PPAR? Transcription Deficiency Exacerbates High-Fat Diet-Induced Adipocyte Hypertrophy and Insulin Resistance in Mice.
ABSTRACT: Background:The transcriptional factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is an important therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, the role of the PPAR? transcriptional activity remains ambiguous in its metabolic regulation. Methods:Based on the crystal structure of PPAR? bound with the DNA target of PPAR? response element (PPRE), Arg134, Arg135, and Arg138, three crucial DNA binding sites for PPAR?, were mutated to alanine (3RA), respectively. In vitro AlphaScreen assay and cell-based reporter assay validated that PPAR? 3RA mutant cannot bind with PPRE and lost transcriptional activity, while can still bind ligand (rosiglitazone) and cofactors (SRC1, SRC2, and NCoR). By using CRISPR/Cas9, we created mice that were heterozygous for PPAR?-3RA (PPAR?3RA/+). The phenotypes of chow diet and high-fat diet fed PPAR?3RA/+ mice were investigated, and the molecular mechanism were analyzed by assessing the PPAR? transcriptional activity. Results:Homozygous PPAR?-3RA mutant mice are embryonically lethal. The mRNA levels of PPAR? target genes were significantly decreased in PPAR?3RA/+ mice. PPAR?3RA/+ mice showed more severe adipocyte hypertrophy, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis than wild type mice when fed with high-fat diet. These phenotypes were ameliorated after the transcription activity of PPAR? was restored by rosiglitazone, a PPAR? agonist. Conclusion:The current report presents a novel mouse model for investigating the role of PPAR? transcription in physiological functions. The data demonstrate that the transcriptional activity plays an indispensable role for PPAR? in metabolic regulation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Humans are exposed to a complex mixture of environmental chemicals that impact bone and metabolic health, and traditional exposure assessments struggle to capture these exposure scenarios. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR?) is an essential regulator of metabolic and bone homeostasis, and its inappropriate activation by environmental chemicals can set the stage for adverse health effects. Here, we present the development of the Serum PPAR? Activity Assay (SPAA), a simple and cost-effective method to measure total ligand activity in small volumes of serum. METHODS:First, we determined essential components of the bioassay. Cos-7 cells were transfected with combinations of expression vectors for human PPAR? and RXR?, the obligate DNA-binding partner of PPAR?, along with PPRE (DR1)-driven luciferase and control eGFP reporter constructs. Transfected cells were treated with rosiglitazone, a synthetic PPAR? ligand and/or LG100268, a synthetic RXR ligand, to characterize the dose response and determine the simplest and most efficacious format. Following optimization of the bioassay, we assessed the cumulative activation of PPAR? by ligands in serum from mice treated with a PPAR? ligand and commercial human serum samples. RESULTS:Cos-7 cells endogenously express sufficient RXR to support efficacious activation of transfected PPAR?. Co-transfection of an RXR expression vector with the PPAR? expression vector did not increase PPRE transcriptional activity induced by rosiglitazone. Treatment with an RXR ligand marginally increased PPRE transcriptional activity in the presence of transfected PPAR?, and co-treatment with an RXR ligand reduced rosiglitazone-induced PPRE transcriptional activity. Therefore, the final bioassay protocol consists of transfecting Cos-7 cells with a PPAR? expression vector along with the reporter vectors, applying rosiglitazone standards and/or 10??L of serum, and measuring luminescence and fluorescence after a 24?h incubation. Sera from mice dosed with rosiglitazone induced PPRE transcriptional activity in the SPAA in a dose-dependent and PPAR?-dependent manner. Additionally, human serum from commercial sources induced a range of PPRE transcriptional activities in a PPAR?-dependent manner, demonstrating the ability of the bioassay to detect potentially low levels of ligands. CONCLUSIONS:The SPAA can reliably measure total PPRE transcriptional activity in small volumes of serum. This system provides a sensitive, straightforward assay that can be reproduced in any cell culture laboratory.
Project description:Apolipoprotein E (apoE) and its receptor, very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), are involved in fat accumulation in adipocytes. Here, we investigated the effect of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma agonist, rosiglitazone, on regulation of VLDLR expression both in white adipose tissue (WAT) of obese mice and in cultured adipocytes. Furthermore, to determine whether rosiglitazone directly regulates transcription of the VLDLR gene, we carried out luciferase assay with a reporter gene containing mouse VLDLR promoter region, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Four-day treatment with rosiglitazone increased the expression of VLDLR in WAT of ob/ob mice. Moreover, rosiglitazone increased the expression of VLDLR in cultured adipocytes. The PPAR-responsive element (PPRE)-directed mutagenesis analyses revealed that the PPRE motif in the VLDLR promoter region plays a significant role in transcriptional activation of the VLDLR gene in adipocytes. In addition, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that endogenous PPARgamma directly binds to this functional PPRE motif in the VLDLR promoter region. We also investigated the effects of rosiglitazone on insulin sensitivity and lipid accumulation in both ob/ob mice and apoE-deficient ob/ob mice. Rosiglitazone ameliorated insulin sensitivity in both ob/ob mice and apoE-deficient ob/ob mice, possibly through decreasing the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), increasing the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in WAT, and increasing plasma adiponectin concentration. In ob/ob mice, body weight and WAT weight were significantly higher in the mice treated with rosiglitazone than those treated with vehicle. However, in apoE-deficient ob/ob mice, no significant difference in body weight or WAT weight was observed between the vehicle-treated group and the rosiglitazone-treated group. Moreover, rosiglitazone did not increase body weight and WAT weight in VLDLR-deficient mice. These findings indicate that rosiglitazone directly increases VLDLR expression, thereby enhancing apoE-VLDLR-dependent lipid accumulation in adipocytes.
Project description:Synthetic ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) improve insulin sensitivity in obesity, but it is still unclear whether inflammatory signals modulate their metabolic actions. In this study, we tested whether targeted disruption of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS), a key inflammatory mediator in obesity, modulates the metabolic effects of rosiglitazone in obese mice.iNOS(-/-) and iNOS(+/+) were subjected to a high-fat diet or standard diet for 18 weeks and were then treated with rosiglitazone for 2 weeks. Whole-body insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were determined and metabolic tissues harvested to assess activation of insulin and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways and the levels of inflammatory mediators.Rosiglitazone was found to similarly improve whole-body insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling to Akt/PKB in skeletal muscle of obese iNOS(-/-) and obese iNOS(+/+) mice. However, rosiglitazone further improved glucose tolerance and liver insulin signaling only in obese mice lacking iNOS. This genotype-specific effect of rosiglitazone on glucose tolerance was linked to a markedly increased ability of the drug to raise plasma adiponectin levels. Accordingly, rosiglitazone increased AMPK activation in muscle and liver only in obese iNOS(-/-) mice. PPAR-gamma transcriptional activity was increased in adipose tissue of iNOS(-/-) mice. Conversely, treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with a NO donor blunted PPAR-gamma activity.Our results identify the iNOS/NO pathway as a critical modulator of PPAR-gamma activation and circulating adiponectin levels and show that invalidation of this key inflammatory mediator improves the efficacy of PPAR-gamma agonism in an animal model of obesity and insulin resistance.
Project description:Methionine adenosyltransferases (MATs) are critical enzymes that catalyze the formation of the methyl donor S-adenosyl methionine (SAM). The MAT2A gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit ?2, is induced in dedifferentiated liver. We previously demonstrated that MAT2A expression is enhanced in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and that silencing this gene reduces HSC activation. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms responsible for the transcriptional regulation of the MAT2A gene in HSCs. We identified peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) response elements (PPREs) in the rat MAT2A promoter. The PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone (RSG) promoted quiescence in the activated rat HSC cell line (BSC) or culture-activated primary rat HSCs, decreased MAT2A expression and promoter activity, and enhanced PPAR? binding to MAT2A PPREs. In vivo HSC activation in bile duct-ligated rats lowered PPAR? interaction with MAT2A PPREs. Silencing PPAR? increased MAT2A transcription, whereas overexpressing it had the opposite effect, demonstrating that PPAR? negatively controls this gene. Site-directed mutagenesis of PPREs abolished PPAR? recruitment to the MAT2A promoter and its inhibitory effect on MAT2A transcription in quiescent HSCs. PPRE mutations decreased the basal promoter activity of MAT2A in activated HSCs independent of PPAR?, indicating that other factors might be involved in PPRE interaction. We identified PPAR? binding to wild-type but not to mutated PPREs in activated cells. Furthermore, silencing PPAR? inhibited MAT2A expression and promoter activity. Forced expression of MAT2A in RSG-treated HSCs lowered PPAR? and enhanced PPAR? expression, thereby promoting an activated phenotype.We identified PPAR? as a negative regulator of MAT2A in quiescent HSCs. A switch from quiescence to activation abolishes this control and allows PPAR? to up-regulate MAT2A transcription.
Project description:Nocturnin (NOC) is a circadian-regulated protein related to the yeast family of transcription factors involved in the cellular response to nutrient status. In mammals, NOC functions as a deadenylase but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is highly expressed in bone-marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), hepatocytes, and adipocytes. In BMSCs exposed to the PPAR-gamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma) agonist rosiglitazone, Noc expression was enhanced 30-fold. Previously, we reported that Noc(-/-) mice had low body temperature, were protected from diet-induced obesity, and most importantly exhibited absence of Pparg circadian rhythmicity on a high-fat diet. Consistent with its role in influencing BMSCs allocation, Noc(-/-) mice have reduced bone marrow adiposity and high bone mass. In that same vein, NOC overexpression enhances adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells but negatively regulates osteogenesis in MC3T3-E1 cells. NOC and a mutated form, which lacks deadenylase activity, bind to PPAR-gamma and markedly enhance PPAR-gamma transcriptional activity. Both WT and mutant NOC facilitate nuclear translocation of PPAR-gamma. Importantly, NOC-mediated nuclear translocation of PPAR-gamma is blocked by a short peptide fragment of NOC that inhibits its physical interaction with PPAR-gamma. The inhibitory effect of this NOC-peptide was partially reversed by rosiglitazone, suggesting that effect of NOC on PPAR-gamma nuclear translocation may be independent of ligand-mediated PPAR-gamma activation. In sum, Noc plays a unique role in the regulation of mesenchymal stem-cell lineage allocation by modulating PPAR-gamma activity through nuclear translocation. These data illustrate a unique mechanism whereby a nutrient-responsive gene influences BMSCs differentiation, adipogenesis, and ultimately body composition.
Project description:Chemerin is an adipocyte-secreted protein that regulates adipogenesis and the metabolic function of mature adipocytes via activation of chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1). Herein we report the interaction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and chemerin in the context of adipogenesis. Knockdown of chemerin or CMKLR1 expression or antibody neutralization of secreted chemerin protein arrested adipogenic clonal expansion of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) by inducing a loss of G(2)/M cyclins (cyclin A2/B2) but not the G(1)/S cyclin D2. Forced expression of PPAR? in BMSCs did not completely rescue this loss of clonal expansion and adipogenesis following chemerin or CMKLR1 knockdown. However, forced expression and/or activation of PPAR? in BMSCs as well as non-adipogenic cell types such as NIH-3T3 embryonic fibroblasts and MCA38 colon carcinoma cells significantly induced chemerin expression and secretion. Sequence analysis revealed a putative PPAR? response element (PPRE) sequence within the chemerin promoter. This PPRE was able to confer PPAR? responsiveness on a heterologous promoter, and mutation of this sequence abolished activation of the chemerin promoter by PPAR?. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed the direct association of PPAR? with this PPRE. Treatment of mice with rosiglitazone elevated chemerin mRNA levels in adipose tissue and bone marrow coincident with an increase in circulating chemerin levels. Together, these findings support a fundamental role for chemerin/CMKLR1 signaling in clonal expansion during adipocyte differentiation as well as a role for PPAR? in regulating chemerin expression.
Project description:The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) plays an important role in adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity. Its ligand rosiglitazone has anti-diabetic effect but is frequently accompanied with some severe unwanted effects. The aim of the current study was to compare the anti-diabetic effect of CMHX008, a novel thiazolidinedione-derivative, with rosiglitazone. A luciferase assay was used to evaluate in vitro PPAR? activation. 3T3-L1 cells were used to examine adipocyte differentiation. High fat diet (HFD) mice were used to examine in vivo insulin sensitivity. The mRNA levels were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Serum biochemical and hormonal variables were assessed using a clinical chemistry analyser. CMHX008 displayed a moderate PPAR? agonist activity, and promoted 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation with lower activity than rosiglitazone. CMHX008 regulated the expression of PPAR? target genes in a different manner from rosiglitazone. CMHX008 increased the expression and secretion of adiponectin with the similar efficacy as rosiglitazone, but only 25% as potent as rosiglitazone for the induction of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein. Treatment of CMHX008 and rosiglitazone protected mice from high fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and inflammation. CMHX008 reduced the mRNA expression of M1 macrophage markers, and significantly increased the expressions of M2 markers. In conclusion, CMHX008 shared the comparable insulin-sensitizing effects as rosiglitazone with lower adipogenic capacity and might potentially be developed into an effective agent for the treatment of diabetes and metabolic disorders.
Project description:To explore the function of PPAR γ in the goat mammary gland, we cloned the whole cDNA of the PPAR γ gene. Homology alignments revealed that the goat PPAR γ gene is conserved among goat, bovine, mouse, and human. Luciferase assays revealed that rosiglitazone enhanced the activity of the PPAR γ response element (PPRE) in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs). After rosiglitazone (ROSI) treatment of GMECs, there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the expression of genes related to triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion: LPL, FASN, ACACA, PLIN3, FABP3, PLIN2, PNPLA2, NR1H3, SREBF1, and SCD. The decreases in expression observed after knockdown of PPAR γ relative to the control group (Ad-NC) averaged 65%, 52%, 67%, 55%, 65%, 58%, 85%, 43%, 50%, and 24% for SCD, DGAT1, AGPAT6, SREBF1, ACACA, FASN, FABP3, SCAP, ATGL, and PLIN3, respectively. These results provide direct evidence that PPAR γ plays a crucial role in regulating the triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion in goat mammary cells and underscore the functional importance of PPAR γ in mammary gland tissue during lactation.
Project description:The hepatic expression of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) gene is regulated primarily at the transcriptional level by a sterol-regulatory element (SRE) in its proximal promoter region which is the site of action of SRE-binding protein 2 (SREBP2). However whether additional cis-regulatory elements contribute to LDLR transcription has not been fully explored. We investigated the function of a putative peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-response element (PPRE) sequence motif located at -768 to -752 bases upstream of the transcription start site of human LDLR gene in response to PPAR? activation. Promoter luciferase reporter analyses showed that treating HepG2 cells with PPAR? agonist L165041 markedly increased the activity of a full-length LDLR promoter construct (pLDLR-1192) without any effects on the shorter promoter reporter pLDLR-234 that contains only the core regulatory elements SRE-1 and SP1 sites. Importantly, mutation of the PPRE sequence greatly attenuated the induction of the full-length LDLR promoter activity by L165041 without affecting rosuvastatin (RSV)-mediated transactivation. EMSA and ChIP assay further confirmed the binding of PPAR? to the LDLR-PPRE site. Treating HepG2 cells with L165041 elevated the mRNA and protein expressions of LDLR without affecting the LDLR mRNA decay rate. The induction of LDLR expression by PPAR? agonist was further observed in liver tissue of mice and hamsters treated with L165041. Altogether, our studies identify a novel PPRE-mediated regulatory mechanism for LDLR transcription and suggest that combined treatment of statin with PPAR? agonists may have advantageous effects on LDLR expression.
Project description:Obesity causes insulin resistance, and PPAR? ligands such as rosiglitazone are insulin sensitizing, yet the mechanisms remain unclear. In C57BL/6 (B6) mice, obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) has major effects on visceral epididymal adipose tissue (eWAT). Here, we report that HFD-induced obesity in B6 mice also altered the activity of gene regulatory elements and genome-wide occupancy of PPAR?. Rosiglitazone treatment restored insulin sensitivity in obese B6 mice, yet, surprisingly, had little effect on gene expression in eWAT. However, in subcutaneous inguinal fat (iWAT), rosiglitazone markedly induced molecular signatures of brown fat, including the key thermogenic gene Ucp1. Obesity-resistant 129S1/SvImJ mice (129 mice) displayed iWAT browning, even in the absence of rosiglitazone. The 129 Ucp1 locus had increased PPAR? binding and gene expression that were preserved in the iWAT of B6x129 F1-intercrossed mice, with an imbalance favoring the 129-derived alleles, demonstrating a cis-acting genetic difference. Thus, B6 mice have genetically defective Ucp1 expression in iWAT. However, when Ucp1 was activated by rosiglitazone, or by iWAT browning in cold-exposed or young mice, expression of the B6 version of Ucp1 was no longer defective relative to the 129 version, indicating epigenomic rescue. These results provide a framework for understanding how environmental influences like drugs can affect the epigenome and potentially rescue genetically determined disease phenotypes.