Genome sequence of the progenitor of the wheat D genome Aegilops tauschii.
ABSTRACT: Aegilops tauschii is the diploid progenitor of the D genome of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, genomes AABBDD) and an important genetic resource for wheat. The large size and highly repetitive nature of the Ae. tauschii genome has until now precluded the development of a reference-quality genome sequence. Here we use an array of advanced technologies, including ordered-clone genome sequencing, whole-genome shotgun sequencing, and BioNano optical genome mapping, to generate a reference-quality genome sequence for Ae. tauschii ssp. strangulata accession AL8/78, which is closely related to the wheat D genome. We show that compared to other sequenced plant genomes, including a much larger conifer genome, the Ae. tauschii genome contains unprecedented amounts of very similar repeated sequences. Our genome comparisons reveal that the Ae. tauschii genome has a greater number of dispersed duplicated genes than other sequenced genomes and its chromosomes have been structurally evolving an order of magnitude faster than those of other grass genomes. The decay of colinearity with other grass genomes correlates with recombination rates along chromosomes. We propose that the vast amounts of very similar repeated sequences cause frequent errors in recombination and lead to gene duplications and structural chromosome changes that drive fast genome evolution.
Project description:Wild diploid wheat Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome progenitor of common wheat, carries large genetic variation in spikelet and grain morphology. Two differentiated subspecies of Ae. tauschii, subspecies tauschii and strangulata, have been traditionally defined based on differences in spikelet morphology. Here, we first assessed six spikelet shape-related traits among 199 Ae. tauschii accessions, and found that the accessions belonging to TauL1major lineage produced significantly longer spikes, higher spikelet density, and shorter, narrower spikelets than another major lineage, TauL2, in which the strangulata accessions are included. Next, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of the spikelet and grain shape using three mapping populations derived from interlineage crosses between TauL1 and TauL2 to identify the genetic loci for the morphological variations of the spikelet and grain shape in Ae. tauschii. Three major QTL regions for the examined traits were detected on chromosomes 3D, 4D and 7D. The 3D and 4D QTL regions for several spikelet shape-related traits were conserved in the three mapping populations, which indicated that the 3D and 4D QTLs contribute to divergence of the two major lineages. The 7D QTLs were found only in a mapping population from a cross of the two subspecies, suggesting that these 7D QTLs may be closely related to subspecies differentiation in Ae. tauschii. Thus, QTL analysis for spikelet and grain morphology may provide useful information to elucidate the evolutionary processes of intraspecific differentiation.
Project description:Gene expression levels of newly synthetic triploid wheat (ABD), its chromosome-doubled hexaploid (AABBDD), stable synthetic hexaploid (AABBDD), and their parents, Triticum turgidum (accession KU124, AABB) and Aegilops tauschii (accession KU2074, DD) were compared to understand genome-wide change of gene expressions during the course of amphidiploidization and genome stabilization. Stable synthetic hexaploid which were maintained through self-pollinations for 13 generations using the same combinations of the parents for production of synthetic common wheat. Overall design: Amphidiploidization event between T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum (AABB) and Ae. tauschii ssp. strangulata (DD) was recreated. Gene expression levels of newly synthetic triploid wheat (ABD), its chromosome-doubled hexaploid (AABBDD), stable synthetic hexaploid (AABBDD), and their parents, Triticum turgidum (AABB) and Aegilops tauschii (DD) were compared. Total RNA of each line was extracted from three biological replicates of two leaves seedlings.
Project description:The low diversity of the D-subgenome of bread wheat requires the involvement of new alleles for breeding. In grasses, the allelic state of Growth Regulating Factor (GRF) gene is correlated with nitrogen uptake. In this study, we characterized the sequence of TaGRF-2D and assessed its diversity in bread wheat and goatgrass Aegilops tauschii (genome DD). In silico analysis was performed for reference sequence searching, primer pairs design and sequence assembly. The gene sequence was obtained using Illumina and Sanger sequencing. The complete sequences of TaGRF-2D were obtained for 18 varieties of wheat. The polymorphism in the presence/absence of two GCAGCC repeats in 5' UTR was revealed and the GRF-2D-SSR marker was developed. Our results showed that the alleles 5' UTR-250 and 5' UTR-238 were present in wheat varieties, 5' UTR-250 was presented in the majority of wheat varieties. In Ae. tauschii ssp. strangulata (likely donor of the D-subgenome of polyploid wheat), most accessions carried the 5' UTR-250 allele, whilst most Ae. tauschii ssp. tauschii have 5' UTR-244. The developed GRF-2D-SSR marker can be used to study the genetic diversity of wheat and Ae. tauschii.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Physical maps employing libraries of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones are essential for comparative genomics and sequencing of large and repetitive genomes such as those of the hexaploid bread wheat. The diploid ancestor of the D-genome of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum), Aegilops tauschii, is used as a resource for wheat genomics. The barley diploid genome also provides a good model for the Triticeae and T. aestivum since it is only slightly larger than the ancestor wheat D genome. Gene co-linearity between the grasses can be exploited by extrapolating from rice and Brachypodium distachyon to Ae. tauschii or barley, and then to wheat.<h4>Results</h4>We report the use of Ae. tauschii for the construction of the physical map of a large distal region of chromosome arm 3DS. A physical map of 25.4 Mb was constructed by anchoring BAC clones of Ae. tauschii with 85 EST on the Ae. tauschii and barley genetic maps. The 24 contigs were aligned to the rice and B. distachyon genomic sequences and a high density SNP genetic map of barley. As expected, the mapped region is highly collinear to the orthologous chromosome 1 in rice, chromosome 2 in B. distachyon and chromosome 3H in barley. However, the chromosome scale of the comparative maps presented provides new insights into grass genome organization. The disruptions of the Ae. tauschii-rice and Ae. tauschii-Brachypodium syntenies were identical. We observed chromosomal rearrangements between Ae. tauschii and barley. The comparison of Ae. tauschii physical and genetic maps showed that the recombination rate across the region dropped from 2.19 cM/Mb in the distal region to 0.09 cM/Mb in the proximal region. The size of the gaps between contigs was evaluated by comparing the recombination rate along the map with the local recombination rates calculated on single contigs.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The physical map reported here is the first physical map using fingerprinting of a complete Triticeae genome. This study demonstrates that global fingerprinting of the large plant genomes is a viable strategy for generating physical maps. Physical maps allow the description of the co-linearity between wheat and grass genomes and provide a powerful tool for positional cloning of new genes.
Project description:Due to the accumulation of various useful traits over evolutionary time, emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccum and dicoccoides, 2n?=?4x?=?28; AABB), durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp. durum, 2n?=?4x?=?28; AABB), T. timopheevii (2n?=?4x?=?28; AAGG) and D genome containing Aegilops species offer excellent sources of novel variation for the improvement of bread wheat (T. aestivum L., AABBDD). Here, we made 192 different cross combinations between diverse genotypes of wheat and Aegilops species including emmer wheat?×?Ae. tauschii (2n?=?DD or DDDD), durum wheat?×?Ae. tauschii, T. timopheevii?×?Ae. tauschii, Ae. crassa?×?durum wheat, Ae. cylindrica?×?durum wheat and Ae. ventricosa?×?durum wheat in the field over three successive years. We successfully recovered 56 different synthetic hexaploid and octaploid F2 lines with AABBDD, AABBDDDD, AAGGDD, D1D1XcrXcrAABB, DcDcCcCcAABB and DvDvNvNvAABB genomes via in vitro rescue of F1 embryos and spontaneous production of F2 seeds on the Fl plants. Cytogenetic analysis of F2 lines showed that the produced synthetic wheat lines were generally promising stable amphiploids. Contribution of D genome bearing Aegilops and the less-investigated emmer wheat genotypes as parents in the crosses resulted in synthetic amphiploids which are a valuable resource for bread wheat breeding.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Threshability, rachis fragility and spike shape are critical traits for the domestication and evolution of wheat, determining the crop yield and efficiency of the harvest. Spelt factor gene Q controls a wide range of domestication-related traits in polyploid wheats, including those mentioned above. The main goal of the present study was to characterise the Q gene for uninvestigated accessions of wheats, including four endemics, and Aegilops accessions, and to analyze the species evolution based on differences in Q gene sequences.<h4>Results</h4>We have studied the spike morphology for 15 accessions of wheat species, including four endemics, namely Triticum macha, T. tibetanum, T. aestivum ssp. petropavlovskyi and T. spelta ssp. yunnanense, and 24 Aegilops accessions, which are donors of B and D genomes for polyploid wheat. The Q-5A, q-5D and q-5S genes were investigated, and a novel allele of the Q-5A gene was found in accessions of T. tibetanum (KU510 and KU515). This allele was similar to the Q allele of T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring but had an insertion 161?bp in length within exon 5. This insertion led to a frameshift and premature stop codon formation. Thus, the T. tibetanum have spelt spikes, which is probably determined by the gene Tg, rather than Q. We determined the variability within the q-5D genes among hexaploid wheat and their D genome donor Aegilops tauschii. Moreover, we studied the accessions C21-5129, KU-2074, and K-1100 of Ae. tauschii ssp. strangulata, which could be involved in the origin of hexaploid wheats.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The variability and phylogenetic relationships of the Q gene sequences studied allowed us to clarify the relationships between species of the genus Triticum and to predict the donor of the D genome among the Ae. tauschii accessions. Ae. tauschii ssp. strangulata accessions C21-5129, KU-2074 and K-1100 are the most interesting among the analysed accessions, since their partial sequence of q-5D is identical to the q-5D of T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring. This result indicates that the donor is Ae. tauschii ssp. strangulata but not Ae. tauschii ssp. tauschii. Our analysis allowed us to clarify the phylogenetic relationships in the genus Triticum.
Project description:The current limitations in genome sequencing technology require the construction of physical maps for high-quality draft sequences of large plant genomes, such as that of Aegilops tauschii, the wheat D-genome progenitor. To construct a physical map of the Ae. tauschii genome, we fingerprinted 461,706 bacterial artificial chromosome clones, assembled contigs, designed a 10K Ae. tauschii Infinium SNP array, constructed a 7,185-marker genetic map, and anchored on the map contigs totaling 4.03 Gb. Using whole genome shotgun reads, we extended the SNP marker sequences and found 17,093 genes and gene fragments. We showed that collinearity of the Ae. tauschii genes with Brachypodium distachyon, rice, and sorghum decreased with phylogenetic distance and that structural genome evolution rates have been high across all investigated lineages in subfamily Pooideae, including that of Brachypodieae. We obtained additional information about the evolution of the seven Triticeae chromosomes from 12 ancestral chromosomes and uncovered a pattern of centromere inactivation accompanying nested chromosome insertions in grasses. We showed that the density of noncollinear genes along the Ae. tauschii chromosomes positively correlates with recombination rates, suggested a cause, and showed that new genes, exemplified by disease resistance genes, are preferentially located in high-recombination chromosome regions.
Project description:Aegilops tauschii Coss. is the D-genome donor to hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and is the most promising wild species as a genetic resource for wheat breeding. To study the population structure and diversity of 81 Ae. tauschii accessions collected from various regions of its geographical distribution, the genomic representation of these lines were used to develop a diversity array technology (DArT) marker array. This Ae. tauschii array and a previously developed DArT wheat array were used to scan the genomes of the 81 accessions. Out of 7500 markers (5500 wheat and 2000 Ae. tauschii), 4449 were polymorphic (3776 wheat and 673 Ae. tauschii). Phylogenetic and population structure studies revealed that the accessions could be divided into three groups. The two Ae. tauschii subspecies could also be separately clustered, suggesting that the current taxonomy might be valid. DArT markers are effective to detect very small polymorphisms. The information obtained about Ae. tauschii in the current study could be useful for wheat breeding. In addition, the new DArT array from this Ae. tauschii population is expected to be an effective tool for hexaploid wheat studies.
Project description:Wheat and maize genes were hypothesized to be clustered into islands but the hypothesis was not statistically tested. The hypothesis is statistically tested here in four grass species differing in genome size, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolor, and Aegilops tauschii. Density functions obtained under a model where gene locations follow a homogeneous Poisson process and thus are not clustered are compared with a model-free situation quantified through a non-parametric density estimate. A simple homogeneous Poisson model for gene locations is not rejected for the small O. sativa and B. distachyon genomes, indicating that genes are distributed largely uniformly in those species, but is rejected for the larger S. bicolor and Ae. tauschii genomes, providing evidence for clustering of genes into islands. It is proposed to call the gene islands "gene insulae" to distinguish them from other types of gene clustering that have been proposed. An average S. bicolor and Ae. tauschii insula is estimated to contain 3.7 and 3.9 genes with an average intergenic distance within an insula of 2.1 and 16.5 kb, respectively. Inter-insular distances are greater than 8 and 81 kb and average 15.1 and 205 kb, in S. bicolor and Ae. tauschii, respectively. A greater gene density observed in the distal regions of the Ae. tauschii chromosomes is shown to be primarily caused by shortening of inter-insular distances. The comparison of the four grass genomes suggests that gene locations are largely a function of a homogeneous Poisson process in small genomes. Nonrandom insertions of LTR retroelements during genome expansion creates gene insulae, which become less dense and further apart with the increase in genome size. High concordance in relative lengths of orthologous intergenic distances among the investigated genomes including the maize genome suggests functional constraints on gene distribution in the grass genomes.
Project description:<i>Aegilops tauschii</i> is the diploid progenitor of the D subgenome of hexaploid wheat (<i>Triticum aest</i>ivum L.). Here, the phenotypic data of kernel length (KL), kernel width (KW), kernel volume (KV), kernel surface area (KSA), kernel width to length ratio (KWL), and hundred-kernel weight (HKW) for 223 <i>A. tauschii</i> accessions were gathered across three continuous years. Based on population structure analysis, 223 <i>A. tauschii</i> were divided into two subpopulations, namely T-group (mainly included <i>A. tauschii</i> ssp. <i>tauschii</i> accessions) and S-group (mainly included <i>A. tauschii</i> ssp. <i>strangulata</i>). Classifications based on cluster analysis were highly consistent with the population structure results. Meanwhile, the extent of linkage disequilibrium decay distance (<i>r</i> <sup>2</sup> = 0.5) was about 110 kb and 290 kb for T-group and S-group, respectively. Furthermore, a genome-wide association analysis was performed on these kernel traits using 6,723 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Sixty-six significant markers, distributed on all seven chromosomes, were identified using a mixed linear model explaining 4.82-13.36% of the phenotypic variations. Among them, 15, 28, 22, 14, 21, and 13 SNPs were identified for KL, KW, KV, KSA, KWL, and HKW, respectively. Moreover, six candidate genes that may control kernel traits were identified (<i>AET2Gv20774800, AET4Gv20799000, AET5Gv20005900, AET5Gv20084100, AET7Gv20644900</i>, and <i>AET5Gv21111700</i>). The transfer of beneficial genes from <i>A. tauschii</i> to wheat using marker-assisted selection will broaden the wheat D subgenome improve the efficiency of breeding.