on mood and personality traits in female and male patients. To this aim, the effect of STN-DBS on personality traits was assessed in 46 PD patients (12 women and 34 men) by means of the Freiburg Personality Inventory. The Becks Depression Inventory (BDI-I) and the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire were used to evaluate patients' level of depression and quality of life (QoL). Patients completed the questionnaires a few days before, within the first year, and 2 years after surgery. The 12 personality traits defined by the FPI-R questionnaire did not change significantly after STN-DBS surgery (p = 0.198). Women declared higher depression scores through all study stages (p = 0.009), but also showed a stronger QoL amelioration after surgery than male patients (p = 0.022). The BDI-I scores of female patients clearly correlated with their levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD; r = 0.621, p = 0.008). Remarkably, in both male and female patients, higher pre-operative LEDDs were related to worse post-operative QoL scores (p = 0.034). These results mitigate the concerns about systematic personality changes due to STN-DBS treatment in PD patients and encourage an early DBS approach, before severe levodopa-induced sequelae may irreparably compromise the patients' QoL. In the future, more focus should lie on sex-related effects, since female patients seem to profit more than male patients from STN-DBS, in terms of reduced depressive symptoms associated with a reduction of the LEDD and amelioration of QoL. These aspects may help to redress the sex imbalance in PD patients treated with DBS, given that women are still strongly under-represented.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Everyday functioning and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) play a vital role in preserving the quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) after deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS).<h4>Objective</h4>The main goal of the current study was to examine IADL change in pre-and post-surgery of the STN-DBS. We also analyzed the influence of the levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD) and global cognitive performance (Dementia Rating Scale; DRS-2) as covariates in relation to IADL.<h4>Methods</h4>Thirty-two non-demented PD patients were administered before and after STN-DBS neurosurgery the Penn Parkinson's Daily Activities Questionnaire (PDAQ; self-report), the DRS-2 and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) to assess IADL change, global cognition, and depression.<h4>Results</h4>We found a positive effect of STN-DBS on IADL in the post-surgery phase. Moreover, lower global cognition and lower LEDD are predictive of lower IADL in both pre-surgery and post-surgery examinations.<h4>Summary/conclusion</h4>STN-DBS in PD is a safe method for improvement of everyday functioning and IADL. In the post-surgery phase, we show a relation of IADL to the severity of cognitive impairment in PD and to LEDD.
Project description:Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The G2385R variant of LRRK2 is a risk factor for PD in Han Chinese individuals. We retrospectively compared the clinical outcomes of STN-DBS surgery between PD Han Chinese G2385R variant carriers and non-carriers. Fifty-seven PD patients with bilateral STN-DBS were enrolled, including 8 G2385R+ variant carriers (G2385R+ group) and 49 non-carriers (G2385R- group). Clinical data included Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) parts I to IV, levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD), Mini-Mental State Examination Scale (MMSE) score, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) score measured prior to DBS and 12 months post-DBS. DBS settings were also recorded. All PD patients benefited from STN-DBS surgery. There were no statistical differences between the two groups in terms of motor function, daily living activities, and LEDD reductions at 12 months post-DBS. The rigidity of the post-surgical G2385R+ group was significantly improved compared with that of the G2385R- group (P = 0.045). Post-surgical voltage in the G2385R+ group was significantly higher than that in the G2385R- group (P = 0.033). STN-DBS outcomes were not influenced by the LRRK2 G2385R variant in Han Chinese patients.
Project description:To identify predictors of 36-month follow-up quality of life (QoL) outcome after bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). In this ongoing, prospective, multicenter international study (Cologne, Manchester, London) including 73 patients undergoing STN-DBS, we assessed the following scales preoperatively and at 6-month and 36-month follow-up: PD Questionnaire-8 (PDQ-8), NMSScale (NMSS), Scales for Outcomes in PD (SCOPA)-motor examination, -activities of daily living, and -complications, and levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD). We analyzed factors associated with QoL improvement at 36-month follow-up based on (1) correlations between baseline test scores and QoL improvement, (2) step-wise linear regressions with baseline test scores as independent and QoL improvement as dependent variables, (3) logistic regressions and receiver operating characteristic curves using a dichotomized variable "QoL responders"/"non-responders". At both follow-ups, NMSS total score, SCOPA-motor examination, and -complications improved and LEDD was reduced significantly. PDQ-8 improved at 6-month follow-up with subsequent decrements in gains at 36-month follow-up when 61.6% of patients were categorized as "QoL non-responders". Correlations, linear, and logistic regression analyses found greater PDQ-8 improvements in patients with younger age, worse PDQ-8, and worse specific NMS at baseline, such as 'difficulties experiencing pleasure' and 'problems sustaining concentration'. Baseline SCOPA scores were not associated with PDQ-8 changes. Our results provide evidence that 36-month QoL changes depend on baseline neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric non-motor symptoms burden. These findings highlight the need for an assessment of a wide range of non-motor and motor symptoms when advising and selecting individuals for DBS therapy.
Project description:Background:Several studies examined the influence of subthalamic nucleus-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) on quality of life (QoL) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is unclear whether this effect differs between age groups and disease durations and whether it stays consistent over time. Objectives:We assessed the influence of stimulation duration, disease duration, and age at surgery on QoL after STN-DBS. Methods:We systematically searched for studies reporting the results of the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire 39 or 8. Studies were included if they investigated the time passed since STN-DBS or if their study cohort fell into the range of one of the following age groups: younger than 60?years or between 60 and 70?years. For each condition, a standardized mean difference meta-analysis was performed. Furthermore, all studies were categorized into short or long disease duration at surgery using a median split. Results:A total of 23 studies reporting the cumulative outcome of 76 to 802 PD patients were included in this analysis. The results demonstrate a substantial improvement of QoL after DBS that remains stable over 36 months. QoL falls to preoperative scores 60 months after surgery. However, only 3 studies could be included in this analysis. Both younger and older PD patients profit in QoL from STN-DBS, independent of the disease duration. Conclusions:The results of this analysis show an impressive improvement in QoL after STN-DBS, with a loss of QoL 60 months after DBS surgery. This highlights the need to explore the factors influencing QoL after STN-DBS to prevent or delay a decline in QoL.
Project description:PURPOSE:To study the effect of STN-DBS on balance performance of Parkinson's disease. METHOD:16 idiopathic PD patients treated with bilateral STN-DBS (DBS Group) and 20 PD patients treated with Levodopa (Medicine group) were included in the study. Clinical material including Levodopa Equivalent Daily Dose (LEDD, mg/day), life quality (PDQ-39) were collected. For DBS group and Medicine group, The motor disability (Movement Disorder Society-Sponsored Revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale ?, MDS-UPDRSIII) and balance performance (MDS-UPDRS 3.12, Berg Balance Scale BBS) and the Limits of Stability (LoS) (target acquisition percentage, trunk swing angle standard deviation, time) in state of Med-Off/Med-On at preoperation, postoperation, 6 months postoperation and 12 months postoperation were evaluated. Repeated ANOVA was used to analyze the effect of STN-DBS on balance performance. RESULT:The Clinical material (age, gender, duration, LEDD preoperation, PDQ39), motor disability (Med-on/Med-Off), balance performance (Med-on/Med-Off) and LoS preoperation had no differences in DBS-group and Medical-group (P>0.05). During the follow up, LEDD, PDQ39, Motor disability (MDS-UPDRSIII), balance performance (MDS-UPDRS 3.12, BBS) in Medicine-group had no significant changes in both Med-Off and Med-On. For DBS-group, immediately improvement of motor disability (MDS-UPDRSIII), LoS (target acquisition percentage, trunk swing angle standard deviation, time) and LEDD were observed postoperation (P<0.05); PDQ39, balance performance (MDS-UPDRS 3.12, BBS) began to improve at 6 months and 12 months postoperation. Repeated ANOVA showed that DBS could significantly improve the motor disability, balance performance and LoS in PD. CONCLUSION:STN-DBS could improve the balance performance of PD patients in H&Y3.
Project description:Although deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has become an established treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), a recent meta-analysis of outcomes is lacking. To address this gap, we performed a meta-analysis of bilateral STN- and GPi-DBS studies published from 1990-08/2019. Studies with ≥10 subjects reporting Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III motor scores at baseline and 6-12 months follow-up were included. Several outcome variables were analyzed and adverse events (AE) were summarized. 39 STN studies (2035 subjects) and 5 GPi studies (292 subjects) were eligible. UPDRS-II score after surgery in the stimulation-ON/medication-OFF state compared to preoperative medication-OFF state improved by 47% with STN-DBS and 18.5% with GPi-DBS. UPDRS-III score improved by 50.5% with STN-DBS and 29.8% with GPi-DBS. STN-DBS improved dyskinesia by 64%, daily OFF time by 69.1%, and quality of life measured by PDQ-39 by 22.2%, while Levodopa Equivalent Daily Dose (LEDD) was reduced by 50.0%. For GPi-DBS information regarding dyskinesia, OFF time, PDQ-39 and LEDD was insufficient for further analysis. Correlation analysis showed that preoperative L-dopa responsiveness was highly predictive of the STN-DBS motor outcome across all studies. Most common surgery-related AE were infection (5.1%) and intracranial hemorrhage (3.1%). Despite a series of technological advances, outcomes of modern surgery are still comparable with those of the early days of DBS. Recent changes in target selection with a preference of GPi in elderly patients with cognitive deficits and more psychiatric comorbidities require more published data for validation.
Project description:While deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery is a well-accepted treatment for Parkinson disease (PD) that improves overall quality of life (QoL), its effects across different domains of QoL are unclear. The study reported here directly compared the effects of unilateral DBS in subthalamic nucleus (STN) or globus pallidus (GPi) on QoL in 42 non-demented patients with medication-refractory PD. Patients were enrolled in the COMPARE trial, a randomized clinical trial of cognitive and mood effects of STN versus GPi DBS conducted at the University of Florida Movement Disorders Center. Patients underwent motor, mood, verbal fluency and QoL (Parkinson disease questionnaire: PDQ-39) measures before and 6 months following surgery. Groups experienced motor and mood improvements that did not differ by target. Patients with STN DBS evidenced a slight decrement on letter fluency. On average, all patients endorsed better overall QoL after surgery. However, despite similar motor and mood improvements, GPi patients improved more than STN patients (38 vs. 14%, respectively; P = 0.03). Patients reported better QoL on subscales of mobility, activities of daily living (ADLs), emotional well-being, stigma, cognition and discomfort, but not on those of social support and communication. Improvements on the mobility, ADLs, stigma and social support subscales were greater amongst GPi patients. In regression analyses, only depression changes independently predicted changes in overall QoL as well as emotional well-being and social support changes. Within the STN group only, declining category fluency scores correlated with poorer QoL on the communication subscale. Unilateral DBS in both STN and GPi improved QoL overall and in disparate domains 6 months after surgery. Patients receiving GPi DBS reported greater improvements that cannot be explained by differential mood or motor effects; however, verbal fluency changes may have partially contributed to lesser QoL improvements amongst STN patients.
Project description:Sleep-wake disturbances (SWD) are frequent in Parkinson's disease (PD). The effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on SWD is poorly known. In this study we examined the subjective and objective sleep-wake profile and the quality of life (QoL) of PD patients in the context of subthalamic DBS.We retrospectively analyzed data from PD patients and candidates for DBS in the nucleus suthalamicus (STN). Pre-DBS, sleep-wake assessments included subjective and objective (polysomnography, vigilance tests and actigraphy) measures. Post-DBS, subjective measures were collected. QoL was assessed using the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) and the RAND SF-36-item Health Survey (RAND SF-36).Data from 74 PD patients (62% male, mean age 62.2 years, SD = 8.9) with a mean UPDRS-III (OFF) of 34.2 (SD = 14.8) and 11.8 (SD = 4.5) years under PD treatment were analyzed. Pre-DBS, daytime sleepiness, apathy, fatigue and depressive symptoms were present in 49%, 34%, 38% and 25% of patients respectively but not always as co-occurring symptoms. Sleep-wake disturbances were significantly correlated with QoL scores. One year after STN DBS, motor signs, QoL and sleepiness improved but apathy worsened. Changes in QoL were associated with changes in sleepiness and apathy but baseline sleep-wake functions were not predictive of STN DBS outcome.In PD patients presenting for STN DBS, subjective and objective sleep-wake disturbances are common and have a negative impact on QoL before and after neurosurgery. Given the current preliminary evidence, prospective observational studies assessing subjective and objective sleep-wake variables prior to and after DBS are needed.
Project description:Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) reduces Parkinson disease (PD) motor symptoms but has unexplained, variable effects on mood.The study tested the hypothesis that pre-existing mood and/or anxiety disorders or increased symptom severity negatively affects mood response to STN DBS.Thirty-eight PD participants with bilateral STN DBS and on PD medications were interviewed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID) and completed Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (SSAI) self-reports. Subsequently, during OFF and optimal ON (clinical settings) STN DBS conditions and while off PD medications, motor function was assessed with the United Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, part III), and participants rated their mood with Visual Analogue Scales (VAS), and again completed SSAI. VAS mood variables included anxiety, apathy, valence and emotional arousal.STN DBS improved UPDRS scores and mood. Unexpectedly, PD participants diagnosed with current anxiety or mood disorders experienced greater STN DBS-induced improvement in mood than those diagnosed with remitted disorders or who were deemed as having never met threshold criteria for diagnosis. BDI and SSAI scores did not modulate mood response to STN DBS, indicating that clinical categorical diagnosis better differentiates mood response to STN DBS than self-rated symptom severity. SCID diagnosis, BDI and SSAI scores did not modulate motor response to STN DBS.PD participants diagnosed with current mood or anxiety disorders are more sensitive to STN DBS-induced effects on mood, possibly indicating altered basal ganglia circuitry in this group.
Project description:<b>Objective:</b> This study aimed to evaluate the direct anti-dyskinesia effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of subthalamic nucleus (STN) on levodopa-induced on-dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients during the early period after surgery without reducing the levodopa dosage. <b>Methods:</b> We retrospectively reviewed PD patients who underwent STN-DBS from January 2017 to October 2019 and enrolled patients with levodopa-induced on-dyskinesia before surgery and without a history of thalamotomy or pallidotomy. The Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS) parts I+III+IV and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS-III) were monitored prior to surgery, and at the 3-month follow-up, the location of active contacts was calculated by postoperative CT-MRI image fusion to identify stimulation sites with good anti-dyskinesia effect. <b>Results:</b> There were 41 patients enrolled. The postoperative levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD) (823.1 ± 201.5 mg/day) was not significantly changed from baseline (844.6 ± 266.1 mg/day, <i>P</i> = 0.348), while the UDysRS on-dyskinesia subscores significantly decreased from 24 (10-58) to 0 (0-18) [median (range)] after STN stimulation (<i>P</i> < 0.0001). The levodopa-induced on-dyskinesia recurred in stimulation-off/medication-on state in all the 41 patients and disappeared in 39 patients when DBS stimulation was switched on at 3 months of follow-up. The active contacts which correspond to good effect for dyskinesia were located above the STN, and the mean coordinate was 13.05 ± 1.24 mm lateral, -0.13 ± 1.16 mm posterior, and 0.72 ± 0.78 mm superior to the midcommissural point. <b>Conclusions:</b> High-frequency electrical stimulation of the area above the STN can directly suppress levodopa-induced on-dyskinesia.