HistoMosaic Detecting KRAS G12V Mutation Across Colorectal Cancer Tissue Slices through in Situ PCR.
ABSTRACT: We report on HistoMosaic, a novel technique for genetic analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue slices. It combines microfluidic compartmentalization, in situ allele-specific PCR, and fluorescence microscopy. The experimental proof of principle was achieved by in situ detection of KRAS G12V mutation in colorectal cancer tissues and is presented herein. HistoMosaic offers the ability to detect mutations over the entire tissue slide simultaneously, rapidly, economically, and without selection bias, while coregistering the genetic information with the preserved morphological information. Thus, HistoMosaic has wide applicability in basic science as a tool to map genetic heterogeneity. It is also a platform to build companion diagnostics for targeted therapies in oncology, to help ensure that the right drug is given to the right patient, thereby saving healthcare resources and improving patient outcomes.
Project description:The goal of this study was to determine genes affected by expressing KRAS mutation (G12V) in NCI-H1703 cells This data was used in Meng Wang et. al. Cancer Research 2016 to determine the alterations of gene expression profiling associated with expression of KRAS mutation (G12V). The experiment uses a pBABE-Puro vector encoding KRAS G12V and a corresponding empty vector control.
Project description:How different KRAS variants impact tumor initiation and progression in vivo has not been thoroughly examined. We hypothesize that the ability of either KRAS<sup>G12D</sup> or KRAS<sup>G12V</sup> mutations to initiate tumor formation is context dependent. Amhr2-Cre mice express Cre recombinase in tissues that develop into the fallopian tubes, uterus, and ovaries. We used these mice to conditionally express either the KRAS<sup>G12V/+</sup> or KRAS<sup>G12D/+</sup> mutation. Mice with the genotype Amhr2-Cre Pten<sup>(fl/fl)</sup> Kras<sup>G12D/+</sup>(G12D mice) had abnormal follicle structures and developed low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas with 100% penetrance within 18 weeks. In contrast, mice with the genotype Amhr2-Cre Pten<sup>(fl/fl)</sup> Kras<sup>G12V/+</sup> (G12V mice) had normal follicle structures, and about 90% of them developed uterine tumors with diverse histological features resembling those of leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma. Granulosa cell tumors also developed in G12V mice. Differences in cell-signaling pathways in the uterine tissues of G12D and G12V mice were identified using RNA sequencing and reverse-phase protein array analyses. We found that CTNNB1, IL1A, IL1B, TNF, TGFB1, APP, and IL6 had the higher activity in G12V mice than in G12D mice. These mouse models will be useful for studying the differences in signaling pathways driven by Kras<sup>G12V/+</sup> or Kras<sup>G12D/+</sup> mutations to aid development of targeted therapies for specific KRAS mutant variants. Our leiomyoma model driven by the Kras<sup>G12V/+</sup> mutation will also be useful in deciphering the malignant progression from leiomyoma to leiomyosarcoma.
Project description:Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. The present study investigated the effects of naproxen (NSAID) on lung adenocarcinoma in spontaneous lung cancer mouse model. Six-week-old transgenic Kras<sup>G12V</sup> mice (n = 20; male + female) were fed modified AIN-76A diets containing naproxen (0/400 ppm) for 30 wk and euthanized at 36 wk of age. Lungs were evaluated for tumor incidence, multiplicity, and histopathological stage (adenoma and adenocarcinoma). Lung tumors were noticeable as early as 12 wk of age exclusively in the Kras<sup>G12V</sup> mice. By 36 wk age, 100% of Kras<sup>G12V</sup> mice on control diet developed lung tumors, mostly adenocarcinomas. Kras<sup>G12V</sup> mice fed control diet developed 19.8 ± 0.96 (Mean ± SEM) lung tumors (2.5 ± 0.3 adenoma, 17.3 ± 0.7 adenocarcinoma). Administration of naproxen (400 ppm) inhibited lung tumor multiplicity by ∼52% (9.4 ± 0.85; P < 0001) and adenocarcinoma by ∼64% (6.1 ± 0.6; P < 0001), compared with control-diet-fed mice. However, no significant difference was observed in the number of adenomas in either diet, suggesting that naproxen was more effective in inhibiting tumor progression to adenocarcinoma. Biomarker analysis showed significantly reduced inflammation (COX-2, IL-10), reduced tumor cell proliferation (PCNA, cyclin D1), and increased apoptosis (p21, caspase-3) in the lung tumors exposed to naproxen. Decreased serum levels of PGE<sub>2</sub> and CXCR4 were observed in naproxen diet fed Kras<sup>G12V</sup> mice. Gene expression analysis of tumors revealed a significant increase in cytokine modulated genes (H2-Aa, H2-Ab1, Clu), which known to further modulate the cytokine signaling pathways. Overall, the results suggest a chemopreventive role of naproxen in inhibiting spontaneous lung adenocarcinoma formation in Kras<sup>G12V</sup> mice.
Project description:Ribosomal proteins are known to be required for proper assembly of mature ribosomes. Recent studies indicate an additional role for ribosomal proteins as candidate tumor suppressor genes. Pancreatic acinar cells, recently identified as effective cells of origin for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, display especially high-level expression of multiple ribosomal proteins. We, therefore, functionally interrogated the ability of two ribosomal proteins, rpl36 and rpl23a, to alter the response to oncogenic Kras in pancreatic acinar cells using a newly established model of zebrafish pancreatic cancer. These studies reveal that rpl36, but not rpl23a, acts as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor, as manifested by more rapid tumor progression and decreased survival in rpl36(hi1807/+);ptf1a:gal4VP16(Tg);UAS:GFP-KRAS(G12V) fish compared with their rpl36(+/+);ptf1a:gal4VP16;UAS:GFP-KRAS(G12V) siblings. These results suggest that rpl36 may function as an effective tumor suppressor during pancreatic tumorigenesis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>KRAS and BRAF mutations appear of relevance in the genesis and progression of several solid tumor types but the co-occurrence and interaction of these mutations have not yet been fully elucidated. Using a microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line (Colo741) having mutated BRAF and KRASWT, we also aimed to investigate the KRAS-BRAF interaction. Gene expression profiles for control KRASWT, KRAS G12V and KRAS G12D transfected cells were obtained after cell clone selection and RT-PCR screening. Extensive qPCR was performed to confirm microarray data.<h4>Results</h4>We found that the KRAS G12V state deregulated several genes associated to cell cycle, apoptosis and nitrogen metabolism. These findings indicated a reduced survival and proliferation with respect to the KRASWT state. The KRAS G12D state was, instead, characterized by several other distinct functional changes as for example those related to chromatin organization and cell-cell adhesion without affecting apoptosis related genes.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These data predict that the G12D mutation may be more likely selected in a BRAF mutated context. At the same time, the presence of the KRAS G12V mutation in the cells escaping apoptosis and inducing angiogenesis via IL8 may confer a more aggressive phenotype. The present results get along with the observations that CRCs with G12V are associated with a worse prognosis with respect to the WT and G12D states and may help identifying novel CRC pathways and biomarkers of clinical relevance.
Project description:In human hematopoietic malignancies, RAS mutations are frequently observed. Yet, little is known about signal transduction pathways that mediate KRAS-induced phenotypes in human CD34(+) stem/progenitor cells. When cultured on bone marrow stroma, we observed that KRAS(G12V)-transduced cord blood (CB) CD34(+) cells displayed a strong proliferative advantage over control cells, which coincided with increased early cobblestone (CAFC) formation and induction of myelomonocytic differentiation. However, the KRAS(G12V)-induced proliferative advantage was transient. By week three no progenitors remained in KRAS(G12V)-transduced cultures and cells were all terminally differentiated into monocytes/macrophages. In line with these results, LTC-IC frequencies were strongly reduced. Both the ERK and p38 MAPK pathways, but not JNK, were activated by KRAS(G12V) and we observed that proliferation and CAFC formation were mediated via ERK, while differentiation was predominantly mediated via p38. Interestingly, we observed that KRAS(G12V)-induced proliferation and CAFC formation, but not differentiation, were largely mediated via secreted factors, since these phenotypes could be recapitulated by treating non-transduced cells with conditioned medium harvested from KRAS(G12V)-transduced cultures. Multiplex cytokine arrays and genome-wide gene expression profiling were performed to gain further insight into the mechanisms by which oncogenic KRAS(G12V) can contribute to the process of leukemic transformation. Thus, angiopoietin-like 6 (ANGPTL6) was identified as an important factor in the KRAS(G12V) secretome that enhanced proliferation of human CB CD34(+) cells.
Project description:This study aims to investigate the molecular characteristics of Chinese gastric cancer patients. In our study, the KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutation status of 485 GC patients were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to plot survival curves according to different genotypes. The results show that the frequency of KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations were 4.1%, 1.2% and 3.5%, respectively. BRAF mutations were significantly concentrated in stage III and IV gastric cancer (P=0.009). KRAS G12V mutation carriers have much shorter OS than other mutation carriers and wild-type group patients (P=0.013). In conclusion, only the KRAS G12V mutation has an adverse effect on patient survival.
Project description:Persistent hyperactivity of the Hippo effector YAP in activated satellite cells is sufficient to cause embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) in mice. In humans, YAP is abundant and nuclear in the majority of ERMS cases, and high YAP expression is associated with poor survival. However, YAP1 is rarely mutated in human ERMS. Instead, the most common mutations in ERMS are oncogenic RAS mutations. First, to compare YAP1 S127A and KRAS G12V-driven rhabdomyosarcomas, we re-analysed gene expression microarray datasets from mouse rhabdomyosarcomas caused by these genes. This revealed that only 20% of the up or downregulated genes are identical, suggesting substantial differences in gene expression between YAP and KRAS-driven rhabdomyosarcomas. As oncogenic RAS has been linked to YAP in other types of cancer, we also tested whether KRAS G12V alone or in combination with loss of p53 and p16 activates YAP in myoblasts. We found that neither KRAS G12V alone nor KRAS G12V combined with loss of p53 and p16 activated Yap or Yap/Taz-Tead1-4 transcriptional activity in C2C12 myoblasts or U57810 cells. In conclusion, whilst oncogenic KRAS mutation might activate Yap in other cell types, we could find no evidence for this in myoblasts because the expression of KRAS G12V expression did not change Yap/Taz activity in myoblasts and there was a limited overlap in gene expression between KRAS G12V and YAP1 S127A-driven tumours.
Project description:Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) occurs frequently in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and is associated with acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). However, the mechanism by which LMC acquires resistance to osimertinib, a third-generation EGFR-TKI, is unclear. In this study, we elucidated the resistance mechanism and searched for a novel therapeutic strategy. We induced osimertinib resistance in a mouse model of LMC using an EGFR-mutant NSCLC cell line (PC9) via continuous oral osimertinib treatment and administration of established resistant cells and examined the resistance mechanism using next-generation sequencing. We detected the Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS)-G12V mutation in resistant cells, which retained the EGFR exon 19 deletion. Experiments involving KRAS knockdown in resistant cells and KRAS-G12V overexpression in parental cells revealed the involvement of KRAS-G12V in osimertinib resistance. Cotreatment with trametinib (a MEK inhibitor) and osimertinib resensitized the cells to osimertinib. Furthermore, in the mouse model of LMC with resistant cells, combined osimertinib and trametinib treatment successfully controlled LMC progression. These findings suggest a potential novel therapy against KRAS-G12V-harboring osimertinib-resistant LMC in EGFR-mutant NSCLC.