Structure-Antifouling Activity Relationship and Molecular Targets of Bio-Inspired(thio)xanthones.
ABSTRACT: The development of alternative ecological and effective antifouling technologies is still challenging. Synthesis of nature-inspired compounds has been exploited, given the potential to assure commercial supplies of potential ecofriendly antifouling agents. In this direction, the antifouling activity of a series of nineteen synthetic small molecules, with chemical similarities with natural products, were exploited in this work. Six (4, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 17) of the tested xanthones showed in vivo activity toward the settlement of Mytilus galloprovincialis larvae (EC50: 3.53-28.60 µM) and low toxicity to this macrofouling species (LC50 > 500 µM and LC50/EC50: 17.42-141.64), and two of them (7 and 10) showed no general marine ecotoxicity (<10% of Artemia salina mortality) after 48 h of exposure. Regarding the mechanism of action in mussel larvae, the best performance compounds 4 and 5 might be acting by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity (in vitro and in silico studies), while 7 and 10 showed specific targets (proteomic studies) directly related with the mussel adhesive structure (byssal threads), given by the alterations in the expression of Mytilus collagen proteins (PreCols) and proximal thread proteins (TMPs). A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was built with predictive capacity to enable speeding the design of new potential active compounds.
Project description:Natural products with a sulfated scaffold have emerged as antifouling agents with low or nontoxic effects to the environment. In this study 13 sulfated polyphenols were synthesized and tested for antifouling potential using the anti-settlement activity of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) plantigrade post-larvae and bacterial growth inhibition towards four biofilm-forming bacterial strains. Results show that some of these Nature-inspired compounds were bioactive, particularly rutin persulfate (2), 3,6-bis(?-D-glucopyranosyl) xanthone persulfate (6), and gallic acid persulfate (12) against the settlement of plantigrades. The chemical precursors of sulfated compounds 2 and 12 were also tested for anti-settlement activity and it was possible to conclude that bioactivity is associated with sulfation. While compound 12 showed the most promising anti-settlement activity (EC50?=?8.95??g.mL-1), compound 2 also caused the higher level of growth inhibition in bacteria Vibrio harveyi (EC20?=?12.5??g.mL-1). All the three bioactive compounds 2, 6, and 12 were also found to be nontoxic to the non target species Artemia salina (<10% mortality at 250??M) and Vibrio fischeri (LC50?>?1000??g.mL-1). This study put forward the relevance of synthesizing non-natural sulfated small molecules to generate new nontoxic antifouling agents.
Project description:The undesired attachment of micro and macroorganisms on water-immersed surfaces, known as marine biofouling, results in severe prevention and maintenance costs (billions €/year) for aquaculture, shipping and other industries that rely on coastal and off-shore infrastructures. To date, there are no sustainable, cost-effective and environmentally safe solutions to address this challenging phenomenon. Therefore, we investigated the antifouling activity of napyradiomycin derivatives that were isolated from actinomycetes from ocean sediments collected off the Madeira Archipelago. Our results revealed that napyradiomycins inhibited ?80% of the marine biofilm-forming bacteria assayed, as well as the settlement of Mytilus galloprovincialis larvae (EC50 < 5 µg/ml and LC50/EC50 >15), without viability impairment. In silico prediction of toxicity end points are of the same order of magnitude of standard approved drugs and biocides. Altogether, napyradiomycins disclosed bioactivity against marine micro and macrofouling organisms, and non-toxic effects towards the studied species, displaying potential to be used in the development of antifouling products.
Project description:The cyclic peptides portoamides produced by the cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. LEGE 05292 were previously isolated and their ability to condition microcommunities by allelopathic effect was described. These interesting bioactive properties are, however, still underexplored as their biotechnological applications may be vast. This study aims to investigate the antifouling potential of portoamides, given that a challenge in the search for new environmentally friendly antifouling products is to find non-toxic natural alternatives with the ability to prevent colonization of different biofouling species, from bacteria to macroinvertebrates. A multi-bioassay approach was applied to assess portoamides antifouling properties, marine ecotoxicity and molecular mode of action. Results showed high effectiveness in the prevention of mussel larvae settlement (EC50 = 3.16 µM), and also bioactivity towards growth and biofilm disruption of marine biofouling bacterial strains, while not showing toxicity towards both target and non-target species. Antifouling molecular targets in mussel larvae include energy metabolism modifications (failure in proton-transporting ATPases activity), structural alterations of the gills and protein and gene regulatory mechanisms. Overall, portoamides reveal a broad-spectrum bioactivity towards diverse biofouling species, including a non-toxic and reversible effect towards mussel larvae, showing potential to be incorporated as an active ingredient in antifouling coatings.
Project description:In this study, as part of our continuous search for environmentally-friendly antifoulants from natural resources, subergorgic acid (SA) was identified from the gorgonian coral Subergorgia suberosa, demonstrating non-toxic, significant inhibitory effects (EC50 1.25 μg/mL, LC50 > 25 μg/mL) against the settlement of Balanus amphitrite. To further explore the bioactive functional groups of SA and synthesize more potent antifouling compounds based on the lead SA, the structure-activity relationships of SA were studied, followed by rational design and synthesis of two series of SA derivatives (one being benzyl esters of SA and another being SA derivatives containing methylene chains of various lengths). Our results indicated that (1) both the double bond and ketone carbonyl are essential elements responsible for the antifouling effect of SA, while the acid group is not absolutely necessary for maintaining the antifouling effect; (2) all benzyl esters of SA displayed good antifouling effects (EC50 ranged from 0.30 to 2.50 μg/mL) with the most potent compound being 5 (EC50 0.30 μg/mL, LC50 > 25 μg/mL), which was over four-fold more potent than SA; and (3) the introduction of a methylene chain into SA reduces the antifouling potency while the length of the methylene chain may differently influence the antifouling effect, depending on the functional group at the opposite site of the methylene chain. Not only has this study successfully revealed the bioactive functional groups of SA, contributing to the mechanism of SA against the settlement of B. amphitrite, but it has also resulted in the identification of a more potent compound 5, which might represent a non-toxic, high-efficiency antifoulant.
Project description:Marine organism-derived secondary metabolites are promising potential sources for discovering environmentally safe antifouling agents. In present study, 55 marine secondary metabolites and their synthesized derivatives were tested and evaluated for their antifouling activities and security. These compounds include 44 natural products isolated from marine invertebrates and their symbiotic microorganisms collected from the South China Sea and 11 structural modified products derived from the isolated compounds. The natural secondary metabolites, covering phenyl ether derivatives, terpenoids, 9, 11-secosteroids, anthraquinones, alkaloids, nucleoside derivatives and peptides, were isolated from two corals, one sponge and five symbiotic fungi. All of the isolated and synthesized compounds were tested for their antifouling activities against the cyprids of barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite Darwin. Noticeably, five phenyl ether derivatives (9, 11, 13-15) exhibited potent anti-larval settlement activity with the EC50 values lower than 3.05 ?M and the LC50/EC50 ratios higher than 15. The study of structure-activity relationship (SAR) revealed that the introduction of acetoxy groups and bromine atoms to phenyl ether derivatives could significantly improve their antifouling activities. This is the first report on the SAR of phenyl ether derivatives on antifouling activity against barnacle B. amphitrite. The polybrominated diphenyl ether derivative, 2, 4, 6, 2', 4', 6'-hexabromo-diorcinol (13), which displayed excellent antifouling activity, was considered as a promising candidate of environmentally friendly antifouling agents.
Project description:'Onium' compounds, including ammonium and phosphonium salts, have been employed as antiseptics and disinfectants. These cationic biocides have been incorporated into multiple materials, principally to avoid bacterial attachment. In this work, we selected 20 alkyl-triphenylphosphonium salts, differing mainly in the length and functionalization of their alkyl chains, in fulfilment of two main objectives: 1) to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the antifouling profile of these molecules with relevant marine fouling organisms; and 2) to shed new light on their potential applications, beyond their classic use as broad-spectrum biocides. In this regard, we demonstrate for the first time that these compounds are also able to act as non-toxic quorum sensing disruptors in two different bacterial models (Chromobacterium violaceum and Vibrio harveyi) as well as repellents in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. In addition, their inhibitory activity on a fouling-relevant enzymatic model (tyrosinase) is characterized. An analysis of the structure-activity relationships of these compounds for antifouling purposes is provided, which may result useful in the design of targeted antifouling solutions with these molecules. Altogether, the findings reported herein provide a different perspective on the biological activities of phosphonium compounds that is particularly focused on, but, as the reader will realize, is not limited to their use as antifouling agents.
Project description:The byssal threads of the California mussel, Mytilus californianus, are highly hysteretic, elastomeric fibers that collectively perform a holdfast function in wave-swept rocky seashore habitats. Following cyclic loading past the mechanical yield point, threads exhibit a damage-dependent reduction in mechanical performance. However, the distal portion of the byssal thread is capable of recovering initial material properties through a time-dependent healing process in the absence of active cellular metabolism. Byssal threads are composed almost exclusively of multi-domain hybrid collagens known as preCols, which largely determine the mechanical properties of the thread. Here, the structure-property relationships that govern thread mechanical performance are further probed. The molecular rearrangements that occur during yield and damage repair were investigated using time-resolved in situ wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) coupled with cyclic tensile loading of threads and through thermally enhanced damage-repair studies. Results indicate that the collagen domains in byssal preCols are mechanically protected by the unfolding of sacrificial non-collagenous domains that refold on a slower time-scale. Time-dependent healing is primarily attributed to stochastic recoupling of broken histidine-metal coordination complexes.
Project description:Marine organisms, including seagrasses, are important sources of biologically active molecules for the treatment of human diseases. In this study, organic extracts of the marine seagrass Halophila stipulacea obtained by different polarities from leaves (L) and stems (S) (hexane [HL, HS], ethyl acetate [EL, ES], and methanol [ML, MS]) were tested for different bioactivities. The screening comprehended the cytotoxicity activity against cancer cell lines grown as a monolayer culture or as multicellular spheroids (cancer), glucose uptake in cells (diabetes), reduction of lipid content in fatty acid-overloaded liver cells (steatosis), and lipid-reducing activity in zebrafish larvae (obesity), as well as the antifouling activity against marine bacteria (microfouling) and mussel larval settlement (macrofouling). HL, EL, HS, and ES extracts showed statistically significant cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines. The extracts did not have any significant effect on glucose uptake and on the reduction of lipids in liver cells. The EL and ML extracts reduced neutral lipid contents on the larvae of zebrafish with EC50 values of 2.2 µg/mL for EL and 1.2 µg/mL for ML. For the antifouling activity, the HS and ML extracts showed a significant inhibitory effect (p < 0.05) against the settlement of Mytilus galloprovincialis plantigrade larvae. The metabolite profiling using HR-LC-MS/MS and GNPS (The Global Natural Product Social Molecular Networking) analyses identified a variety of known primary and secondary metabolites in the extracts, along with some unreported molecules. Various compounds were detected with known activities on cancer (polyphenols: Luteolin, apeginin, matairesinol), on metabolic diseases (polyphenols: cirsimarin, spiraeoside, 2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate; amino acids: N-acetyl-L-tyrosine), or on antifouling (fatty acids: 13-decosenamide; cinnamic acids: 3-hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic), which could be, in part, responsible for the observed bioactivities. In summary, this study revealed that Halophila stipulacea is a rich source of metabolites with promising activities against obesity and biofouling and suggests that this seagrass could be useful for drug discovery in the future.
Project description:Biofouling, an undesirable accumulation of organisms on sea-immersed structures such as ship hulls and fishing nets, is a serious economic issue whose effects include oil wastage and clogged nets. Organotin compounds were utilized since the 1960s as an antifouling material; however, the use of such compounds was later banned by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) due to their high toxicity toward marine organisms, resulting in masculinization and imposex. Since the ban, there have been extensive efforts to develop environmentally benign antifoulants. Natural antifouling products obtained from marine creatures have been the subject of considerable attention due to their potent antifouling activity and low toxicity. These antifouling compounds often contain isocyano groups, which are well known to have natural antifouling properties. On the basis of our previous total synthesis of natural isocyanoterpenoids, we envisaged the installation of an isocyano functional group onto glucosamine to produce an environmentally friendly antifouling material. This paper describes an effective synthetic method for various glucosamine-based isocyanides and evaluation of their antifouling activity and toxicity against cypris larvae of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite. Glucosamine isocyanides with an ether functionality at the anomeric position exhibited potent antifouling activity, with EC50 values below 1 ?g/mL, without detectable toxicity even at a high concentration of 10 ?g/mL. Two isocyanides had EC50 values of 0.23 and 0.25 ?g/mL, comparable to that of CuSO?, which is used as a fouling inhibitor (EC50 = 0.27 ?g/mL).
Project description:Three new guaiazulene alkaloids muriceidines A-C (1-3) and one new bis-sesquiterpene muriceidone A (4), were isolated from the South China Sea gorgonian Muriceides collaris. Muriceidines are the first examples structurally architected by guaiazulene coupling with an inner-salt ? 1-pipecolic acid via a unique sp2 methine-bridged linkage, and the bis-sesquiterpene was comprised by a guaiazulene and a indene units linked through a unprecedented carbon-carbon ?-bond between the high steric bridgehead carbon C-10 of guaiazulene moiety and C-2' of indene moiety. The chiral compounds 2-4 were obtained initially as racemates and further separated by chiral HPLC methods. The inner-salt structures of 1-3 and absolute configurations of 2-4 were fully elucidated by calculated 13C NMR, ECD and OR with quantum chemical calculation methods. Compound 1 showed cytotoxicity against K562 cell lines with IC50 value of 8.4??M and antifouling activity against the larvae of the barnacle Balanus albicostatus with EC50 value of 11.9 ?g/mL and potent therapeutic index (LC50/EC50?=?3.66). Also the racemic (±)-3 showed cytotoxicities against both HL-60 and K562 cell lines with IC50 values of 2.2 and 3.7??M, respectively. A semisynthetic trial was performed to validate the proposed biosynthetic hypotheses.