Evaluation of Mortality in Atrial Fibrillation: Clinical Outcomes in Digital Electrocardiography (CODE) Study.
ABSTRACT: Aims:Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a public health problem and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. Electronic cohorts, with large electrocardiogram (ECG) databases linked to mortality data, can be useful in determining prognostic value of ECG abnormalities. Our aim is to evaluate the risk of mortality in patients with AF from Brazil. Methods:This observational retrospective study of primary care patients was developed with the digital ECG database from the Telehealth Network of Minas Gerais, Brazil. ECGs performed from 2010 to 2017 were interpreted by cardiologists and the University of Glasgow automated analysis software. An electronic cohort was obtained linking data from ECG exams and those from a national mortality information system, using standard probabilistic linkage methods. We considered only the first ECG of each patient. Patients under 16 years were excluded. Hazard ratios (HR) for mortality were adjusted for demographic and self-reported clinical factors and estimated with Cox regression. Results:From a dataset of 1,773,689 patients, 1,558,421 were included, mean age 51.6 years; 40.2% male. There were 3.34% deaths from all causes in 3.68 years of median follow up. The prevalence of AF was 1.33%. AF was an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality (HR 2.10, 95%CI 2.03-2.17) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 2.06, 95%CI 1.86-2.29). Females with AF had a higher risk of overall and cardiovascular mortality compared with males (p < 0.001). Conclusions:AF was a strong predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in a primary care population, with increased risk in women. Condensed abstract:To assess risk of mortality in AF patients, an electronic cohort was obtained linking data from ECG exams of Brazilian primary care patients and a national mortality information system. From 1,558,421 patients, AF (prevalence 1.33%) carried a higher risk of overall and cardiovascular mortality, with increased risk in women. What’s New:This is the first study with a large Brazilian electronic cohort to evaluate the risk of mortality linked to AF in primary care patients.AF patients from a Brazilian primary care population had a higher risk of death for all causes (HR 2.10, 95%CI 2.03-2.17) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 2.06, 95%CI 1.86-2.29).Female patients with AF had an increased risk of overall and cardiovascular mortality compared with male patients (p < 0.001).
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aim was to determine the association between atrial fibrillation (AF) and outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS:All patients undergoing CABG between January 2010 and June 2013 were identified in the Swedish Heart Surgery Registry. Outcomes studied were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, ischemic stroke, and recurrent AF. Patients with history of AF prior to surgery (preoperative AF) and patients without history of AF but with AF episodes post-surgery (postoperative AF) were compared to patients with no AF using adjusted Cox regression models. RESULTS:Among 9,107 identified patients, 8.1% (n = 737) had preoperative AF, and 25.1% (n = 2,290) had postoperative AF. Median follow-up was 2.2 years. Compared to no AF, preoperative AF was associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality, adjusted hazard ratio with 95% confidence interval (HR) 1.76 (1.33-2.33); cardiovascular mortality, HR 2.43 (1.68-3.50); and congestive heart failure, HR 2.21 (1.72-2.84). Postoperative AF was associated with risk of all-cause mortality, HR 1.27 (1.01-1.60); cardiovascular mortality, HR 1.52 (1.10-2.11); congestive heart failure, HR 1.47 (1.18-1.83); and recurrent AF, HR 4.38 (2.46-7.78). No significant association was observed between pre- or postoperative AF and risk for myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. CONCLUSIONS:Approximately 1 in 3 patients undergoing CABG had pre- or postoperative AF. Patients with pre- or postoperative AF were at higher risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and congestive heart failure, but not of myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke. Postoperative AF was associated with higher risk of recurrent AF.
Project description:Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with substantially increased risk of cardiovascular events and overall mortality. The Atrial fibrillation Better Care (A-Avoid stroke, B-Better symptom management, C-Cardiovascular and comorbidity risk management) pathway provides a simple and comprehensive approach for integrated AF therapy. This study's goals were to evaluate the ABC pathway compliance and determine the main gaps in AF management in the Middle East population, and to assess the impact of ABC pathway adherence on the all-cause mortality and composite outcome in AF patients. 2021 patients (mean age 57; 52% male) from the Gulf SAFE registry were studied. We evaluated: A-appropriate implementation of OACs according to CHA2DS2-VASc score; B-symptom control according to European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) symptom scale; C-proper cardiovascular comorbidities management. The primary endpoints were the composite cardiovascular outcome (ischemic stroke or systemic embolism, all-cause death and cardiovascular hospitalization) and all-cause mortality. One-hundred and sixty-eight (8.3%) patients were optimally managed according to adherence with the ABC pathway. Over the one-year follow up (FU), there were 578 composite outcome events and 224 deaths. Patients managed with integrated care had significantly lower rates for the composite outcome and mortality comparing to non-ABC group (20.8% vs. 29.3%, p = 0.02 and 7.3% vs. 13.1%, p = 0.033, respectively). On multivariable analysis, ABC compliance was independently associated with reduced risk of composite outcome (HR 0.53; 95% CI 0.36-0.8, p = 0.002) and death (HR 0.46; 95% CI 0.25-0.86, p = 0.015). Integrated ABC pathway adherent care resulted in the reduced composite outcome and all-cause mortality in AF patients from Middle East, highlighting the necessity of promoting comprehensive holistic and integrated care management of AF.
Project description:Atrial fibrillation (AF) developing after cardiac surgery is the most common postoperative complication with an incidence up to 50%. The presence of postoperative AF is associated with significant morbidity, mortality and economic burden. However, in Vietnam, data on AF postcardiac surgery are limited, in part due to a shortage of screening equipment. This project aims to identify the incidence, risk factors and postoperative complications of new-onset postoperative AF after cardiac surgery, and the feasibility of introducing a novel screening strategy using the combination of two portable devices to detect AF.This is a feasibility study examining patients who are (1) ?18 years old; (2) undergoing coronary artery bypass graft and/or valve surgery and (3) in normal sinus rhythm prior to their operation. Patients with congenital heart disease, a prior history of AF or those who require a pacemaker after surgery will be excluded. All patients will be followed up for the duration of their hospitalisation. The screening strategy will include monitoring the continuous ECG tracing in the intensive care unit, and if AF is suspected, a 30?s lead-1 ECG will be recorded using the smartphone-based AliveCor Kardia Mobile. On the postoperative wards, blood pressure will be measured three times daily using a modified blood pressure device (Microlife BP200 Afib): and if AF is suspected a 30?s ECG will be recorded using the AliveCor Kardia Mobile. A 12-lead ECG may be ordered subsequently if clinically indicated. The primary outcome is the incidence of postoperative AF. Secondary outcomes include establishing the risk factors and complications associated with postoperative AF; and the barriers and facilitators of the screening strategy.Ethics approval was granted by Scientific Board of Cardiovascular Centre, E Hospital on 28 September, 2017. Study results will be disseminated through local and international conferences and peer-reviewed publications.
Project description:Background:Preventing ischaemic stroke attracts significant focus in atrial fibrillation (AF) cases. Less is known on the association between socioeconomic factors and mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with AF. Methods:Our study population included adults (n=12 283) ?45 years diagnosed with AF at 75 primary care centres in Sweden 2001-07. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between the exposures educational level, marital status, neighbourhood socioeconomic status and the outcomes all-cause mortality, after adjustment for age, and comorbid cardiovascular conditions. Results:During a mean of 5.8 years (SD 2.4) of follow-up, 3954 (32.3%) patients had died; 1971 were women (35.0%) and 1983 were men (29.8%). Higher educational level was associated with a reduced mortality in fully adjusted models: HR 0.85 (95% CI 0.77-0.96) for secondary school in men, HR 0.73 (95% CI 0.60-0.88) for college/university in women, and HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.71-0.94) for college/university in men, compared to primary school. Unmarried men and divorced men had an increased risk of death, compared with married men: HR 1.25 (95% CI 1.05-1.50), and HR 1.23 (95% CI 1.07-1.42), respectively. College/university education level was also associated with lower risk of myocardial infarction in men and women, and lower risk of congestive heart failure in women. Conclusion:More attention could be paid to individuals of lower levels of formal education, and unmarried men, in order to provide timely management for AF and prevent its debilitating complications.
Project description:New electronic devices offer an opportunity within routine primary care settings for improving the detection of atrial fibrillation (AF), which is a common cardiac arrhythmia and a modifiable risk factor for stroke. We aimed to assess the performance of a modified blood pressure (BP) monitor and two single-lead ECG devices, as diagnostic triage tests for the detection of AF.6 General Practices in the UK.1000 ambulatory patients aged 75 years and over.Comparative diagnostic accuracy of modified BP monitor and single-lead ECG devices, compared to reference standard of 12-lead ECG, independently interpreted by cardiologists.A total of 79 participants (7.9%) had AF diagnosed by 12-lead ECG. All three devices had a high sensitivity (93.9-98.7%) and are useful for ruling out AF. WatchBP is a better triage test than Omron autoanalysis because it is more specific-89.7% (95% CI 87.5% to 91.6%) compared to 78.3% (95% CI 73.0% to 82.9%), respectively. This would translate into a lower follow-on ECG rate of 17% to rule in/rule out AF compared to 29.7% with the Omron text message in the study population. The overall specificity of single-lead ECGs analysed by a cardiologist was 94.6% for Omron and 90.1% for Merlin.WatchBP performs better as a triage test for identifying AF in primary care than the single-lead ECG monitors as it does not require expertise for interpretation and its diagnostic performance is comparable to single-lead ECG analysis by cardiologists. It could be used opportunistically to screen elderly patients for undiagnosed AF at regular intervals and/or during BP measurement.
Project description:Metabolic syndrome (MS) and atrial fibrillation (AF) are associated with increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. This analysis evaluated the association between MS and AF in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. MS was defined using criteria recommended in the joint interim statement from several international societies. AF was defined by electrocardiogram (ECG) and/or self-report and by ECG alone. In patients with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 MS components, prevalences of AF by ECG and/or self-report were 5.5%, 7.7%, 8.2%, 9.2%, 9.6%, and 11.5%, respectively (p for trend <0.001). After multivariable adjustment, each MS component except serum triglycerides was significantly associated with AF. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for AF, defined by ECG and/or or self-reported history, comparing those with to those without MS was 1.20 (95% confidence interval 1.10 to 1.29). Results were consistent when AF was defined by ECG alone (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 0.92 to 1.39). In conclusion, MS is associated with an increased prevalence of AF. Further studies investigating a potential mechanism for this excess risk are warranted.
Project description:AIMS:Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent comorbidity in patients with heart failure (HF). HF patients with AF are characterized by high morbidity and increased risk of hospitalizations. We assessed the effects of remote patient management (RPM) in HF patients with AF compared with usual care (UC) in the TIM-HF2 trial. METHODS AND RESULTS:For this post-hoc analysis, AF status at randomization was assessed in 1537 patients with HF. The primary outcome was the percentage of days lost due to unplanned cardiovascular hospital admissions or death of any cause. Around 966 patients had sinus rhythm (SR) and 571 had AF. The analysis showed a significant interaction between heart rhythm and all-cause mortality (P for interaction = 0.001). AF patients had more days lost due to unplanned cardiovascular hospitalization than SR patients (7.53%, CI 6.01-9.05 vs. 4.90%, CI 3.98-5.82, ratio 1.54, P = 0.004) and higher all-cause mortality (11.9%, CI 9.4-14.9 vs. 8.5%, CI 6.8-10.4, HR 0.66, CI 0.47-0.94, P = 0.029). Patients with AF randomized to RPM had significantly less days lost due to unplanned cardiovascular hospital admissions or all-cause death (5.64%, CI 3.81-7.48) than patients with AF randomized to UC (9.37%, CI 6.98-11.76, ratio 0.60, P = 0.015). No difference was seen in SR patients (UC: 5.25%, CI 3.93-6.58, RPM: 4.55%, CI 3.27-5.83, ratio 0.87, P = 0.452). All-cause mortality in AF patients was reduced with 9.2% (CI 6.1-13.2) in the RPM group compared with 14.5% (CI 10.7-18.1) in the UC group (HR 0.60, CI 0.36-1.00, P = 0.050). CONCLUSIONS:For patients with atrial fibrillation at study entry, RPM was associated with increased days alive out of hospital. Our results identify HF patients with atrial fibrillation as a promising target population for RPM.
Project description:AIMS:Atrial fibrillation (AF) confers higher risk of mortality and morbidity, but the long-term impact of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on outcomes in AF patients is unknown. We, therefore, examined the prospective associations of PA and estimated CRF (eCRF) with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, morbidity and stroke in individuals with AF. METHODS AND RESULTS:We followed 1117 AF patients from the HUNT3 study in 2006-08 until first occurrence of the outcomes or end of follow-up in November 2015. We used Cox proportional hazard regression to examine the prospective associations of self-reported PA and eCRF with the outcomes. Atrial fibrillation patients meeting PA guidelines had lower risk of all-cause [hazard ratio (HR) 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-0.75] and CVD mortality (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.86) compared with inactive patients. The respective HRs for CVD morbidity and stroke were 0.78 (95% CI 0.58-1.04) and 0.70 (95% CI 0.42-1.15). Each 1-metabolic equivalent task (MET) higher eCRF was associated with a lower risk of all-cause (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.81-0.95), CVD mortality (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.76-0.95), and morbidity (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.82-0.95). CONCLUSION:Higher PA and CRF are associated with lower long-term risk of CVD and all-cause mortality in individuals with AF. The findings support a role for regular PA and improved CRF in AF patients, in order to combat the elevated risk for mortality and morbidity.
Project description:The endogenous amino acid homoarginine predicts mortality in cerebro- and cardiovascular disease. The objective was to explore whether homoarginine is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) and outcome in patients with acute chest pain.One thousand six hundred forty-nine patients with acute chest pain were consecutively enrolled in this study, of whom 589 were diagnosed acute coronary syndrome (ACS). On admission, plasma concentrations of homoarginine as well as brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and high-sensitivity assayed troponin I (hsTnI) were determined along with electrocardiography (ECG) variables. During a median follow-up of 183 days, 60 major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs; 3.8%), including all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, were registered in the overall study population and 43 MACEs (7.5%) in the ACS subgroup. Adjusted multivariable Cox regression analyses revealed that an increase of 1 SD of plasma log-transformed homoarginine (0.37) was associated with a hazard reduction of 26% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.96) for incident MACE and likewise of 35% (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.49-0.88) in ACS patients. In Kaplan-Meier survival curves, homoarginine was predictive for patients with high-sensitivity assayed troponin I (hsTnI) above 27 ng/L (P<0.05). Last, homoarginine was inversely associated with QTc duration (P<0.001) and prevalent AF (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71-0.95).Low plasma homoarginine was identified as a risk marker for incident MACEs in patients with acute chest pain, in particular, in those with elevated hsTnI. Impaired homoarginine was associated with prevalent AF. Further studies are needed to investigate the link to AF and evaluate homoarginine as a therapeutic option for these patients.
Project description:AIMS:To evaluate whether integrated care for atrial fibrillation (AF) can be safely orchestrated in primary care. METHODS AND RESULTS:The ALL-IN trial was a cluster randomized, open-label, pragmatic non-inferiority trial performed in primary care practices in the Netherlands. We randomized 26 practices: 15 to the integrated care intervention and 11 to usual care. The integrated care intervention consisted of (i) quarterly AF check-ups by trained nurses in primary care, also focusing on possibly interfering comorbidities, (ii) monitoring of anticoagulation therapy in primary care, and finally (iii) easy-access availability of consultations from cardiologists and anticoagulation clinics. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality during 2 years of follow-up. In the intervention arm, 527 out of 941 eligible AF patients aged ?65 years provided informed consent to undergo the intervention. These 527 patients were compared with 713 AF patients in the control arm receiving usual care. Median age was 77 (interquartile range 72-83) years. The all-cause mortality rate was 3.5 per 100 patient-years in the intervention arm vs. 6.7 per 100 patient-years in the control arm [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.82]. For non-cardiovascular mortality, the adjusted HR was 0.47 (95% CI 0.27-0.82). For other adverse events, no statistically significant differences were observed. CONCLUSION:In this cluster randomized trial, integrated care for elderly AF patients in primary care showed a 45% reduction in all-cause mortality when compared with usual care.