MDM2-Dependent Rewiring of Metabolomic and Lipidomic Profiles in Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma Models.
ABSTRACT: Dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) is an aggressive mesenchymal cancer marked by amplification of MDM2, an inhibitor of the tumor suppressor TP53. DDLPS patients with higher MDM2 amplification have lower chemotherapy sensitivity and worse outcome than patients with lower MDM2 amplification. We hypothesized that MDM2 amplification levels may be associated with changes in DDLPS metabolism. Six patient-derived DDLPS cell line models were subject to comprehensive metabolomic (Metabolon) and lipidomic (SCIEX 5600 TripleTOF-MS) profiling to assess associations with MDM2 amplification and their responses to metabolic perturbations. Comparing metabolomic profiles between MDM2 higher and lower amplification cells yielded a total of 17 differentially abundant metabolites across both panels (FDR < 0.05, log2 fold change < 0.75), including ceramides, glycosylated ceramides, and sphingomyelins. Disruption of lipid metabolism through statin administration resulted in a chemo-sensitive phenotype in MDM2 lower cell lines only, suggesting that lipid metabolism may be a large contributor to the more aggressive nature of MDM2 higher DDLPS tumors. This study is the first to provide comprehensive metabolomic and lipidomic characterization of DDLPS cell lines and provides evidence for MDM2-dependent differential molecular mechanisms that are critical factors in chemoresistance and could thus affect patient outcome.
Project description:Dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) is an aggressive mesenchymal cancer marked by amplification of MDM2, an inhibitor of the tumor suppressor TP53. DDLPS patients with higher MDM2 amplification have lower chemotherapy sensitivity and worse outcome than patients with lower MDM2 amplification. We hypothesized that MDM2 amplification levels may be associated with changes in DDLPS metabolism. Six patient-derived DDLPS cell line models were subject to comprehensive metabolomic (Metabolon) and lipidomic (SCIEX 5600 TripleTOF-MS) profiling to assess associations with MDM2 amplification and their responses to metabolic perturbations. Comparing metabolomic profiles between MDM2 higher and lower amplification cells yielded a total of 23 differentially abundant metabolites across both panels (FDR < 0.05, log2 FC < 0.75), including ceramides, glycosylated ceramides, and sphingomyelins. Disruption of lipid metabolism through statin administration resulted in a chemo-sensitive phenotype in MDM2 lower cell lines only, suggesting that lipid metabolism may be a large contributor to the more aggressive nature of MDM2 higher DDLPS tumors. This study is the first to provide comprehensive metabolomic and lipidomic characterization of DDLPS cell lines and provides evidence for MDM2-dependent differential molecular mechanisms that are critical factors in chemoresistance and could thus affect patient outcome.
Project description:Dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) is frequently diagnosed late, and patients typically respond poorly to treatments. DDLPS is molecularly characterized by wild-type p53 and amplification of the MDM2 gene, which results in overexpression of MDM2 protein, a key oncogenic process in DDLPS. In this study, we demonstrate that extracellular vesicles derived from patients with DDLPS or from DDLPS cell lines are carriers of MDM2 DNA that can be transferred to preadipocytes, a major and ubiquitous cellular component of the DDLPS tumor microenvironment, leading to impaired p53 activity in preadipocytes and increased proliferation, migration, and production of matrix metalloproteinase 2; treatment with MDM2 inhibitors repressed these effects. Overall, these findings indicate that MDM2 plays a crucial role in DDLPS by enabling cross-talk between tumor cells and the surrounding microenvironment and that targeting vesicular MDM2 could represent a therapeutic option for treating DDLPS. SIGNIFICANCE: Extracellular vesicles derived from dedifferentiated liposarcoma cells induce oncogenic properties in preadipocytes.
Project description:High-level amplification of MDM2 and other genes in the 12q13-15 locus is a hallmark genetic feature of well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcomas (WDLPS and DDLPS, respectively). Detection of this genomic aberration in plasma cell-free DNA may be a clinically useful assay for non-invasive distinction between these liposarcomas and other retroperitoneal tumors in differential diagnosis, and might be useful for the early detection of disease recurrence. In this study, we performed shallow whole genome sequencing of cell-free DNA extracted from 10 plasma samples from 3 patients with DDLPS and 1 patient with WDLPS. In addition, we studied 31 plasma samples from 11 patients with other types of soft tissue tumors. We detected MDM2 amplification in cell-free DNA of 2 of 3 patients with DDLPS. By applying a genome-wide approach to the analysis of cell-free DNA, we also detected amplification of other genes that are known to be recurrently affected in DDLPS. Based on the analysis of one patient with DDLPS with longitudinal plasma samples available, we show that tracking MDM2 amplification in cell-free DNA may be potentially useful for evaluation of response to treatment. The patient with WDLPS and patients with other soft tissue tumors in differential diagnosis were negative for the MDM2 amplification in cell-free DNA. In summary, we demonstrate the feasibility of detecting amplification of MDM2 and other DDLPS-associated genes in plasma cell-free DNA using technology that is already routinely applied for other clinical indications. Our results may have clinical implications for improved diagnosis and surveillance of patients with retroperitoneal tumors.
Project description:Amplification and overexpression of MDM2 and CDK4 are well-known diagnostic criteria for well-differentiated liposarcoma (WDLPS)/dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS). Although it was reported that the depletion of MDM2 or CDK4 decreased proliferation in DDLPS cell lines, whether MDM2 and CDK4 induce WDLPS/DDLPS tumorigenesis remains unclear. We examined whether MDM2 and/or CDK4 cause WDLPS/DDLPS, using two types of transformed human bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), 2H and 5H, with five oncogenic hits (overexpression of hTERT, TP53 degradation, RB inactivation, c-MYC stabilization, and overexpression of HRASv12). In vitro functional experiments revealed that the co-overexpression of MDM2 and CDK4 plays a key role in tumorigenesis by increasing cell growth and migration and inhibiting adipogenic differentiation potency when compared with the sole expression of MDM2 or CDK4. Using mouse xenograft models, we found that the co-overexpression of MDM2 and CDK4 in 5H cells with five additional oncogenic mutations can cause proliferative sarcoma with a DDLPS-like morphology in vivo. Our results suggest that the co-overexpression of MDM2 and CDK4, along with multiple genetic factors, increases the tendency for high-grade sarcoma with a DDLPS-like morphology in transformed human BMSCs by accelerating their growth and migration and blocking their adipogenic potential.
Project description:Dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) is molecularly characterized by wt p53 and MDM2 gene amplification causing MDM2 protein over-production, the key oncogenic process in DDLPS. Commonly located in fat-bearing retroperitoneal areas, almost 60% of DDLPS patients undergo multifocal recurrence, typically amenable to palliative treatment only, and occasionally develop distant metastasis. These factors lead to an abysmal 10% 10 year overall survival rate. Tumor cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) can facilitate loco-regional malignancy dissemination by depositing molecular factors that participate in the development of pre-metastatic niches for tumor cell implantation and growth. High number of MDM2 DNA molecules was identified within EVs from DDLPS patient serum (ROC vs normal; 0.95) as well as from DDLPS cell lines. This MDM2 DNA could be transferred to preadipocytes (P-a), a major and ubiquitous cellular component of the DDLPS tumor microenvironment (TME), with subsequent P-a production of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), a critical component in the metastatic cascade. From here the hypothesis that the DDLPS microenvironment (specifically P-a cells) may participate in DDLPS recurrence events. Since multifocal loco-regional DDLPS spreading is the main cause of the remarkably high lethality of this disease, a better understanding of the underlying oncogenic processes and their regulatory mechanisms is essential to improve the outcome of this devastating disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Treating patients with advanced sarcomas is challenging due to great histologic diversity among its subtypes. Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) and de-differentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) are two common and aggressive subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma (STS). They differ significantly in histology and clinical behaviors. However, the molecular driving force behind the difference is unclear. METHODS:We collected 20 LMS and 12 DDLPS samples and performed whole exome sequencing (WES) to obtain their somatic mutation profiles. We also performed RNA-Seq to analyze the transcriptomes of 8 each of the LMS and DDLPS samples and obtained information about differential gene expression, pathway enrichment, immune cell infiltration in tumor microenvironment, and chromosomal rearrangement including gene fusions. Selected gene fusion events from the RNA-seq prediction were checked by RT-PCR in tandem with Sanger sequencing. RESULTS:We detected loss of function mutation and deletion of tumor suppressors mostly in LMS, and oncogene amplification mostly in DDLPS. A focal amplification affecting chromosome 12q13-15 region which encodes MDM2, CDK4 and HMGA2 is notable in DDLPS. Mutations in TP53, ATRX, PTEN, and RB1 are identified in LMS but not DDLPS, while mutation of HERC2 is only identified in DDLPS but not LMS. RNA-seq revealed overexpression of MDM2, CDK4 and HMGA2 in DDLPS and down-regulation of TP53 and RB1 in LMS. It also detected more fusion events in DDLPS than LMS (4.5 vs. 1, p?=?0.0195), and the ones involving chromosome 12 in DDLPS stand out. RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing verified the majority of the fusion events in DDLPS but only one event in LMS selected to be tested. The tumor microenvironmental signatures are highly correlated with histologic types. DDLPS has more endothelial cells and fibroblasts content than LMS. CONCLUSIONS:Our analysis revealed different recurrent genetic variations in LMS and DDLPS including simultaneous upregulation of gene expression and gene copy number amplification of MDM2 and CDK4. Up-regulation of tumor related genes is favored in DDLPS, while loss of suppressor function is favored in LMS. DDLPS harbors more frequent fusion events which can generate neoepitopes and potentially targeted by personalized immune treatment.
Project description:Well-differentiated liposarcoma (WDLPS) and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) are closely related tumors commonly characterized by MDM2/CDK4 gene amplification, and lack clinically effective treatment options when inoperable. To identify novel therapeutic targets, we performed targeted genomic sequencing analysis of 19 WDLPS and 37 DDLPS tumor samples using a panel of 104 cancer-related genes (NCC oncopanel v3) developed specifically for genomic testing to select suitable molecular targeted therapies. The results of this analysis indicated that these sarcomas had very few gene mutations and a high frequency of amplifications of not only MDM2 and CDK4 but also other genes. Potential driver mutations were found in only six (11%) samples; however, gene amplification events (other than MDM2 and CDK4 amplification) were identified in 30 (54%) samples. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) genes in particular were amplified in 18 (32%) samples. In addition, growth of a WDLPS cell line with IGF1R amplification was suppressed by simultaneous inhibition of CDK4 and IGF1R, using palbociclib and NVP-AEW541, respectively. Combination therapy with CDK4 and RTK inhibitors may be an effective therapeutic option for WDLPS/DDLPS patients with RTK gene amplification.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS), a tumor that lacks effective treatment strategies and is associated with poor outcomes, expresses amplified MDM2 in the presence of wild-type p53. MDM2 ubiquitination of p53 facilitates its XPO1-mediated nuclear export, thus limiting p53 tumor suppressor functions. Consequently, nuclear export is a rational target in DDLPS. We directly compared the antitumor activity of the first-in class XPO1 inhibitor selinexor and doxorubicin, the standard front-line therapy in sarcomas, in DDLPS patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) and primary cell lines.<h4>Methods</h4>Drug activity was assessed in three PDXs (and two corresponding cell lines) established from the dedifferentiated component of primary untreated retroperitoneal DDLPS with myogenic (N?=?2) and rhabdomyoblastic (N?=?1) differentiation from patients who underwent surgery. These models were marked by amplification of MDM2, CDK4 and HMGA2 genes.<h4>Results</h4>Selinexor was moderately active in the three PDXs but achieved greater tumor response compared to doxorubicin (maximum tumor volume inhibition: 46-80?% vs. 37-60?%). The PDX harboring rhabdomyoblastic dedifferentiation showed the highest sensitivity to both agents. PDX response to selinexor and doxorubicin was not associated with the extent of MDM2 and CDK4 gene amplification. Interestingly, the most chemosensitive PDX model showed the lowest extent of HMGA2 amplification. Selinexor was also more efficient than doxorubicinin in inducing an apoptotic response in PDXs and cell lines. Consistently, an increased nuclear accumulation of p53 was seen in all selinexor-treated models. In addition, a time-dependent decrease of survivin expression, with an almost complete abrogation of the cytoplasmic anti-apoptotic pool of this protein, was observed as a consequence of the decreased acetylation/activation of STAT3 and the increased ubiquitination of nuclear survivin.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Selinexor showed a moderate antitumor activity in three DDLPS PDXs, which was, however, consistently higher than doxorubicin across all different models regardless the extent of MDM2 amplification and the histological differentiation. The depletion of survivin protein seems to significantly contribute to the induction of apoptosis through which selinexor exerts its antitumor activity.
Project description:The detection of specific alterations by genetic analyses has been included in the diagnostic criterions of the World Health Organization's classification of soft tissues tumors since 2013. The presence of a SS18 rearrangement is pathognomonic of synovial sarcoma (SS). MDM2 amplification is strongly correlated to well-differentiated or dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) in the context of sarcoma. We identified one case of poorly differentiated sarcoma harboring both SS18-SSX2 fusion and MDM2 amplification. The review of the literature showed high discrepancies, concerning the incidence of MDM2 amplification in SS: from 1.4% up to 40%. Our goal was to precisely determine the specific clinico-pathological features of this case and to estimate the frequency and characteristics of the association of SS18-SSX fusion/MDM2 amplification in sarcomas. We performed a retrospective and prospective study in 96 sarcomas, (56 SS and 40 DDLPS), using FISH and/or array-CGH to detect MDM2 amplification and SS18 rearrangement. None of the 96 cases presented both genetic alterations. Among the SS, only the index case (1/57: 1.7 %) presented the double anomaly. We concluded that MDM2 amplification in SS is a very rare event. The final diagnosis of the index case was a SS with SS18-SSX2 and MDM2 amplification as a secondary alteration. If the detection of MDM2 amplification is performed first in a poorly differentiated sarcoma, that may lead to not search other anomalies such as SS18 rearrangement and therefore to an erroneous diagnosis. This observation emphasizes the strong complementarity between histomorphology, immunohistochemistry and molecular studies in sarcoma diagnosis.
Project description:The identification of genetic alterations in sarcoma may give precious clues for the diagnosis. The detection of MDM2 amplification has an important impact since it may orientate towards a dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) or more rarely towards an intimal sarcoma. Here we describe a poorly differentiated sarcoma initially diagnosed as a DDLPS, mainly on the basis of FISH analysis that detected MDM2 amplification. The patient was treated by adjuvant radiotherapy and, when the tumor recurred a few years later, MDM2 amplification was not observed anymore. We report the clinical, immunohistological, genomic and molecular description of the primary tumors and his recurrences. Overall design: Genetic alterations in sarcoma